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  • 31 recommendations for increased profit - reducing waste
  • 2010
  • Rapport (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Those companies and organizations that wish to ensure long-term profitability must successively decrease resource use in both product development and in product usage. Primarily, it is waste that must be reduced, i.e. the consumption of resources that do not add to customer value or to the organization. Waste is widespread in all operations. Even in well-functioning processes, more than half of the resource consumption can be classified as waste. One obstacle to waste elimination is that most waste is hidden. Thus, executives, middle management and specialists must prioritize efforts to uncover the waste in their operations. Building and construction activities consist of a complex system of decisions, components, organizations and processes that must be coordinated. There are therefore many explanations as to why waste arises, or does not. Based on a series of discussions with experienced builders, consultants, contractors and materials providers, five main groups of factors that characterize effective operations were found. In this report these factors are illustrated in the form of a “value pyramid”. A holistic view of long-term customer benefits is the apex of the pyramid. Structure, competence, leadership and culture act as the driving forces at each corner of the pyramid’s foundation. Should one of the corners gives way, then the pyramid risks toppling over. With the value pyramid as support, 31 recommendations for what should be done to reduce waste are presented. These are aimed at standardizing the product from an overall perspective (five recommendations), defining and standardizing processes (ten recommendations), developing the organization and its competence (seven recommendations), disciplining management (five recommendations), and driving continuous improvement work (four recommendations). Reducing uncertainties and increasing effective time utilization are the red threads, as the Swedes would say, that run through all the recommendations. Everyone who uses resources has a responsibility to reduce waste. By systematically monitoring one’s own use of time, one can gain insights that will help improve one’s work situation. However, the burden of initiating and driving improvements overall obviously lies with management. How this should be done depends on the nature and purpose of the activities as well as on the organization’s capabilities. It is to manage this progress and achieve profitability that managers are appointed. It is in the interest of all enterprises and organizations to develop the ability and an interest to detect and understand what work/task is value adding what is not. This ability will provide possibilities to develop new competitive advantages and new business concepts.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction to human-centred design for naval architects and designers
  • 2015
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this chapter is to provide naval architects and designers with fundamental guidelines for the practice of Human-centred Design (HCD). The guidelines presented here originate from well-established principles in scientific literature and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in their most recent standard for HCD in interactive systems – ISO 9241-210:2010. HCD is characterised as a design framework comprised in the scope of usability engineering, which is, in turn, comprehended in the discipline of human factors/ergonomics. This chapter details the basic principles of human factors/ergonomics and usability. It then discusses how they may be achieved in the design process using principles, methods and tools associated with HCD.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Perceived success factors of participatory ergonomics in ship design
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Occupational Ergonomics. - 1359-9364. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The more complex and perilous a sociotechnical system is, the more crucial it is to have users and other relevant stakeholder groups in focus throughout its design lifecycle. In the design and development of ships and ship systems, there has been resistance towards the integration of ergonomic principles through a human-centred approach as well as to involving the user. This inattention can result in an inadequate design, which may have negative repercussions on usability, ultimately threatening the safety of onboard operations, overall system performance and the well-being of the crew. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the perceived success factors of participatory ergonomics based on the standpoint of young seafarers. METHODS: Such is achieved by examining a focus group with cadets inspired by Grounded Theory approach. RESULTS: The findings reveal user participation as a designer’s essential contact with reality, provided that a set of pre-conditions that supports the success of participatory ergonomics can be fulfilled: involving the right users and filling in the gap between end-user needs and ship-owner requirements. The consequent success factors are described at a usability level, an intrinsic level for the end-users, and ultimately at the level of increased safety and efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: User input may not only affect design as an outcome, it may also influence the way participatory ergonomics is performed in the maritime sector.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects - Human Factors in Ship Design & Operation Conference. ; s. 15-26
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The industry of shipping and ship design involves a set of requirements and business strategies that aim at reliability, efficiency, keeping up with state-of-the-art technology and creating a competitive advantage. Inattention to ergonomics (or human factors) in the process may, however, jeopardize the safety of onboard operations and, in turn, implicate higher costs for the company. Ergonomics and user involvement applied to design through a User-centred Design (UCD) approach is believed to result in several success factors that improve the overall safety and quality of work and life onboard. This study explores and disseminates the success factors of UCD from which seafarers believe they can benefit as ship users. Such is done by cross-examining data from two focus group interviews comprised predominantly by participants with seagoing experience. The results show that the participants perceive UCD as an added value in terms of physical, cognitive, psychosocial and organizational improvements. Communication between stakeholders, usability, safety and satisfaction are a few of the categories that result from the identified success factors. This study conveys a comprehensive summary of the success factors collected in the focus groups, of the corresponding categories and of the affected dimensions of life and work onboard. Such findings represent the importance of UCD for those who operate ships and may serve as an incentive for ship-owners and designers to adopt a UCD approach, as well as for researchers to continue studying this subject further.
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