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  • 31 recommendations for increased profit - reducing waste
  • 2010
  • Rapport (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Those companies and organizations that wish to ensure long-term profitability must successively decrease resource use in both product development and in product usage. Primarily, it is waste that must be reduced, i.e. the consumption of resources that do not add to customer value or to the organization. Waste is widespread in all operations. Even in well-functioning processes, more than half of the resource consumption can be classified as waste. One obstacle to waste elimination is that most waste is hidden. Thus, executives, middle management and specialists must prioritize efforts to uncover the waste in their operations. Building and construction activities consist of a complex system of decisions, components, organizations and processes that must be coordinated. There are therefore many explanations as to why waste arises, or does not. Based on a series of discussions with experienced builders, consultants, contractors and materials providers, five main groups of factors that characterize effective operations were found. In this report these factors are illustrated in the form of a “value pyramid”. A holistic view of long-term customer benefits is the apex of the pyramid. Structure, competence, leadership and culture act as the driving forces at each corner of the pyramid’s foundation. Should one of the corners gives way, then the pyramid risks toppling over. With the value pyramid as support, 31 recommendations for what should be done to reduce waste are presented. These are aimed at standardizing the product from an overall perspective (five recommendations), defining and standardizing processes (ten recommendations), developing the organization and its competence (seven recommendations), disciplining management (five recommendations), and driving continuous improvement work (four recommendations). Reducing uncertainties and increasing effective time utilization are the red threads, as the Swedes would say, that run through all the recommendations. Everyone who uses resources has a responsibility to reduce waste. By systematically monitoring one’s own use of time, one can gain insights that will help improve one’s work situation. However, the burden of initiating and driving improvements overall obviously lies with management. How this should be done depends on the nature and purpose of the activities as well as on the organization’s capabilities. It is to manage this progress and achieve profitability that managers are appointed. It is in the interest of all enterprises and organizations to develop the ability and an interest to detect and understand what work/task is value adding what is not. This ability will provide possibilities to develop new competitive advantages and new business concepts.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction to human-centred design for naval architects and designers
  • 2015
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this chapter is to provide naval architects and designers with fundamental guidelines for the practice of Human-centred Design (HCD). The guidelines presented here originate from well-established principles in scientific literature and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in their most recent standard for HCD in interactive systems – ISO 9241-210:2010. HCD is characterised as a design framework comprised in the scope of usability engineering, which is, in turn, comprehended in the discipline of human factors/ergonomics. This chapter details the basic principles of human factors/ergonomics and usability. It then discusses how they may be achieved in the design process using principles, methods and tools associated with HCD.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects - Human Factors in Ship Design & Operation Conference. ; s. 15-26
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The industry of shipping and ship design involves a set of requirements and business strategies that aim at reliability, efficiency, keeping up with state-of-the-art technology and creating a competitive advantage. Inattention to ergonomics (or human factors) in the process may, however, jeopardize the safety of onboard operations and, in turn, implicate higher costs for the company. Ergonomics and user involvement applied to design through a User-centred Design (UCD) approach is believed to result in several success factors that improve the overall safety and quality of work and life onboard. This study explores and disseminates the success factors of UCD from which seafarers believe they can benefit as ship users. Such is done by cross-examining data from two focus group interviews comprised predominantly by participants with seagoing experience. The results show that the participants perceive UCD as an added value in terms of physical, cognitive, psychosocial and organizational improvements. Communication between stakeholders, usability, safety and satisfaction are a few of the categories that result from the identified success factors. This study conveys a comprehensive summary of the success factors collected in the focus groups, of the corresponding categories and of the affected dimensions of life and work onboard. Such findings represent the importance of UCD for those who operate ships and may serve as an incentive for ship-owners and designers to adopt a UCD approach, as well as for researchers to continue studying this subject further.
  • A.O., Tillmar, et al. (författare)
  • Using X-chromosomal markers in relationship testing: : How to calculate likelihood ratios taking linkage and linkage disequilibrium into account
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International : Genetics. - Elsevier. - 1872-4973. ; 5:5, s. 506-511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • X-chromosomal markers in forensic genetics have become more widely used during the recent years, particularly for relationship testing. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) must typically be accounted for when using close X-chromosomal markers. Thus, when producing the weight-of-evidence, given by a DNA-analysis with markers that are linked, the normally used product rule is invalid. Here we present an efficient model for calculating likelihood ratio (LR) with markers on the X-chromosome which are linked and in LD. Furthermore, the model was applied on several cases based on data from the eight X-chromosomal loci included in the Mentype® Argus X-8 (Biotype). Using a simulation approach we showed that the use of X-chromosome data can offer valuable information for choosing between the alternatives in each of the cases we studied, and that the LR can be high in several cases. We demonstrated that when linkage and LD were disregarded, as opposed to taken into account, the difference in calculated LR could be considerable. When these differences were large, the estimated haplotype frequencies often had a strong impact and we present a method to estimate haplotype frequencies. Our conclusion is that linkage and LD should be accounted for when using the tested set of markers, and the presented model is an efficient way of doing so.
  • Aaboe, L, et al. (författare)
  • Incubator performance: an efficiency frontier analysis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Business Innovation and Research. - 1751-0252. ; 2:4, s. 354-380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Assessments and evaluations of incubators has been a topic of discussion for as long as incubators have been in existence due to the fact that there has not been an agreement on how to determine good performance. This paper demonstrates the use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) when studying performance of incubators. More specifically, it does so within the four dimensions of cooperation with universities, business networks, external funding and competence development on a sample of 16 Swedish incubators. We show that DEA enables us to measure non-numerical dimensions, and to simultaneously take into account the efforts made by both the incubator and the outcomes. Moreover, DEA provides benchmarks and, based on a model that divides the incubators into four different groups, illustrates the difference between the benchmark and the incubators' current situation.
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