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  • 31 recommendations for increased profit - reducing waste
  • 2010
  • Rapport (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Those companies and organizations that wish to ensure long-term profitability must successively decrease resource use in both product development and in product usage. Primarily, it is waste that must be reduced, i.e. the consumption of resources that do not add to customer value or to the organization. Waste is widespread in all operations. Even in well-functioning processes, more than half of the resource consumption can be classified as waste. One obstacle to waste elimination is that most waste is hidden. Thus, executives, middle management and specialists must prioritize efforts to uncover the waste in their operations. Building and construction activities consist of a complex system of decisions, components, organizations and processes that must be coordinated. There are therefore many explanations as to why waste arises, or does not. Based on a series of discussions with experienced builders, consultants, contractors and materials providers, five main groups of factors that characterize effective operations were found. In this report these factors are illustrated in the form of a “value pyramid”. A holistic view of long-term customer benefits is the apex of the pyramid. Structure, competence, leadership and culture act as the driving forces at each corner of the pyramid’s foundation. Should one of the corners gives way, then the pyramid risks toppling over. With the value pyramid as support, 31 recommendations for what should be done to reduce waste are presented. These are aimed at standardizing the product from an overall perspective (five recommendations), defining and standardizing processes (ten recommendations), developing the organization and its competence (seven recommendations), disciplining management (five recommendations), and driving continuous improvement work (four recommendations). Reducing uncertainties and increasing effective time utilization are the red threads, as the Swedes would say, that run through all the recommendations. Everyone who uses resources has a responsibility to reduce waste. By systematically monitoring one’s own use of time, one can gain insights that will help improve one’s work situation. However, the burden of initiating and driving improvements overall obviously lies with management. How this should be done depends on the nature and purpose of the activities as well as on the organization’s capabilities. It is to manage this progress and achieve profitability that managers are appointed. It is in the interest of all enterprises and organizations to develop the ability and an interest to detect and understand what work/task is value adding what is not. This ability will provide possibilities to develop new competitive advantages and new business concepts.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988- (författare)
  • Human Centred Design for Maritime Safety: A User Perspective on the Benefits and Success Factors of User Participation in the Design of Ships and Ship Systems
  • 2016
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • For over six decades, Human Centred Design (HCD) has been considered a desired design approach for the implementation of Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E) knowledge and methods for understanding the needs of the end-users. Although other comparable frameworks exist, they can be seen as subcategories or as tools for HCD, as HCD is considered by some as an overarching approach. This design approach has gradually been integrated into different fields, but engineering sciences have been more reluctant towards embracing its adoption. Although these challenges may be explicable – one of them being that HF/E methods are often not immediately understood and applicable in industrial settings – the maritime sector has begun to overcome these challenges and to understand and highlight the impact of the human element on the safety and efficiency of maritime operations and environmental protection. Nevertheless, more initiative and attention to HF/E is needed. Thus, the work considered in this thesis takes a proactive approach towards the integration of HCD in the maritime domain by involving maritime end-users in a discussion about the opportunities of human-centred and participatory design. This was done through two focus group interviews with two different participant samples of end-users, with special focus on the navigation of merchant vessels. The analysis of the focus group interviews was guided by a Grounded Theory approach. The work presented in this thesis is part of the project Crew-Centered Design and Operation of Ships and Ship Systems (CyClaDes), supported by funds from the European Commission and its Seventh Framework Programme. The CyClaDes project intended to promote the increased potential impact of HF/E and HCD knowledge on ship design and operations, by understanding where and how to best integrate it and where and how barriers to its integration occur. The findings in this thesis highlight HCD and its participatory principle as a means to attain a set of benefits at a physical, cognitive, psychosocial, organizational, and socio-political levels, and ultimately attain safer maritime operations. The results suggest that successful integration of a human-centred and participatory design philosophy in the maritime domain should include more and appropriate user representativeness within design, rule-making and purchasing to bridge the gap between the requirements of the users and of other stakeholders, between design and usability. The benefits of, and the prerequisites for, successful HCD integration within the complex sociotechnical system of shipping describe a holistic model for maritime HCD.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Implementing human centred design in the context of a graphical user interface redesign for ship manoeuvring
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International journal of human-computer studies. - 1071-5819. ; 100, s. 55-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human Centred Design (HCD) has been well-established in industrial and interaction design since the 1990's. HCD has a significant role to play as maritime industries struggle to retain the best crews and decrease risk in terms of human and environmental safety. This case study describes a test of an HCD approach, conducted within the European Commission project Crew-centred Design and Operations of Ships and Ship Systems (CyClaDes) under its Seventh Framework Programme. The HCD case study was undertaken by a design team at a partner firm for the redesign of a bridge wing conning display (a ship manoeuvring system) in their full mission ship bridge simulator. This paper summarizes the findings from the case study and discusses them from the perspective of the challenges, benefits, and most effective ways to introduce and use HCD in firms in the maritime sector unfamiliar with the concept. The authors of this paper performed observations, interviews and focus groups at regular intervals, augmented with reports and a resource survey completed by the design team. The conclusions highlight the impact of industrial context and constraints on the application of the HCD approach, as well as the impact of who applies HCD, of how it is depicted in literature and perceived by HCDnovice teams.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction to human-centred design for naval architects and designers
  • 2015
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this chapter is to provide naval architects and designers with fundamental guidelines for the practice of Human-centred Design (HCD). The guidelines presented here originate from well-established principles in scientific literature and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in their most recent standard for HCD in interactive systems – ISO 9241-210:2010. HCD is characterised as a design framework comprised in the scope of usability engineering, which is, in turn, comprehended in the discipline of human factors/ergonomics. This chapter details the basic principles of human factors/ergonomics and usability. It then discusses how they may be achieved in the design process using principles, methods and tools associated with HCD.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Perceived success factors of participatory ergonomics in ship design
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Occupational Ergonomics. - 1359-9364. ; 12:4, s. 141-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The more complex and perilous a sociotechnical system is, the more crucial it is to have users and other relevant stakeholder groups in focus throughout its design lifecycle. In the design and development of ships and ship systems, there has been resistance towards the integration of ergonomic principles through a human-centred approach as well as to involving the user. This inattention can result in an inadequate design, which may have negative repercussions on usability, ultimately threatening the safety of onboard operations, overall system performance and the well-being of the crew. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the perceived success factors of participatory ergonomics based on the standpoint of young seafarers. METHODS: Such is achieved by examining a focus group with cadets inspired by Grounded Theory approach. RESULTS: The findings reveal user participation as a designer’s essential contact with reality, provided that a set of pre-conditions that supports the success of participatory ergonomics can be fulfilled: involving the right users and filling in the gap between end-user needs and ship-owner requirements. The consequent success factors are described at a usability level, an intrinsic level for the end-users, and ultimately at the level of increased safety and efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: User input may not only affect design as an outcome, it may also influence the way participatory ergonomics is performed in the maritime sector.
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