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  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988- (författare)
  • Human Centred Design for Maritime Safety: A User Perspective on the Benefits and Success Factors of User Participation in the Design of Ships and Ship Systems
  • 2016
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • For over six decades, Human Centred Design (HCD) has been considered a desired design approach for the implementation of Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E) knowledge and methods for understanding the needs of the end-users. Although other comparable frameworks exist, they can be seen as subcategories or as tools for HCD, as HCD is considered by some as an overarching approach. This design approach has gradually been integrated into different fields, but engineering sciences have been more reluctant towards embracing its adoption. Although these challenges may be explicable – one of them being that HF/E methods are often not immediately understood and applicable in industrial settings – the maritime sector has begun to overcome these challenges and to understand and highlight the impact of the human element on the safety and efficiency of maritime operations and environmental protection. Nevertheless, more initiative and attention to HF/E is needed. Thus, the work considered in this thesis takes a proactive approach towards the integration of HCD in the maritime domain by involving maritime end-users in a discussion about the opportunities of human-centred and participatory design. This was done through two focus group interviews with two different participant samples of end-users, with special focus on the navigation of merchant vessels. The analysis of the focus group interviews was guided by a Grounded Theory approach. The work presented in this thesis is part of the project Crew-Centered Design and Operation of Ships and Ship Systems (CyClaDes), supported by funds from the European Commission and its Seventh Framework Programme. The CyClaDes project intended to promote the increased potential impact of HF/E and HCD knowledge on ship design and operations, by understanding where and how to best integrate it and where and how barriers to its integration occur. The findings in this thesis highlight HCD and its participatory principle as a means to attain a set of benefits at a physical, cognitive, psychosocial, organizational, and socio-political levels, and ultimately attain safer maritime operations. The results suggest that successful integration of a human-centred and participatory design philosophy in the maritime domain should include more and appropriate user representativeness within design, rule-making and purchasing to bridge the gap between the requirements of the users and of other stakeholders, between design and usability. The benefits of, and the prerequisites for, successful HCD integration within the complex sociotechnical system of shipping describe a holistic model for maritime HCD.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction to human-centred design for naval architects and designers
  • 2015
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this chapter is to provide naval architects and designers with fundamental guidelines for the practice of Human-centred Design (HCD). The guidelines presented here originate from well-established principles in scientific literature and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in their most recent standard for HCD in interactive systems – ISO 9241-210:2010. HCD is characterised as a design framework comprised in the scope of usability engineering, which is, in turn, comprehended in the discipline of human factors/ergonomics. This chapter details the basic principles of human factors/ergonomics and usability. It then discusses how they may be achieved in the design process using principles, methods and tools associated with HCD.
  • A. Costa, Nicole, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects - Human Factors in Ship Design & Operation Conference. ; s. 15-26
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The industry of shipping and ship design involves a set of requirements and business strategies that aim at reliability, efficiency, keeping up with state-of-the-art technology and creating a competitive advantage. Inattention to ergonomics (or human factors) in the process may, however, jeopardize the safety of onboard operations and, in turn, implicate higher costs for the company. Ergonomics and user involvement applied to design through a User-centred Design (UCD) approach is believed to result in several success factors that improve the overall safety and quality of work and life onboard. This study explores and disseminates the success factors of UCD from which seafarers believe they can benefit as ship users. Such is done by cross-examining data from two focus group interviews comprised predominantly by participants with seagoing experience. The results show that the participants perceive UCD as an added value in terms of physical, cognitive, psychosocial and organizational improvements. Communication between stakeholders, usability, safety and satisfaction are a few of the categories that result from the identified success factors. This study conveys a comprehensive summary of the success factors collected in the focus groups, of the corresponding categories and of the affected dimensions of life and work onboard. Such findings represent the importance of UCD for those who operate ships and may serve as an incentive for ship-owners and designers to adopt a UCD approach, as well as for researchers to continue studying this subject further.
  • Aaboen, Lise, 1978- (författare)
  • Incubators and incubation -Resources and activities in relation to different actors
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • ABSTRACT Incubators prepare new technology-based firms (NTBFs) for the obstacles ahead, they complement and develop the entrepreneurial ability of the firm founder, advise regarding financing, as well as providing structure and credibility to the firm. Incubators accelerate the development of the firms towards growth, create an entrepreneurial and innovative climate in the region, and contribute to the commercialization of research results from the university. There are many descriptions but still there remains the difficulty of understanding what an incubator is, and what it does. There is a great difference between incubators due to them having been formed in relation to different actors who have varying histories. Based on the appended papers the principal actors in relation to incubators are: the incubator, the NTBFs, the university, the policy actors and the financial actors. Moreover, the part played by the incubator differs depending on the roles in relation to the different actors, and they often have more than one role in relation to the same actor. Hence, the purpose of this thesis is to explore incubation in relation to different actors. The exploration includes five appended papers. Three of the papers focus on the role of the incubators when helping the NTBFs find and utilize resources. The three types of resources are knowledge, financing and relationships. The two remaining papers focus on the incubator as an organization with particular interest in value creation and efficiency. All five appended papers are written using the resource-based view. In the cover paper the findings in the appended papers are reflected upon using the industrial network approach in order to provide another perspective, focusing on relationships as opportunities leading to an understanding of incubators and incubation. In the cover paper principal actors, activities and resources are explored. The NTBFs are developed through the incubation with the help of resources contributed by the other actors. Additional to the development, the cover paper discussed other activities included in the incubation, i.e. mediation, innovation and acceleration. These activities enable actors to access and combine resources, within and across firm boundaries, that they would otherwise have difficulties combining at that point in time, as quickly or in that way. The relationships of the incubator enable mediation of contacts between actors who are otherwise reluctant to collaborate. Through these collaborations new resource combinations may be found. Resource combinations in already existing relationship can be found using experience from other relationships. In other words, the relationships of the incubator contribute to innovation among the actors. Furthermore, the relationships of the incubator contribute to the acceleration of the NTBFs’ development by being a trusted third party actor, and by contributing to the coordination of actors aiming at improving the innovative climate. Hence, relationships are a special kind of resource for the incubators. The importance of the relationships for the incubators implies that the critical issues might not be to pick NTBFs based on criteria for growth potential, but rather on the ability to form and develop relationships for themselves, as well as the NTBF, in order to develop the firm. Furthermore, arguments regarding the increasing homogeneity among Swedish incubators are based on the rather formalized relationships with the policy actors where incubators tend to play rather similar roles. The heterogeneity is likely to be perceived as larger from the perspective of relationships that are more context specific. Moreover, the relationships, activities and combination of resources cross-fertilize each other without a natural or manageable direction that cannot be controlled by one or a few of the actors involved. After the concluding discussion there is a retrospection of the development of the thesis and the empirical material, which is based on qualitative and quantitative data that has been gathered within the Swedish incubator program mainly during 1999, 2005 and 2006.
  • Aaboen, Lise, 1978- (författare)
  • Incubators and new technology-based firms - A resource-based view of development
  • 2006
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • New technology-based firms (NTBFs) are based upon the exploitation of a new technology. This often means that there are few other than the founder who understands the technology, and in addition the firm often aims at serving a market in a new way or operating on a presently non-existent one. Therefore, it can be hard to determine the future potential of NTBFs, and this causes growth constraints on the firm. However, the NTBFs that do survive contribute to industrial and regional growth on a long-term perspective through, for example, knowledge spillovers as well as finding and developing product concepts. The incubator on the other hand can be seen as a provider or mediator accelerating the development of promising NTBFs. As a provider the incubator mobilizes resources and adjusts them to the needs of the particular NTBF. The mediator role can instead be seen when the incubator connects the NTBF to members of the incubators external network. The basis of the resource-based view is that a competitive advantage comes from the heterogeneity in terms of resources between firms. Imitability of valuable resources makes the competitive advantage sustainable. The newness of the NTBFs implies that they are in the process of trying to obtain or develop their resources. These resources include capabilities that determine how well the organization is able to perform a certain task. Furthermore, resources like funding, patenting, human resources and intangible resources are needed. Similarly, the incubator benefits from knowledge workers, funding and continuous improvements of the knowledge base in order to serve the NTBFs and maintain fruitful external relations. Consequently, this thesis has the purpose of exploring how the obtaining of resources link incubators and NTBFs. This exploration includes three papers in which the first two are devoted to the incubator, and the NTBFs respectively, in order to understand the resource needs of these two types of organizations. However, the third paper focuses on the links between the incubator and the NTBF in terms of providing links to external actors. Further, the exploration includes empirical findings from both qualitative and quantitative data that have been gathered within the Swedish incubator program during 1999 and 2005. The concluding discussion suggests that the human and knowledge resources of the incubator increase the external resources and the capabilities of the NTBFs. A successful NTBF in turn improves the human and knowledge resources of the incubator through knowledge sharing and an increased reputation. An increased survival rate of NTBFs will also positively affect the public funding of the incubator. It is in this way that a positive spiral is created where the resources of the incubator accumulate as more and more successful NTBFs are generated. Failing NTBFs will, on the other hand, also make it more difficult for the incubator to obtain and maintain resources. Seeing the connections between incubators and NTBFs in this way further emphasizes the element of path dependency in the development of these organizations. Subsequently, there is also a long-term aspect of the expected results on regions and industries from public investments made in them.
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