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4.
  • Aaboen, Lise, 1978- (författare)
  • Incubators and incubation -Resources and activities in relation to different actors
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • ABSTRACT Incubators prepare new technology-based firms (NTBFs) for the obstacles ahead, they complement and develop the entrepreneurial ability of the firm founder, advise regarding financing, as well as providing structure and credibility to the firm. Incubators accelerate the development of the firms towards growth, create an entrepreneurial and innovative climate in the region, and contribute to the commercialization of research results from the university. There are many descriptions but still there remains the difficulty of understanding what an incubator is, and what it does. There is a great difference between incubators due to them having been formed in relation to different actors who have varying histories. Based on the appended papers the principal actors in relation to incubators are: the incubator, the NTBFs, the university, the policy actors and the financial actors. Moreover, the part played by the incubator differs depending on the roles in relation to the different actors, and they often have more than one role in relation to the same actor. Hence, the purpose of this thesis is to explore incubation in relation to different actors. The exploration includes five appended papers. Three of the papers focus on the role of the incubators when helping the NTBFs find and utilize resources. The three types of resources are knowledge, financing and relationships. The two remaining papers focus on the incubator as an organization with particular interest in value creation and efficiency. All five appended papers are written using the resource-based view. In the cover paper the findings in the appended papers are reflected upon using the industrial network approach in order to provide another perspective, focusing on relationships as opportunities leading to an understanding of incubators and incubation. In the cover paper principal actors, activities and resources are explored. The NTBFs are developed through the incubation with the help of resources contributed by the other actors. Additional to the development, the cover paper discussed other activities included in the incubation, i.e. mediation, innovation and acceleration. These activities enable actors to access and combine resources, within and across firm boundaries, that they would otherwise have difficulties combining at that point in time, as quickly or in that way. The relationships of the incubator enable mediation of contacts between actors who are otherwise reluctant to collaborate. Through these collaborations new resource combinations may be found. Resource combinations in already existing relationship can be found using experience from other relationships. In other words, the relationships of the incubator contribute to innovation among the actors. Furthermore, the relationships of the incubator contribute to the acceleration of the NTBFs’ development by being a trusted third party actor, and by contributing to the coordination of actors aiming at improving the innovative climate. Hence, relationships are a special kind of resource for the incubators. The importance of the relationships for the incubators implies that the critical issues might not be to pick NTBFs based on criteria for growth potential, but rather on the ability to form and develop relationships for themselves, as well as the NTBF, in order to develop the firm. Furthermore, arguments regarding the increasing homogeneity among Swedish incubators are based on the rather formalized relationships with the policy actors where incubators tend to play rather similar roles. The heterogeneity is likely to be perceived as larger from the perspective of relationships that are more context specific. Moreover, the relationships, activities and combination of resources cross-fertilize each other without a natural or manageable direction that cannot be controlled by one or a few of the actors involved. After the concluding discussion there is a retrospection of the development of the thesis and the empirical material, which is based on qualitative and quantitative data that has been gathered within the Swedish incubator program mainly during 1999, 2005 and 2006.
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5.
  • Aaboen, Lise, 1978- (författare)
  • Incubators and new technology-based firms - A resource-based view of development
  • 2006
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • New technology-based firms (NTBFs) are based upon the exploitation of a new technology. This often means that there are few other than the founder who understands the technology, and in addition the firm often aims at serving a market in a new way or operating on a presently non-existent one. Therefore, it can be hard to determine the future potential of NTBFs, and this causes growth constraints on the firm. However, the NTBFs that do survive contribute to industrial and regional growth on a long-term perspective through, for example, knowledge spillovers as well as finding and developing product concepts. The incubator on the other hand can be seen as a provider or mediator accelerating the development of promising NTBFs. As a provider the incubator mobilizes resources and adjusts them to the needs of the particular NTBF. The mediator role can instead be seen when the incubator connects the NTBF to members of the incubators external network. The basis of the resource-based view is that a competitive advantage comes from the heterogeneity in terms of resources between firms. Imitability of valuable resources makes the competitive advantage sustainable. The newness of the NTBFs implies that they are in the process of trying to obtain or develop their resources. These resources include capabilities that determine how well the organization is able to perform a certain task. Furthermore, resources like funding, patenting, human resources and intangible resources are needed. Similarly, the incubator benefits from knowledge workers, funding and continuous improvements of the knowledge base in order to serve the NTBFs and maintain fruitful external relations. Consequently, this thesis has the purpose of exploring how the obtaining of resources link incubators and NTBFs. This exploration includes three papers in which the first two are devoted to the incubator, and the NTBFs respectively, in order to understand the resource needs of these two types of organizations. However, the third paper focuses on the links between the incubator and the NTBF in terms of providing links to external actors. Further, the exploration includes empirical findings from both qualitative and quantitative data that have been gathered within the Swedish incubator program during 1999 and 2005. The concluding discussion suggests that the human and knowledge resources of the incubator increase the external resources and the capabilities of the NTBFs. A successful NTBF in turn improves the human and knowledge resources of the incubator through knowledge sharing and an increased reputation. An increased survival rate of NTBFs will also positively affect the public funding of the incubator. It is in this way that a positive spiral is created where the resources of the incubator accumulate as more and more successful NTBFs are generated. Failing NTBFs will, on the other hand, also make it more difficult for the incubator to obtain and maintain resources. Seeing the connections between incubators and NTBFs in this way further emphasizes the element of path dependency in the development of these organizations. Subsequently, there is also a long-term aspect of the expected results on regions and industries from public investments made in them.
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7.
  • Aaboen, Lise, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Strategizing as networking for a new venture
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: 22nd Nordic Workshop on Interorganisational Research, Trondheim, Norway, August 16-18.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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9.
  • Aalto, Susanne, 1964- (författare)
  • Molecular Clouds in Starburst Galaxies
  • 1994
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Starbursts in the centres of galaxies are believed to be caused by funneling of gas towards the inner regions. Gravitational interactions between galaxies are known to cause vast rearrangements of their structure as well as induce bursts of star formation in their nuclear regions. However, radial gas-transport may also be the result of a bar- instability intrinsic to the system. This report deals with the effect of a starburst on the molecular medium of galaxies. The mm-wave, rotational transitions of interstellar molecules serve as probes of the physical conditions, kinematics and total mass of the molecular gas. Observations of the J=1-0, J=2-1 and J=3-2 transitions of 12Co, the J=1-0 and J=2-1 transitions of 13Co, the J=1-0 transitions of C180 and HCN and the J=2-1 transition of CS are used to determine the properties of the molecular gas in starbursting and normal galaxies. The mean escape probability approximation is used to solve the radiative transfer equations. The inferred properties of the molecular clouds in the centres of starburst galaxies differ from those of Galactic disk clouds. Such a deviation is likely to be induced by a central gas concentration and/or the nuclear starburst disrupting the clouds. Large 12CO/13CO J=1-0 intensity ratios (R>20) are measured towards luminous mergers implying unusual, high-pressure, molecular cloud ensembles. Model cloud ensembles for the merging system, NGC 3256, and the starburst spiral NGC 1808 suggest that the 12CO-emission is dominated by warm (Tk = 100 - 300 K), small (0.5-1 pc) and moderately dense (n = 2 - 7 x 103 cm-3) molecular clouds. Such temperatures and densities are typical of Galactic photon dominated regions (PDRs). Statistical studies of molecular line ratios towards galaxy centres indicate that the optical depth of the 12CO 1-0 emission is moderate, .tau.Ã? 1. Many starburst galaxies have large-scale excitation gradients indicating warm, dense gas in the centre, and normal cool molecular gas in their extended disks. NGC 3256, in particular, has a large R = 35 in the centre, while it is found to be only R = 10 - 15 at positions 43" off centre. The model cloud ensemble of NGC 1808 indicate that the 12CO-emitting gas may be diffuse rather than self-gravitating, this could be a common phenomenon in starburst galaxies.
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10.
  • Aalto, Susanne, 1964- (författare)
  • Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 292, 2012, "Molecular Gas, Dust and Star Formation in Galaxies", T. Wong and J. Ott, eds.. ; s. 199-208
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Studying the molecular phase of the interstellar medium in galaxies is fundamental for the understanding of the onset and evolution of star formation and the growth of supermassive black holes. We can use molecules as observational tools exploiting them as tracers of chemical, physical and dynamical conditions. In this short review, key molecules (e.g. HCN, HCO+, HNC, HC3N, CN, H3O+) in identifying the nature of buried activity and its evolution are discussed including some standard astrochemical scenarios. Furthermore, we can use IR excited molecular emission to probe the very inner regions of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) allowing us to get past the optically thick dust barrier of the compact obscured nuclei, e.g. in the dusty LIRG NGC4418. High resolution studies are often necessary to separate effects of excitation and radiative transport from those of chemistry - one example is absorption and effects of stimulated emission in the ULIRG Arp220. Finally, molecular gas in large scale galactic outflows is briefly discussed.
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