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Sökning: LAR1:cth > Högskolan i Gävle > Göteborgs universitet > Chalmers tekniska högskola

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  • Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne, et al. (författare)
  • A framework for assessing urban greenery's effects and valuing its ecosystem services
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management. - 0301-4797 .- 1095-8630. ; 205, s. 274-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes. The framework is unique as it recognizes that an urban greenery comprises several components and functions that can contribute to multiple ecosystem services in one or more ways via different functional traits (e.g. foliage characteristics) for which readily measured indicators have been identified. The framework consists of five steps including compilation of an inventory of indicator; application of effectivity factors to rate indicators' effectiveness; estimation of effects; estimation of benefits for each ES; estimation of the total ES value of the ecosystem. The framework was applied to assess ecosystem services provided by trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and bees, in green areas spanning an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden. Estimates of perceived values of ecosystem services were obtained from interviews with the public and workshop activities with civil servants. The framework is systematic and transparent at all stages and appears to have potential utility in the existing spatial planning processes.
  • Kazmierczak, Karolina, et al. (författare)
  • An integrated analysis of ergonomics and time consumption in Swedish "craft-type' car disassembly
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics. - Elsevier. - 1872-9126. ; 36:3, s. 263-273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Car disassembly is at the edge of extensive rationalisations due to increased legislative demands for recycling. This study focused on (1) assessing Current mechanical exposures (physical work loads) for comparison with future rationalised systems, with particular emphasis on time aspects, (2) analysing disassembly work in terms of time consumption and exposures in constituent tasks as defined by a loss analysis technique, and (3) predicting the consequences of car disassembly rationalisation for mechanical exposures. The study showed that disassembly implied pronounced circulatory loads, and that more walking and higher lumbar peak loads were found than in studies of assembly work. Value-adding tasks comprised 30% of the total working time, and implied higher postural exposures for the head, arm, trunk and wrist, as well as less opportunities to recover, as compared to non-value-adding tasks. Organisational-type rationalisations can be expected to increase the time spent in value-adding work, thus increasing local exposures for the average worker, while a concurrent increase in mechanisation level might reduce circulatory exposures, the amount of walking, and peak lumbar loads.
  • Neumann, W. P., et al. (författare)
  • Production system design elements influencing productivity and ergonomics - A case study of parallel and serial flow strategies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Operations & Production Management. - Emerald Group Publishing Limited. - 0144-3577. ; 26:8, s. 904-923
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate a strategic change from parallel cell-based assembly (old) to serial-line assembly (new) in a Swedish company with special reference to how production system design elements affect both productivity and ergonomics. Design/methodology/approach - Multiple methods, including records and video analysis, questionnaires, interviews, biomechanical modelling, and flow simulation were applied. Findings - The new system, unlike the old, showed the emergence of system and balance losses as well as vulnerability to disturbances and difficulty handling all product variants. Nevertheless, the new system as realised partially overcame productivity barriers in the operation and management of the old system. The new system had impaired ergonomics due to decreased physical variation and increased repetitiveness with cycle times that were 6 per cent of previous thus increasing repetitiveness, and significantly reducing perceived influence over work. Workstations' uneven exposure to physical tasks such as nut running created a potential problem for workload management. The adoption of teamwork in the new system contributed to significantly increased co-worker support - an ergonomic benefit. Practical implications - Design decisions made early in the development process affect both ergonomics and productivity in the resulting system. While the time pattern of physical loading appeared to be controlled by flow and work organisation elements, the amplitude of loading was determined more by workstation layout. Psychosocial conditions appear to be affected by a combination of system elements including layout, flow, and work organisation elements. Strategic use of parallelisation elements in assembly, perhaps in hybrid forms from configurations observed here, appears to be a viable design option for improved performance by reducing the fragility and ergonomic problems of assembly lines. Originality/value - The interacting design elements examined here pose potential "levers" of control by which productivity and ergonomics could be jointly optimised for improved total system performance.
  • Ode Sang, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of naturalness, gender, and age on how urban green space is perceived and used
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. - 1618-8667. ; 18, s. 268-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neighbourhood green space serves an important function for the urban population, and provides valuable ecosystem services for human well-being. In this article, we investigate the effects of naturalness, gender, and age on the activities, aesthetics, and self-reported well-being associated with urban green space. Our findings are based on a postal survey of residents living in close proximity to six different green spaces in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. It is shown that higher perceived naturalness generated more activities and higher aesthetic values and self-reported well-being for residents living close to urban green spaces. The results also indicated that, regardless of the type of naturalness, women were more active in urban green spaces than were men. Women also saw greater aesthetic value in green spaces than men did, and had higher self-reported well-being associated with the urban green spaces. Finally, older residents were shown to participate in a greater number of nature-related activities than younger residents. Older residents also saw greater aesthetic values and had higher self-reported well-being associated with urban green spaces than younger people did. Seemingly, this poses a considerable planning challenge if areas of perceived naturalness are to be retained in cities, since the present trend is for reduced green spaces in cities and a ‘parkification’ of surviving natural areas. Further, because of the importance of perceived natural areas to the elderly, and in particularly women, distances to urban green areas should not be too great.
  • Wells, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Time - A key issue for musculoskeletal health and manufacturing
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics. - 0003-6870. ; 38:6, s. 733-744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Time is a key issue for both ergonomists and engineers when they engage in production system interventions. While not their primary purpose, the actions of engineers have major effects on biomechanical exposure; possibly of much greater magnitude than many ergonomics interventions. This paper summarises the aims, actions and tools of engineers and ergonomists, emphasising time-related outcomes. Activities of the two groups when attempting to manipulate time aspects of work may be contradictory; engineers wishing to improve production and ergonomists aiming at better health as well as contributing to production. Consequently, tools developed by ergonomists for assessing time aspects of work describe rest patterns, movement velocities or daily duration of exposures, while engineering tools emphasise time-efficient production. The paper identifies measures that could be used to communicate time-relevant information between engineers and ergonomists. Further cooperation between these two stakeholders as well as research on the topic are needed to enable ergonomists to have a larger impact on the design of production systems.
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