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  • Almendros-Ibáñez, J. A., et al. (författare)
  • Voidage distribution around bubbles in a fluidized bed
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Powder Technology. - 0032-5910. ; 197:1, s. 73-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • n this work, a new method for measuring void fraction distribution around endogenous bubbles in a 2D fluidized bed is presented. The technique is based on illuminating a transparent-wall 2-dimensional bed with diffuse light from the rear and recording the distribution of light that penetrates the bed. The recording is made with a high speed video-camera, which gives frames with grey level corresponding to the light penetration and from which the voidage distribution around the bubbles can be determined. In this way, voidage distribution in the region very close to the bubble contour (r/Rb less, approximate 1.2) is obtained, which was not possible in previous studies due to limitations in spatial resolution. A correlation is proposed for the voidage at the contour of the bubble, with the voidage depending on the radial position and the polar angle. In addition, the effect of the voidage distribution on the throughflow crossing the bubbles was studied and an increase of 20% was determined for the average bubble geometry of the more than 100 bubbles analysed.
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  • Andersson, Klas, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Experiments and modeling on oxy-fuel combustion chemistry during lignite-firing
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Proceedings of the 32nd International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems, Clearwater, USA, 2007.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper presents experimental and modeling work on the combustion chemistry of the oxy-fuel (O2/CO2 recycle) process with focus on the difference in NO formation between oxy-fuel and air-fired conditions. Measurements have been carried out in a 100 kW test unit, which facilitates oxy-fuel combustion with real flue gas recycle. These measurements include in-furnace gas concentrations and temperature profiles from lignite-fired tests. The tests comprise a reference test in air and three oxy- fuel test cases with different oxygen fractions in the recycled feed gas. Additional oxy-fuel experiments were performed in order to study the sensitivity of the NO formation to both stoichiometry and air ingress. The results show that for the burner settings used in this work, lignite oxy-combustion with a global oxygen fraction of 25 vol % in the feed gas results in flame temperature levels close to those during air-firing. Similar to previous work, it is seen that the NO emission levels in [mg/MJ] during oxy-fuel operation are reduced to less than 30 % of the emission level during air-fired conditions. The results from the modeling shows that the reduction of NO emissions during oxy-fuel combustion is caused by an increased destruction of formed and recycled NO. Further experimental tests on the OF 27 condition show that an increased stoichiometric ratio (from l = 1.18 to 1.41) as well as an increased N2 content in the feed gas (from about 1% to 15%) only has a small effect on the NO formation during oxy-combustion.
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  • Andersson, Klas, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale CO2 Capture – Applying the
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: VGB Power Tech. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Zum Abbau von Kohlendioxid-Emissionen aus Industrieanlagen können in fossilbefeuerten konventionellen Kraftwerken neue Verbrennungstechniken mit nachfolgender Abscheidung und Speicherung von CO2 eingesetzt werden. Um ein solches Verfahren handelt es sich bei der O2/CO2-Verbrennung, die einen herkömmlichen Verbrennungsprozess mit einer tieftemperaturgestützten Luftzerlegungsanlage verbindet. Der Brennstoff wird in Sauerstoff und rezirkuliertem Rauchgas verbrannt, was eine hohe CO2-Konzentration im Rauchgas und damit eine Verringerung der Kosten der CO2-Rückhaltung zur Folge hat. Im Beitrag wird ein O2/CO2-Konzept auf großtechnische Daten eines braunkohlebefeuerten 865-MW-Referenzkraftwerks und von großen Luftabscheidungsanlagen (ASU) übertragen. Ziel der Studie ist die Beschreibung von wesentlichen Komponenten und Energieströmen beider Prozesse sowie die Untersuchung der Möglichkeiten zur Prozessintegration. Beabsichtigt ist ferner eine detaillierte Entwicklung der Rauchgasaufbereitung vor dem Transport des separierten Kohlendioxids. Im Beitrag wird die gemeinsame Speicherung von CO2 und SO2 vorgeschlagen. Bei Annahme, dass das Schwefeldioxid zusammen mit dem Kohlendioxid sequestriert werden kann und unter der Voraussetzung, dass das Gas trocken ist, erübrigt sich die Entschwefelungsanlage. Allerdings sind die technische Machbarkeit ebenso wie die mit einer solchen Speicherung verknüpften politischen Probleme noch immer offene Fragen. Mit allen festgestellten Integrationsmöglichkeiten erreicht der elektrische Wirkungsgrad netto etwa 34 % – im Vergleich zu 42,6 % in der Referenzanlage.
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  • Andersson, Klas, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Process evaluation of an 865 MWe lignite fired O2/CO2 power plant
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: energy conversion and management. ; 47:18-19, s. 3487-3498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from large point sources, new technologies can be used in capture plants for combustion of fossil fuel for subsequent capture and storage of CO2. One such technology is the O2/CO2 combustion process (also termed oxy-fuel combustion) that combines a conventional combustion process with a cryogenic air separation process so that the fuel is burned in oxygen and recycled flue gas, yielding a high concentration of CO2 in the flue gas, which reduces the cost for its capture. In this work, the O2/CO2 process is applied using commercial data from an 865 MWe lignite fired reference power plant and large air separation units (ASU). A detailed design of the flue gas treatment pass, integrated in the overall process layout, is proposed. The essential components and energy streams of the two processes have been investigated in order to evaluate the possibilities for process integration and to determine the net efficiency of the capture plant. The electricity generation cost and the associated avoidance cost for the capture plant have been determined and compared to the reference plant with investment costs obtained directly from industry. Although an existing reference power plant forms the basis of the work, the study is directed towards a new state of the art lignite fired O2/CO2 power plant. The boiler power of the O2/CO2 plant has been increased to keep the net output of the capture and the reference plant similar. With the integration possibilities identified, the net efficiency becomes 33.5%, which should be compared to 42.6% in the reference plant. With a lignite price of 5.2 $/MWh and an interest rate of 10%, the electricity generation cost increases from 42.1 to 64.3 $/MWh, which corresponds to a CO2 avoidance cost of 26 $/ton CO2.
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