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Sökning: LAR1:cth > Lyngfelt Anders 1955 > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Chalmers tekniska högskola

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  • Berntsson, Thore, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Towards Sustainabel Oil Refinery - Pre-study for larger co-operation project
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this report, the Chalmers EnergiCentrum (CEC) presents the results of a pre-study commissioned by Preem relating to the effective production of future vehicle fuels. This pre-study was made up of three studies focusing on energy streamlining, the utilisation of waste heat and carbon-dioxide separation and biorefinement relating to the gasification and hydration of vegetable oils. One of the common starting points for these studies was the current situation at the Preem refineries in Göteborg and Lysekil from where the measurement data were obtained and analysed. The report summarises the knowledge situation based on current research in the individual technical fields. The results present some interesting future opportunities for developing the sustainable production of future vehicle fuels. The sections vary, as the areas that have been examined differ and the sections have been written by different people. The reports ends with some joint conclusions and a number of questions which could be included and answered in a more extensive future main study, as part of a developed research partnership between Preem and the Chalmers University of Technology. The preliminary results of this work were analysed with the client at workshops on 1 October and 29 November 2007. The report is written in English combined with an extensive summary in Swedish including a proposal on a future main study. The study was conducted by the Chalmers EnergiCentrum (CEC), in collaboration with a number of researchers in the CEC’s network. They included Thore Berntsson, Jessica Algehed, Erik Hektor and Lennart Persson Elmeroth, all from Heat and Power Technology, Börje Gevert, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Tobias Richards, Forest Products and Chemical Engineering, Filip Johnsson and Anders Lyngfelt, Energy Technology, and Per-Åke Franck and Anders Åsblad, CIT Industriell Energianalys AB. The client, Preem, was represented by Bengt Ahlén, Sören Eriksson, Johan Jervehed, Bertil Karlsson, Gunnar Olsson, Ulf Kuylenstierna, Stefan Nyström, Martin Sjöberg and Thomas Ögren. Tobias Richards was responsible for compiling the report and Bertil Pettersson was the project manager.
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  • Hallberg, Peter, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • CaMnO3-δ Made from Low Cost Material Examined as Oxygen Carrier in Chemical-looping Combustion
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Energy Procedia - 12th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Austin, October 2014. - 1876-6102. ; 63, s. 80-86
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Abstract Carbon Capture and Storage is a promising method to limit the increasing amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In this method high purity carbon dioxide is captured at large emission sources, e. g. fossil fuelled power plants. The carbon dioxide can then be transported to a long term storage site, rather than being emitted to the atmosphere. Among the different alternatives for obtaining high purity carbon dioxide during combustion of fossil fuels, Chemical-looping Combustion (CLC) is one of the most promising. Here, the oxygen needed to oxidize a fuel is provided by a solid oxygen carrier. The oxygen carrier is subsequently circulated to another reactor where it is reoxidized with air. By separating these two operations mixing of the combustion products and the nitrogen in the air is avoided. An energy demanding gas separation is thus not necessary. The most crucial part of Chemical-looping Combustion is the solid oxygen carrier. The oxygen carrier should have high reactivity with fuel and oxygen, sufficient oxygen carrying capacity and preferably also low cost. Furthermore it is important that it is able to withstand the tough conditions it is exposed to in a hot fluidizing environment, both with respect to physical attrition and chemical degradation. The most commonly suggested setup of Chemical- looping Combustion is a dual fluidized bed system where gas velocities and mechanical abrasion can be high. When the technology was first demonstrated, nickel oxide based oxygen carriers were typically used. But as nickel is quite costly as well as potentially harmful, alternatives have been sought after. In 2009 Leion et al. [1] investigated an oxygen carrier based on calcium manganite of perovskite structure CaMnO3-δ for chemical looping combustion. The results were very promising and similar materials have since then been successfully tested in pilot rigs up to 120 kWth, including extended operation in continuously operating 10 kWth reactor with very positive results, see Källén et al. [2]. A key feature of these materials is that they are able to release gas phase oxygen at relevant conditions, so called Chemical-looping with Oxygen Uncoupling, see Rydén et al. [3]. Having gas phase oxygen available for fuel oxidation makes gas-solid mixing less critical and thus makes it easier to reach complete fuel conversion.2 Most studies in which CaMnO3-δ based oxygen carriers have been examined have been using particles manufactured from high quality chemicals. While that is reasonable in the early stages of development, cheaper raw materials would be favourable for industrial applications. Promising oxygen carriers based on manganese ores have been manufactured and characterized by Fossdal et al. [4] and Mohammad Pour et al. [5]. This study aims to further examine CaMnO3-δ based oxygen carriers made from low cost, commercial raw materials available in large quantities such as manganese ore. The materials are examined during continuous Chemical- looping Combustion and Oxygen Uncoupling in an experimental reactor with the nominal fuel power 300 Wth. The reactor has previously been used in numerous studies which make comparisons with materials made from high purity chemicals straightforward. During operation several gas concentrations as well as temperatures and pressure drops are measured which allows monitoring of the chemical reactions and fluidization behaviour in the reactor. Fines (particles <45 μm) are collected from exiting gas streams which gives an indication of the degree of attrition of the particles. Attrition was also studied in separate jet cup attrition test. The study show that it is possible to manufacture CaMnO3-δ based oxygen carrier with appropriate properties for continuous operation from low-cost materials. The ability to release gas phase oxygen to an inert atmosphere and high conversion of natural gas is demonstrated. The results indicate that this approach should be feasible also for large-scale applications.
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  • Iqbal, A, et al. (författare)
  • Alstom’s Chemical Looping Prototypes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: 37th International Technical Conference on Clean Coal & Fuel Systems June 3-7, 2012 Clearwater, FL, USA.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Jing, Dazheng, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Innovative Oxygen Carrier Materials for Chemical-Looping Combustion
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Energy Procedia: International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Technologies (GHGT). - 1876-6102. ; 37, s. 645-653
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In chemical-looping combustion, the oxygen needed for combustion of fuel is provided by metal oxides called oxygen carriers, and inherent separation of CO2 is achieved without energy penalty. For gaseous fuels, such as natural gas, Ni-based oxygen carriers have generally been shown to be the most reactive. But as Ni-based materials are burdened by high costs and environmental risks with respect to toxicity, it is of high importance to find viable non-Ni alternatives. In the EU-financed project INNOCUOUS, one of the key issues is to find novel non-Ni based oxygen carriers. In this paper results from reactivity investigations of three groups of oxygen carrier materials are reported. The materials were prepared by spray-drying, and are based on 1) CuO, 2) Ca-Mn-X-O where X = Cu, Fe, Ti and Mg, and 3) Mg-Mn-O. A number of materials showed a combination of sufficient mechanical strength, high release of gas phase oxygen and high reactivity with methane, and can thus be considered viable alternatives to Ni-based materials.
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