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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Chalmers tekniska högskola > Sandberg Ann Sofie 1951

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  • Bosaeus, Marja, et al. (författare)
  • A randomized longitudinal dietary intervention study during pregnancy: effects on fish intake, phospholipids, and body composition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nutrition Journal. - 1475-2891. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundFish and meat intake may affect gestational weight gain, body composition and serum fatty acids. We aimed to determine whether a longitudinal dietary intervention during pregnancy could increase fish intake, affect serum phospholipid fatty acids, gestational weight gain and body composition changes during pregnancy in women of normal weight participating in the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. A second aim was to study possible effects in early pregnancy of fish intake and meat intake, respectively, on serum phospholipid fatty acids, gestational weight gain, and body composition changes during pregnancy.MethodsIn this prospective, randomized controlled study, women were allocated to a control group or to a dietary counseling group that focused on increasing fish intake. Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured by air-displacement plethysmography. Reported intake of fish and meat was collected from a baseline population and from a subgroup of women who participated in each trimester of their pregnancies. Serum levels of phospholipid arachidonic acid (s-ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (s-EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (s-DHA) were measured during each trimester.ResultsWeekly fish intake increased only in the intervention group (n = 18) from the first to the second trimester (median difference 113 g, p = 0.03) and from the first to the third trimester (median difference 75 g, p = 0.01). In the first trimester, fish intake correlated with s-EPA (r = 0.36, p = 0.002, n = 69) and s-DHA (r = 0.34, p = 0.005, n = 69), and meat intake correlated with s-ARA (r = 0.28, p = 0.02, n = 69). Fat-free mass gain correlated with reported meat intake in the first trimester (r = 0.39, p = 0.01, n = 45).ConclusionsDietary counseling throughout pregnancy could help women increase their fish intake. Intake of meat in early pregnancy may increase the gain in fat-free mass during pregnancy.
  • Brackmann, Christian, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Nonlinear microscopy of lipid storage and fibrosis in muscle and liver tissues of mice fed high-fat diets
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Optics. - 1083-3668. ; 15:6, s. 066008-1 - 066008-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hallmarks of high-fat Western diet intake, such as excessive lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver as well as liver fibrosis, are investigated in tissues from mice using nonlinear microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), supported by conventional analysis methods. Two aspects are presented; intake of standard chow versus Western diet, and a comparison between two high-fat Western diets of different polyunsaturated lipid content. CARS microscopy images of intramyocellular lipid droplets in muscle tissue show an increased amount for Western diet compared to standard diet samples. Even stronger diet impact is found for liver samples, where combined CARS and SHG microscopy visualize clear differences in lipid content and collagen fiber development, the latter indicating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis induced at a relatively early stage for Western diet. Characteristic for NAFLD, the fibrous tissue-containing lipids accumulate in larger structures. This is also observed in CARS images of liver samples from two Western-type diets of different polyunsaturated lipid contents. In summary, nonlinear microscopy has strong potential (further promoted by technical advances toward clinical use) for detection and characterization of steatohepatitis already in its early stages.
  • Carlsson, Johan, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 10:11, s. e0143741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naive T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 muM fatty acids; alpha-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNgamma. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells.
  • Chen, Tingsu, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of gliadin-binding peptides by phage display
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Biotechnology. - 1472-6750. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease (CD) is a common and complex disorder of the small intestine caused by intolerance to wheat gluten and related edible cereals like barley and rye. Peptides originating from incomplete gliadin digestion activate the lamina propria infiltrating T cells to release proinflammatory cytokines, which in turn cause profound tissue remodelling of the small intestinal wall. There is no cure for CD except refraining from consuming gluten-containing products.RESULTS: Phage from a random oligomer display library were enriched by repeated pannings against immobilised gliadin proteins. Phage from the final panning round were plated, individual plaques picked, incubated with host bacteria, amplified to a population size of 1011 to 1012 and purified. DNA was isolated from 1000 purified phage populations and the region covering the 36 bp oligonucleotide insert from which the displayed peptides were translated, was sequenced. Altogether more than 150 different peptide-encoding sequences were identified, many of which were repeatedly isolated under various experimental conditions. Amplified phage populations, each expressing a single peptide, were tested first in pools and then one by one for their ability to inhibit binding of human anti-gliadin antibodies in ELISA assays. These experiments showed that several of the different peptide-expressing phage tested inhibited the interaction between gliadin and anti-gliadin antibodies. Finally, four different peptide-encoding sequences were selected for further analysis, and the corresponding 12-mer peptides were synthesised in vitro. By ELISA assays it was demonstrated that several of the peptides inhibited the interaction between gliadin molecules and serum anti-gliadin antibodies. Moreover, ELISA competition experiments as well as dot-blot and western blot revealed that the different peptides interacted with different molecular sites of gliadin.CONCLUSIONS: We believe that several of the isolated and characterised gliadin-binding peptides described here could provide valuable tools for researchers in the field of CD by facilitating studies on localisation and uptake of various gliadin peptides in the small intestine. In future work, the potential of these peptides to detoxify gluten will be investigated.
  • Eklund-Jonsson, Charlotte, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Tempe Fermentation of Whole Grain Barley Increased Human Iron Absorption and In vitro Iron Availability
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The Open Nutrition Journal. - 1874-2882. ; 2, s. 42-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present study, iron absorption from a tempe fermented whole-grain barley meal was measured, and results were compared to in vitro estimation of available iron from an equivalent meal. The tempe meal (TM) was prepared from barley fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus to reduce the phytate content
  • Fredlund, Kerstin, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Absorption of zinc and retention of calcium: dose-dependent inhibition by phytate
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. - 0946-672X. ; 20:1, s. 49-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dose-dependent inhibitory effect of sodium phytate (myo-inositol-hexaphosphate) on absorption of zinc and retention of calcium was studied in man. No systematic study of this dose-response effect has been reported to this time. Forty subjects were served meals containing white wheat rolls without/with additions of phytate. Ten subjects were given test meals containing one or two of the studied levels of phytate and in addition all subjects were served meals to which no phytate was added. The zinc content was 3.1 mg (47 mu mol) and the calcium content 266 mg (6.6 mmol). The rolls were labelled extrinsically with radioisotopes, Zn-65 and Ca-47, and whole-body retention of both minerals was measured. Totally 105 meals were served, 36 meals in which no phytate was added and 9-10 meals on each level of phytate. The zinc absorption in meals to which either 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 140, 175 or 250 mg of phytate-P (0, 134, 269, 403, 538, 753, 941 or 1344 mu mol phytate) had been added was 22%, 16%, 14%, 11%, 7%, 7%, 7% and 6%, respectively (mean values). The addition of 50 mg phytate-P or more significantly decreased zinc absorption (p = 0.01) as compared to absorption from the test meals with no added phytate. The calcium retention at day 7 in the same meals was 31%, 28%, 27%, 26%, 22%, 19%, 14% and 11% (mean values). The addition of 100 mg phytate-P or more significantly decreased calcium retention (p = 0.03) compared to the test meals with no added phytate. It was concluded that the inhibitory effect of phytate on the absorption of zinc and the retention of calcium was dose dependent.
  • Gabrielsson, Britt G., 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary herring improves plasma lipid profiles and reduces atherosclerosis in obese low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Medicine. - 1107-3756. ; 29:3, s. 331-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diet is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and high fish intake has been associated with vascular health in population studies. However, intervention studies have been inconclusive. In this study, male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were given 16-week high fat/high sucrose diets, supplemented with either minced herring fillets or minced beef. The diets were matched in total fat and cholesterol content; taurine content and fatty acid composition was analysed. Body weights were recorded throughout the study; plasma lipids were analysed at week 8 and 16. Body composition and adipocyte size were evaluated at study end. Atherosclerosis was evaluated at week 12 (ultrasound) and at termination (en face histology). Herring-fed mice had a higher proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the hepatic triacylglycerides (TAG) and phospholipid fractions. The herring-fed mice had increased body weight (P=0.007), and reduced epididymal adipocyte size (P=0.009), despite similar food intake and body composition as the beef-fed mice. The herring-fed mice had lower plasma TAG and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol concentrations throughout the study (TAG; P=0.0012 and 0.004, VLDL-cholesterol; P=0.006 and 0.041, week 8 and 16, respectively). At week 16, the herring-fed had higher plasma concentrations of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.004) and less atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic arch (P=0.007) compared with the beef-fed mice. In conclusion, dietary herring in comparison to beef markedly improved vascular health in this mouse model, suggesting that herring provides an added value beyond its content of macronutrients.
  • Gunnarsson, Gudjon, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibitory effect of known antioxidants and of press juice from herring (Clupea harengus) light muscle on the generation of free radicals in human monocytes
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. - 0021-8561. ; 54:21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause oxidative stress, which has been linked to various diseases. It has been suggested that antioxidant-rich foods can reduce such oxidative stress. However, the lack of suitable model systems to screen for in vivo effects of food-derived antioxidants has prevented a clear consensus in this area. In this study, the aim was to use a single-cell model system (human monocyte) to evaluate whether certain pure antioxidants and complex muscle extracts (herring light muscle press juice, PJ) could prevent ROS formation under in vivo like conditions. ROS were excreted from the monocytes upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate and were then detected as isoluminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL). Adding 2000 units of catalase and 50 units of superoxide dismutase to the monocytes model lowered the CL response by 35 and 86%, respectively. Ascorbate (14.1 mM) lowered the response by 99%, alpha-tocoperhol (188 microM) by 37%, and Trolox (50 microM) by almost 100%. Crude herring PJ gave a dose-dependent reduction in the CL response. At 10, 100, and 1000 times dilution, the PJ reduced the CL signal by 93, 60.5, and 10.6%. PJ fractionated into low molecular weight (LMW) ( 3500 Da) fractions decreased the CL response by 52.9 and 71.4%, respectively, at a 100-fold dilution. Evaluation of the PJ samples in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity test indicated that proteins may be the primary radical scavenging compounds of PJ, whereas the ROS-preventing effect obtained from the LMW fraction may also be attributed to other mechanisms. Thus, this study proved that the monocyte assay can be a useful tool for studying whether food-derived antioxidants can limit ROS production under physiologically relevant conditions. It also showed that herring contains numerous aqueous compounds demonstrating antioxidative effects in the monocyte model system.
  • Hoffmann, Karolina, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Blocking peptides decrease tissue transglutaminase processing of gliadin in vitro
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. - 0021-8561. ; 57:21, s. 10150-10155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) plays an important role in celiac disease pathology as it catalyzes deamidation and cross-linking of specific gluten peptides and converts them into potent epitopes recognized by intestinal T-cells. We investigated whether synthetic peptides with high affinity to gliadin could alter tTG activity on gliadin and whole gluten digest. The immobilized substrates were incubated with synthetic peptides identified by the phage display technique and a control peptide with no affinity to gliadin. Transglutaminase activity was measured with time resolved fluorescence. The mean tTG activity, compared to that of the control without the peptides, was reduced by 31, 33, and 36% for three selected gliadin-binding peptides, and 30% for the peptide pool (P
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