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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Högskolan i Halmstad > Doktorsavhandling > (2009)

  • Resultat 1-4 av 4
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1.
  • Nilsson, Bertil, 1951- (författare)
  • Finite element procedures for virtual tribology
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main purpose of this thesis is to use modern goal-oriented adap- tive finite element techniques in order to improve the numerical simulation of tribology. Two novel adaptive finite element methods for the Reynolds thin film model, and Stokes model including cavitation are presented and their different strategies are compared. The algorithms are inspired by an analogy with the obstacle problem and the cavitation problem that we con- sider is written as a variational inequality considering in the formulation the fact that the lubricant cannot stand negative stresses induced by sub- atmospheric pressure. A posteriori error estimates and adaptive algorithms are derived, and numerical examples illustrating the theory are supplied. The cavitation problem and calculations is introduced and put into his- torical and modern perspective. Modern thoughts and techniques around the oil-pocket idea in sheet metal forming are presented. The influence of oil pockets on the contact regime is assessed, and in particular the likely effect of oil-pocket-induced cavitation in order to produce lift, is discussed. The ultimate goal with the numerical simulation is to be able to optimize the surface structure so as to take advantage of cavitation effects in the lubricant.
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2.
  • Ranagården, Lisbeth, 1947- (författare)
  • Lärares lärande om elever - en sociologisk studie om yrkespraktik
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This is a study of how professional teachers’ learning about students takes place in relation to changed requirements and new organisational preconditions. Based on an approach from the theory of professions with inspiration by Lipsky’s concept of street level bureaucrats, it examines which strategies or methods teachers develop in order to cope with the changes. Important points of departure for the study are theories of organisation, professions and knowledge. The three phases that are considered to distinguish professional work – diagnosis, inference, treatment – organise the disposition of the work. The study is empirically based on interviews with primary school teachers, recorded development conversations, and teachers’ written documentation for the latter. The teachers’ own accounts of their learning process, as well as how they interpret what is experienced, form an interpretive and analytical foundation together with analysis of the development conversations. Teachers’ meetings with students usually occur with the entire class as a collective, which makes the teaching profession special. Other professionals normally meet their clients individually. At the same time, teachers are expected to individualise the instruction. The study shows how the organisation creates obstacles by intensifying the teachers’ work. This diminishes the leeway for teachers to work professionally. A recurrent problem for the teachers’ teaching is therefore lack of time. They have to find standardised forms such as the categorising of students. The analyses demonstrate that there is great uncertainty about the measures’ effects, and that teachers do not have enough knowledge. One develops new knowledge by trial and error, and the study points to a need for the teachers’ teaching in and through its practice to be given room to develop. In this context the study discusses teachers’ professional language as a hindrance to professional development. As the study also shows, leeway for conversations is a prerequisite for learning about students. This in turn influences the possibilities of creating good relations. The study discusses teachers’ interest in relation-building from a power perspective and as an important tool for successful instruction. But teachers lack tools for handling certain students who challenge the teaching role, and the analysis reveals deficiencies in both the organisation in the profession. According to the study’s results, teachers do not have support for coping with the changes that were made in the schools. Especially the profession’s social dimensions prove to be a weakness for newly educated teachers, who need continued learning in professional practice, but more experienced teachers also lack tools for being able to individualise the instruction. While the causes are numerous, the bottom line is a scarcity of resources – in terms of time, institutional measures for solving problems, and knowledge about how the problems should be solved.
3.
  • Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene, 1967- (författare)
  • Musiklärares val av undervisningsinnehåll. En studie om musikundervisning i ensemble och gehörs- och musiklära inom gymnasieskolan
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The way in which music teachers choose and use the subject content in ensemble and music theory in the upper secondary school is focused in this study. The point of interest is the everyday classroom teaching of music teachers. The intentions that music teachers have with their teaching is also studied.This thesis is a study of music teaching and is a subject-didactic investigation, inspired by variation theory. The overarching aim of the thesis is to study how music teachers in upper secondary school choose teaching content when teaching ensemble and music theory. The teachers’ use of the teaching content implies that they choose to focus and teach certain parts in their teaching. This choice of con- tent and how it is used is in focus in this study. The research questions are: How do music teachers choose teaching content when teaching ensemble and music theory in upper secondary school? How do music teachers use the teaching con- tent in their teaching?The data collection includes video-documented lessons and qualitative inter- views with five music teachers in upper secondary school in 2004.The analysis reveals two different choices of content. When the teachers have music and theory as the content of their teaching, it is the content that guides the teaching methods, where the teacher uses a fixed content, which is then presented in different ways; this was mainly in music theory. When the content is music activities, the music teachers adjust the activity-based content in accordance with the level of the pupils’ skills in ensemble. The differences that occur in the varia- tion theory results are closely related to the teaching content. The foundations of the two different choices of content that are made by the music teachers, as well as the significance of the learning objects, are finally discussed. 
4.
  • Åkesson, Maria (författare)
  • Digital Innovation in the Value Networks of Newspapers
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • After decades of digital developments, we are now entering a truly digital era. Digital information and communication technology has become a naturally embedded part ofthe designed environment we live in. Most parts of life are today pervaded by digital products and services. Evidence of such immersion can be noted in, for instance, media consumption. This development is gradually shaping and cultivating a media environment that is ubiquitous. Such ubiquity is manifested in media’s constant presence and thechanges in media consumption in the purview of digital innovation. Indeed, digital innovation is not only a shift in technology. It alters existing value networks and calls forrethinking existing value perceptions. While this disruptive change driven by digitizationcan be found in many industries, this thesis focuses on its impact on value networks in thenewspaper industry.The digitization of newspapers started with the introduction of the internet in the 90´sand soon emerged into new media innovations. While these new media innovations have not replaced existing media, they have been disruptive to newspaper value networks. Recently, the emergence of yet another digital innovation is specifically interesting whenstudying changes to value networks of the newspaper industry: the e-paper. This innovation (a screen technology very close to print on paper) exhibits inherent valuesthat make future replacement of print on paper a possibility. It is therefore regarded as avery promising technology in the newspaper industry. This thesis can be positioned at the intersection of the friction between forces to embarkon a new media trajectory and forces to hang on to the established structures andcontrol. The research question addressed in this thesis is: How are value networks of newspapers influenced by digital innovation? Addressing the research question, a multimethod approach was adopted to gain a broad understanding of how digital innovationinfluences value networks of newspapers. Drawing on digital innovation literature, the thesis presents a theoretical perspective with which to understand how digital innovation influences value networks. This perspective is instantiated as a model of value network configuration. The model emphasizes the multi-layered, dynamic, dialectic, and diametrical character of value networks in digital innovation. The model is offered as abasis and analytical tool to further explore value networks in digital innovation. This tool is useful for newspaper stakeholders when entering the digital era.
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  • Resultat 1-4 av 4
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