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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Tidskriftsartikel > Göteborgs universitet > (2000-2009)

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  • A. Nojima, et al. (författare)
  • Calculational aspects of electron-phonon coupling at surfaces
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: J. Phys: Condens. Matter. - 1361-648X. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study the validity of two frequently used approximations in calculations of electron–phonon coupling at surfaces. The rigid-ion approximation is a standard approximation used for the bulk metals. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we find that for Be this approximation is as valid for surface atoms as for bulk atoms. In addition, the slab method for calculations of a phonon induced surface state lifetime is examined. The convergence of the electron–phonon matrix element with respect to the thickness of the slab is studied for several systems. When the number of slab layers is increased, the net effect of decreasing overlap and increasing number of final states depends strongly on the decay length of the surface state wavefunction and the band structure.
  • A. Nojima, et al. (författare)
  • Model Eliashberg function for surface states
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Applied Surface Science. ; 254:23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a simplified procedure for the analysis of the phonon-induced lifetimes of surface states. The model includes information about the electron and phonon structure and is thus more reliable than procedures based on phonon Debye models. We apply the model to calculate the lifetime broadening of Cu(1 1 1) and Al(0 0 1) surface states. The obtained Eliashberg functions and lifetimes are in reasonable agreement with previous detailed studies.
  • Aaro Jonsson, Catherine, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Brain Injury. - Taylor & Francis. - 0269-9052. ; 23:13-14, s. 1008-1016
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To explore the cognitive long term outcome of two cohorts of patients neurosurgically treated for childhood traumatic brain injury (CTBI), either in 1987-1991 according to an older concept, or 1997-2001 with a stronger emphasis on volume targeted interventions. Research design and methods: Participants in the two cohorts were subject to an extensive neuropsychological assessment, 13.2 and 6.1 years post injury, respectively. In a between group design, assessment results of the two cohorts, n 18 and n 23, were compared to each other and to controls. Data were analyzed with multivariate analyses of variance. Results: Long-term cognitive deficits for both groups of similar magnitude and character were observed in both groups. Abilities were especially low regarding executive and memory function and verbal IQ. The cognitive results are discussed in terms of  vulnerability of verbal functions and decreased executive control over memory-functions. Conclusions: There is a definite need for long term follow up of cognitive deficits after neurosurgically treated CTBI, also with the newer neurosurgical concept. Verbal learning and the executive control over memory functions should be addressed with interventions aimed at restoration, coping and compensation.
  • Aaro Jonsson, Catherine, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropsychological progress during 14 years after severe traumatic brain injury in childhood and adolescence
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Brain Inj. - 0269-9052 (Print). ; 18:9, s. 921-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the impact of time since injury on  neuropsychological and psychosocial outcome after serious TBI in childhood or adolescence. Methods: The subjects were eight patients with serious TBI sustained at a mean age of 14 years who had been assessed neuropsychological at one, seven and 14 years after TBI. A retrospective longitudinal design was chosen to describe the development in six neuropsychological domains on basis of the assessments. Psychosocial data were gathered from clinical knowledge and a semi-structured interview at 14 years after TBI. Results: Performance of verbal IQ shows a declining trend over the three assessments, that the performance of attention and working memory is low and that verbal learning is the cognitive domain, which exhibits the largest impairments. The main psychosocial result is that three of the eight subjects go from a school situation with no adjustments to adult life with an early retirement. Conclusions: Time since insult is an important factor when assessing outcome after TBI in childhood and adolescence and that assessment of final outcome should not be done before adulthood.
  • Aars, M, et al. (författare)
  • A conceptual framework for curriculum design in physiotherapy education: an internationaöl perspective
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Advances in Physiotherapy. ; 5:4, s. 161-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Globalization is having a significant impact on healthcare and physiotherapy education, among other sectors, can benefit from this trend. The main aim of this work was to develop and describe a conceptual framework for physiotherapy curriculum design and, in doing so, to stimulate international debate on physiotherapy education. The framework was developed through an international collaboration and was tried out in the participating schools in order to refine it further. The current framework consists of three elements to be taken into account in physiotherapy curriculum design: (1) The content aspect or the knowledge base of physiotherapy; (2) the learning aspect or the student's learning process; and (3) the socio-cultural context aspect, which concerns the way in which physiotherapy is experienced and practised. The content aspect includes a description of core concepts of physiotherapy: body, movement and interaction, and acknowledges that physiotherapy should be science-based. The learning aspect and the socio-cultural context aspect form separate parts of the framework. Nonetheless, all aspects are intertwined and reflect theory-practice integration. This framework is offered for critical reflection and as the basis for a debate on the development and evaluation of physiotherapy programmes. Further work is needed in testing the relevance of this framework for curriculum design in different countries and settings. Keywords: Core knowledge; curriculum development; physiotherapy practice; professional issues; post-graduate education; socio-cultural context; student's learning; theory-practice integration; undergraduate education
  • Aasa, M, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal changes in TIMI myocardial perfusion grade in relation to epicardial flow, ST-resolution and left ventricular function after primary percutaneous coronary intervention
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Coron Artery Dis. - 0954-6928 (Print). ; 18:7, s. 513-518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion at the end of reperfusion therapy assessed angiographically with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) has been associated with recovery of left ventricular (LV) function and survival. The aim of this analysis was to study the evolution of TMPG within the first week following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and its association with ECG-derived ST-segment resolution (STRES) and recovery of LV function. METHODS: A total of 76 patients with acute myocardial infarction were pretreated with enoxaparine and abciximab and subjected to primary PCI within a prospective study and evaluated with TMPG assessed on coronary angiography at the end of the procedure and after 5-7 days. STRES was evaluated at 120 min post inclusion and global LV function was assessed by echocardiography after 30 days. RESULTS: Reperfusion (TIMI flow 2-3) was reached in all patients. Forty one percent had 'open myocardium' (i.e. TMPG 2 or 3) after PCI, a number that increased to 61% after 5-7 days (P=0.003). STRES >50% was reached in 73% of the patients and there was a good correlation between TMPG and STRES. Furthermore, those who improved from 'closed' to 'open myocardium' had higher STRES (and similar to those with 'open myocardium' already post-PCI) than those who had 'closed myocardium' at both occasions (80 vs. 52%, P=0.012). CONCLUSION: A significant increase was found in the number of patients with 'open myocardium' within the first week post-primary PCI and STRES seems to predict this improvement.
  • Aasheim, et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin status after bariatric surgery: a randomized study of gastric bypass and duodenal switch.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The American journal of clinical nutrition. - 1938-3207. ; 90:1, s. 15-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is widely performed to induce weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine changes in vitamin status after 2 bariatric surgical techniques. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 Scandinavian hospitals. The subjects were 60 superobese patients [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 50-60]. The surgical interventions were either laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. All patients received multivitamins, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements. Gastric bypass patients also received a vitamin B-12 substitute. The patients were examined before surgery and 6 wk, 6 mo, and 1 y after surgery. RESULTS: Of 60 surgically treated patients, 59 completed the follow-up. After surgery, duodenal switch patients had lower mean vitamin A and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and a steeper decline in thiamine concentrations than did the gastric bypass patients. Other vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and vitamin E adjusted for serum lipids) did not change differently in the surgical groups, and concentrations were either stable or increased. Furthermore, duodenal switch patients had lower hemoglobin and total cholesterol concentrations and a lower BMI (mean reduction: 41% compared with 30%) than did gastric bypass patients 1 y after surgery. Additional dietary supplement use was more frequent among duodenal switch patients (55%) than among gastric bypass patients (26%). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with gastric bypass, duodenal switch may be associated with a greater risk of vitamin A and D deficiencies in the first year after surgery and of thiamine deficiency in the initial months after surgery. Patients who undergo these 2 surgical interventions may require different monitoring and supplementation regimens in the first year after surgery. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00327912.
  • Abate, M, et al. (författare)
  • Pathogenesis of tendinopathies: inflammation or degeneration?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Arthritis research & therapy. - 1478-6362. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The intrinsic pathogenetic mechanisms of tendinopathies are largely unknown and whether inflammation or degeneration has the prominent role is still a matter of debate. Assuming that there is a continuum from physiology to pathology, overuse may be considered as the initial disease factor; in this context, microruptures of tendon fibers occur and several molecules are expressed, some of which promote the healing process, while others, including inflammatory cytokines, act as disease mediators. Neural in-growth that accompanies the neovessels explains the occurrence of pain and triggers neurogenic-mediated inflammation. It is conceivable that inflammation and degeneration are not mutually exclusive, but work together in the pathogenesis of tendinopathies.
  • Abbas, Abdul-Karim, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Persistent LTP without triggered protein synthesis.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience research. - 0168-0102. ; 63:1, s. 59-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Protein synthesis is believed to be involved in stabilizing synaptic plasticity. Effects lasting longer than about 2-3h are considered to require synthesis of new proteins, implying a functional separation between early (E) and late (L) components. However, the issue of constitutive vs. new protein synthesis is still unclear, especially in young animals. Here, we examined the effects of two protein synthesis inhibitors, anisomycin and emetine, on long-term-potentiation (LTP) in CA1 area of hippocampal slices from 12- to 20-day-old rats. Either drug was applied from -30 min to +30 min with respect to LTP induction, a time window previously reported to be critical. However, the LTP remained stable under the entire recording period of 4h (anisomycin), or 8h (emetine). Proper preparation of emetine solution was evidenced by the fact that, in separate experiments, prolonged treatment with emetine gradually blocked baseline responses. Although no corresponding effect was observed with anisomycin, the drug was judged to be potent by its ability to inhibit yeast growth. The ability of anisomycin to inhibit protein synthesis was further confirmed by radiolabeling experiments assessing the degree of leucine incorporation. Our data suggest that LTP up to at least 8h is not dependent on triggered protein synthesis but can be attained by utilizing proteins already available at induction time.
  • Abbas, Abdul-Karim, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • S-sulfo-cysteine is an endogenous amino acid in neonatal rat brain but an unlikely mediator of cysteine neurotoxicity.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neurochemical research. - 0364-3190. ; 33:2, s. 301-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • S-sulfo-cysteine (SSC) is an agonist of glutamate receptors which could be involved in cysteine-induced neurotoxicity. Here we analyzed SSC by HPLC and demonstrated that the concentration of SSC in cortex of cysteine-injected rats increased to 1.4 microM, about four times the value of control rats. The neurotoxic effect of SSC was evaluated in slice cultures of rat hippocampus and compared to NMDA and cysteine. The neurotoxicity threshold of SSC was well above the tissue concentration. Our results show that SSC increases in neonatal rat brain after cysteine injection but reaches a tissue concentration far below concentrations that induce neurotoxicity in vitro. Thus, even if all the tissue SSC after cysteine injection was extracellular it would be below the threshold for toxicity, indicating that SSC is not a main excitotoxin involved in cysteine toxicity.
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