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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Chalmers tekniska högskola

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  • A.O., Tillmar, et al. (författare)
  • Using X-chromosomal markers in relationship testing: : How to calculate likelihood ratios taking linkage and linkage disequilibrium into account
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International : Genetics. - Elsevier. - 1872-4973. ; 5:5, s. 506-511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • X-chromosomal markers in forensic genetics have become more widely used during the recent years, particularly for relationship testing. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) must typically be accounted for when using close X-chromosomal markers. Thus, when producing the weight-of-evidence, given by a DNA-analysis with markers that are linked, the normally used product rule is invalid. Here we present an efficient model for calculating likelihood ratio (LR) with markers on the X-chromosome which are linked and in LD. Furthermore, the model was applied on several cases based on data from the eight X-chromosomal loci included in the Mentype® Argus X-8 (Biotype). Using a simulation approach we showed that the use of X-chromosome data can offer valuable information for choosing between the alternatives in each of the cases we studied, and that the LR can be high in several cases. We demonstrated that when linkage and LD were disregarded, as opposed to taken into account, the difference in calculated LR could be considerable. When these differences were large, the estimated haplotype frequencies often had a strong impact and we present a method to estimate haplotype frequencies. Our conclusion is that linkage and LD should be accounted for when using the tested set of markers, and the presented model is an efficient way of doing so.
  • Aas, W., et al. (författare)
  • Lessons learnt from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 12:17, s. 8073-8094
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first EMEP intensive measurement periods were held in June 2006 and January 2007. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol chemical compositions, including the gas/aerosol partitioning of inorganic compounds. The measurement program during these periods included daily or hourly measurements of the secondary inorganic components, with additional measurements of elemental- and organic carbon (EC and OC) and mineral dust in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. These measurements have provided extended knowledge regarding the composition of particulate matter and the temporal and spatial variability of PM, as well as an extended database for the assessment of chemical transport models. This paper summarise the first experiences of making use of measurements from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods along with EMEP model results from the updated model version to characterise aerosol composition. We investigated how the PM chemical composition varies between the summer and the winter month and geographically. The observation and model data are in general agreement regarding the main features of PM10 and PM2.5 composition and the relative contribution of different components, though the EMEP model tends to give slightly lower estimates of PM10 and PM2.5 compared to measurements. The intensive measurement data has identified areas where improvements are needed. Hourly concurrent measurements of gaseous and particulate components for the first time facilitated testing of modelled diurnal variability of the gas/aerosol partitioning of nitrogen species. In general, the modelled diurnal cycles of nitrate and ammonium aerosols are in fair agreement with the measurements, but the diurnal variability of ammonia is not well captured. The largest differences between model and observations of aerosol mass are seen in Italy during winter, which to a large extent may be explained by an underestimation of residential wood burning sources. It should be noted that both primary and secondary OC has been included in the calculations for the first time, showing promising results. Mineral dust is important, especially in southern Europe, and the model seems to capture the dust episodes well. The lack of measurements of mineral dust hampers the possibility for model evaluation for this highly uncertain PM component. There are also lessons learnt regarding improved measurements for future intensive periods. There is a need for increased comparability between the measurements at different sites. For the nitrogen compounds it is clear that more measurements using artefact free methods based on continuous measurement methods and/or denuders are needed. For EC/OC, a reference methodology (both in field and laboratory) was lacking during these periods giving problems with comparability, though measurement protocols have recently been established and these should be followed by the Parties to the EMEP Protocol. For measurements with no defined protocols, it might be a good solution to use centralised laboratories to ensure comparability across the network. To cope with the introduction of these new measurements, new reporting guidelines have been developed to ensure that all proper information about the methodologies and data quality is given.
  • Abarenkov, Kessy, et al. (författare)
  • Annotating public fungal ITS sequences from the built environment according to the MIxS-Built Environment standard – a report from a May 23-24, 2016 workshop (Gothenburg, Sweden)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057. ; 16, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent molecular studies have identified substantial fungal diversity in indoor environments. Fungi and fungal particles have been linked to a range of potentially unwanted effects in the built environment, including asthma, decay of building materials, and food spoilage. The study of the built mycobiome is hampered by a number of constraints, one of which is the poor state of the metadata annotation of fungal DNA sequences from the built environment in public databases. In order to enable precise interrogation of such data - for example, "retrieve all fungal sequences recovered from bathrooms" - a workshop was organized at the University of Gothenburg (May 23-24, 2016) to annotate public fungal barcode (ITS) sequences according to the MIxS-Built Environment annotation standard (http:// gensc.org/ mixs/). The 36 participants assembled a total of 45,488 data points from the published literature, including the addition of 8,430 instances of countries of collection from a total of 83 countries, 5,801 instances of building types, and 3,876 instances of surface-air contaminants. The results were implemented in the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi (http://unite.ut.ee) and were shared with other online resources. Data obtained from human/animal pathogenic fungi will furthermore be verified on culture based metadata for subsequent inclusion in the ISHAM-ITS database (http:// its. mycologylab.org).
  • Abbas, Aamer, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization and mapping of carotenoids in the algae Dunaliella and Phaeodactylum using Raman and target orthogonal partial least squares.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems. - 0169-7439. ; 107:1, s. 174-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A method was developed for the characterisation of carotenoid pigments in algal species using Raman spectroscopy in combination with multivariate hyperspectral analysis. Target orthogonal partial least squares (T-OPLS) operates by designating one known reference spectrum as the target. The target spectrum is put as the single y column in an OPLS regression model where the X matrix consists of the unfolded image spectra as variables in its columns. The spectral shape of the OPLS first orthogonal target score enabled us to verify the peak positions of the standard, and detect new peaks, not present in the reference standard. It was shown that the mixture of carotenoids present in the algae did not fully match the reference spectrum, however, the method provided enough information to make an analysis possible also in this case. The image results were constructed from the OPLS loading vectors that were showing a correlation map for the reference spectrum from the predictive loadings and maps of the occurrence of deviations from the orthogonal loadings.
  • Abdulwahhab, Sinan, 1991-, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Local Open Source Communities in the Development of Open Source Projects
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Open Source Systems: Integrating Communities, Oss 2016. - 1868-4238. - 978-3-319-39225-7 ; 472, s. 3
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper investigates the position of local open source communities (LOSCs) in the development of open source projects (OSPs). We have conducted an empirical study to examine the role of LOSCs, their way of working, and the benefits/challenges they experience compared to the overall global community. The qualitative investigation consisted of ten semi-structured interviews with members within different LOSCs. The results confirm the importance of LOSCs and the pivotal role they play in the development of OSPs. In many cases, they act as the middleman between individual members and the project's global community. However, LOSCs have their own kinds of challenges.
  • Abel, Andreas, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • A formalized proof of strong normalization for guarded recursive types
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: 12th Asian Symposium on Programming Languages and Systems, APLAS 2014 Singapore, 17-19 November 2014. - 0302-9743. - 978-3-319-12735-4 ; 8858, s. 140-158
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We consider a simplified version of Nakano’s guarded fixed-point types in a representation by infinite type expressions, defined coinductively. Smallstep reduction is parametrized by a natural number “depth” that expresses under how many guards we may step during evaluation. We prove that reduction is strongly normalizing for any depth. The proof involves a typed inductive notion of strong normalization and a Kripke model of types in two dimensions: depth and typing context. Our results have been formalized in Agda and serve as a case study of reasoning about a language with coinductive type expressions.
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