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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Chalmers tekniska högskola

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  • A.O., Tillmar, et al. (författare)
  • Using X-chromosomal markers in relationship testing: : How to calculate likelihood ratios taking linkage and linkage disequilibrium into account
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International : Genetics. - Elsevier. - 1872-4973. ; 5:5, s. 506-511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • X-chromosomal markers in forensic genetics have become more widely used during the recent years, particularly for relationship testing. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) must typically be accounted for when using close X-chromosomal markers. Thus, when producing the weight-of-evidence, given by a DNA-analysis with markers that are linked, the normally used product rule is invalid. Here we present an efficient model for calculating likelihood ratio (LR) with markers on the X-chromosome which are linked and in LD. Furthermore, the model was applied on several cases based on data from the eight X-chromosomal loci included in the Mentype® Argus X-8 (Biotype). Using a simulation approach we showed that the use of X-chromosome data can offer valuable information for choosing between the alternatives in each of the cases we studied, and that the LR can be high in several cases. We demonstrated that when linkage and LD were disregarded, as opposed to taken into account, the difference in calculated LR could be considerable. When these differences were large, the estimated haplotype frequencies often had a strong impact and we present a method to estimate haplotype frequencies. Our conclusion is that linkage and LD should be accounted for when using the tested set of markers, and the presented model is an efficient way of doing so.
  • Aas, W., et al. (författare)
  • Lessons learnt from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 12:17, s. 8073-8094
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first EMEP intensive measurement periods were held in June 2006 and January 2007. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol chemical compositions, including the gas/aerosol partitioning of inorganic compounds. The measurement program during these periods included daily or hourly measurements of the secondary inorganic components, with additional measurements of elemental- and organic carbon (EC and OC) and mineral dust in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. These measurements have provided extended knowledge regarding the composition of particulate matter and the temporal and spatial variability of PM, as well as an extended database for the assessment of chemical transport models. This paper summarise the first experiences of making use of measurements from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods along with EMEP model results from the updated model version to characterise aerosol composition. We investigated how the PM chemical composition varies between the summer and the winter month and geographically. The observation and model data are in general agreement regarding the main features of PM10 and PM2.5 composition and the relative contribution of different components, though the EMEP model tends to give slightly lower estimates of PM10 and PM2.5 compared to measurements. The intensive measurement data has identified areas where improvements are needed. Hourly concurrent measurements of gaseous and particulate components for the first time facilitated testing of modelled diurnal variability of the gas/aerosol partitioning of nitrogen species. In general, the modelled diurnal cycles of nitrate and ammonium aerosols are in fair agreement with the measurements, but the diurnal variability of ammonia is not well captured. The largest differences between model and observations of aerosol mass are seen in Italy during winter, which to a large extent may be explained by an underestimation of residential wood burning sources. It should be noted that both primary and secondary OC has been included in the calculations for the first time, showing promising results. Mineral dust is important, especially in southern Europe, and the model seems to capture the dust episodes well. The lack of measurements of mineral dust hampers the possibility for model evaluation for this highly uncertain PM component. There are also lessons learnt regarding improved measurements for future intensive periods. There is a need for increased comparability between the measurements at different sites. For the nitrogen compounds it is clear that more measurements using artefact free methods based on continuous measurement methods and/or denuders are needed. For EC/OC, a reference methodology (both in field and laboratory) was lacking during these periods giving problems with comparability, though measurement protocols have recently been established and these should be followed by the Parties to the EMEP Protocol. For measurements with no defined protocols, it might be a good solution to use centralised laboratories to ensure comparability across the network. To cope with the introduction of these new measurements, new reporting guidelines have been developed to ensure that all proper information about the methodologies and data quality is given.
  • Abbas, Aamer, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization and mapping of carotenoids in the algae Dunaliella and Phaeodactylum using Raman and target orthogonal partial least squares.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems. - 0169-7439. ; 107:1, s. 174-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A method was developed for the characterisation of carotenoid pigments in algal species using Raman spectroscopy in combination with multivariate hyperspectral analysis. Target orthogonal partial least squares (T-OPLS) operates by designating one known reference spectrum as the target. The target spectrum is put as the single y column in an OPLS regression model where the X matrix consists of the unfolded image spectra as variables in its columns. The spectral shape of the OPLS first orthogonal target score enabled us to verify the peak positions of the standard, and detect new peaks, not present in the reference standard. It was shown that the mixture of carotenoids present in the algae did not fully match the reference spectrum, however, the method provided enough information to make an analysis possible also in this case. The image results were constructed from the OPLS loading vectors that were showing a correlation map for the reference spectrum from the predictive loadings and maps of the occurrence of deviations from the orthogonal loadings.
  • Abbas, Aamer, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Chemical images of marine bio-active compounds by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and transposed orthogonal partial least squares (T-OPLS)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Analytica Chimica Acta. - 0003-2670. ; 737, s. 37-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with transposed Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (T-OPLS) was shown to produce chemical images of the natural antibacterial surface-active compound 1,1,3,3-tetrabromo-2-heptanone (TBH) on Bonnemaisonia hamifera. The use of gold colloids function-alised with the internal standard 4-mercapto-benzonitrile (MBN) made it possible to create images of the relative concentration of TBH over the surfaces. A gradient of TBH could be mapped over and in the close vicinity of the B. hamifera algal vesicles at the attomol/pixel level. T-OPLS produced a measure of the spectral correlation for each pixel of the hyperspectral images whilst not including spectral variation that was linearly independent of the target spectrum. In this paper we show the possibility to retrieve specific spectral information with a low magnitude in a complex matrix.
  • Abel, Andreas, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • A formalized proof of strong normalization for guarded recursive types
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: 12th Asian Symposium on Programming Languages and Systems, APLAS 2014 Singapore, 17-19 November 2014. - 0302-9743. - 978-3-319-12735-4 ; 8858, s. 140-158
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We consider a simplified version of Nakano’s guarded fixed-point types in a representation by infinite type expressions, defined coinductively. Smallstep reduction is parametrized by a natural number “depth” that expresses under how many guards we may step during evaluation. We prove that reduction is strongly normalizing for any depth. The proof involves a typed inductive notion of strong normalization and a Kripke model of types in two dimensions: depth and typing context. Our results have been formalized in Agda and serve as a case study of reasoning about a language with coinductive type expressions.
  • Abel, Andreas, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Normalization by Evaluation for Martin-Löf Type Theory with Equality Judgements
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of 22nd IEEE Annual Symposium on Logic in ComputerScience, Wroclaw, Poland, July 2007.. ; s. 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The decidability of equality is proved for Martin-Löf type theory with a universe a la Russell and typed beta-eta-equality judgements. A corollary of this result is that the constructor for dependent function types is injective, a property which is crucial for establishing the correctness of the type-checking algorithm. The decision procedure uses normalization by evaluation, an algorithm which first interprets terms in a domain with untyped semantic elements and then extracts normal forms. The correctness of this algorithm is established using a PER-model and a logical relation between syntax and semantics.
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