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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Göteborgs universitet > Waern Margda 1955 > Engelska

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  • Andersson, Christina, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Drinking context and problematic alcohol consumption in young Swedish women
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Addiction Research and Theory. - 1606-6359. ; 21:6, s. 457-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has indicated that a variety of contextual factors are involved in the development of drinking behavior. An integrated perspective can extend our understanding of the context and circumstances in which individuals drink. In this study, a person-oriented approach, cluster analysis, was used to identify drinking context clusters in a population of 20- and 25-year-old Swedish women. A further aim was to analyze how these clusters were associated with problematic alcohol consumption (high episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol use disorder (AUD)). A total of 760 respondents were interviewed, some in 1996 and some in 2001. Self-reported effects of drinking and situational factors associated with drinking alcohol were used in the cluster analysis procedure. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations with problematic alcohol consumption. The results revealed four distinct clusters of drinking patterns: coping drinkers, social drinkers, controlled drinkers, and moderate drinkers. Differences between clusters concerning problematic alcohol consumption were found. HED was significantly more common among the social drinkers and alcohol use disorder was more prevalent among the coping drinkers. Age differences and to a lesser extent secular trends in drinking pattern could be observed. The findings suggest that information on drinking context can help to explain differences in patterns of risky drinking and AUD. This highlights the importance of identifying groups of individuals with potentially harmful drinking patterns, which could be the target of specific preventive actions.
  • Andersson Sundell, Karolina, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Socio-economic determinants of early discontinuation of anti-depressant treatment in young adults.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European journal of public health. - 1464-360X. ; 23:3, s. 433-440
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Early discontinuation of anti-depressant treatment is common. This study analysed whether socio-economic factors influence early discontinuation among new anti-depressant users aged 20-34 years. METHODS: Our study population included all Swedes aged 20-34 years who purchased anti-depressants in 2006 and had not purchased such drugs in the preceding 6 months (n = 25 003). We obtained prescription data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Information about demographic and socio-economic factors (country of birth, marital status, household size, education level, occupation, income and social assistance) was collected from Statistics Sweden by record linkage. We defined early discontinuation as filling only one anti-depressant prescription within a 6-month period. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to analyse the socio-economic factors associated with early discontinuation. RESULTS: We identified 6536 individuals (26.1%) as early discontinuers. Early discontinuation was less common among women [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.75-0.87] and in those with at least two years of higher education (OR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.83), whereas it was more common among those born outside Sweden (OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.48-2.10) and those who received social assistance (OR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.11-1.44). Compared with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, SSRI, early discontinuation was more common among individuals who started treatment with a tri-cyclic anti-depressant, TCA, (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 2.24-2.98) or an anti-depressant other than SSRIs, TCAs or selective serotonin-norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors/norepinephrine (noradrenaline) re-uptake inhibitors (OR = 2.90; 95% CI 2.05-4.10). CONCLUSION: Early discontinuation occurred more commonly among social assistance recipients and those with immigrant background, suggesting that those groups might require greater support when initiating anti-depressant therapy.
  • Beckman, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Secular trends in self reported sexual activity and satisfaction in Swedish 70 year olds: cross sectional survey of four populations, 1971-2001.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 1468-5833. ; 337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study secular trends in self reported sexual behaviour among 70 year olds. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. Settings Four samples representative of the general population in Gothenburg, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1506 adults (946 women, 560 men) examined in 1971-2, 1976-7, 1992-3, and 2000-1. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual intercourse, attitudes to sexuality in later life, sexual dysfunctions, and marital satisfaction. RESULTS: From 1971 to 2000 the proportion of 70 year olds reporting sexual intercourse increased among all groups: married men from 52% to 68% (P=0.002), married women from 38% to 56% (P=0.001), unmarried men from 30% to 54% (P=0.016), and unmarried women from 0.8% to 12% (P<0.001). Men and women from later birth cohorts reported higher satisfaction with sexuality, fewer sexual dysfunctions, and more positive attitudes to sexuality in later life than those from earlier birth cohorts. A larger proportion of men (57% v 40%, P<0.001) and women (52% v 35%, P<0.001) reported very happy relationships in 2000-1 compared with those in 1971-2. Sexual debut before age 20 increased in both sexes: in men from 52% to 77% (P<0.001) and in women from 19% to 64% (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Self reported quantity and quality of sexual experiences among Swedish 70 year olds has improved over a 30 year period.
  • Bergh, Ingrid, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Pain and its relation to cognitive function and depressive symptoms: a Swedish population study of 70-year-old men and women.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of pain and symptom management. - 0885-3924. ; 26:4, s. 903
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pain and its characteristics, and to examine the association of pain with cognitive function and depressive symptoms, in a representative sample of 70-year-old men and women. Data were collected within the gerontological and geriatric population studies in Göteborg, Sweden (H-70). A sample of 124 men and 117 women living in the community took part in the study. A questionnaire was applied which included four different aspects of pain experience: prevalence, frequency of episodes of pain, duration and number of locations. In close connection to this, depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The prevalence of pain during the last 14 days was higher in women (79%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />91) than in men (53%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />65) (P&lt;0.001). Women (68%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />78) also reported pain that had lasted for &gt;6 months to a greater extent than men (38%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />46) (P&lt;0.001). The frequency of episodes of pain was also higher among women, 64% (n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />74) reporting daily pain or pain several days during the last 14 days while 37% of the men (n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />45) did so (P&lt;0.001). Women (33%, n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />38) also reported pain experience from ?3 locations more often than men (11%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />13) (P&lt;0.001). On the other hand, the association between depressive symptoms and pain experience was more evident in men than in women. Women were taking significantly more antidepressants compared to men (P&lt;0.03). The results show that pain is common in 70-year-old people and especially in women. However, associations between depressive symptoms and the four aspects of pain experience were more pronounced among men
  • Bertilsson, Monica, et al. (författare)
  • Capacity to work while depressed and anxious - a phenomenological study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Disability and rehabilitation. - 1464-5165. ; 35:20, s. 1705-1711
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The aim was to explore experiences of capacity to work in persons working while depressed and anxious in order to identify the essence of the phenomenon capacity to work. Method: Four focus groups were conducted with 17 participants employed within the regular job market. Illness experiences ranged from symptoms to clinical diagnoses. A phenomenological approach was employed. Results: The phenomenon of capacity to work was distinguished by nine constituents related to task, time, context and social interactions. The phenomenon encompassed a lost familiarity with one’s ordinary work performance, the use of a working facade and adoption of new time-consuming work practices. Feelings of exposure in interpersonal encounters, disruption of work place order, lost “refueling” and a trade-off of between work capacity and leisure-time activities was also identified. The reduced capacity was pointed out as invisible, this invisibility was considered troublesome. Conclusions: A complex and comprehensive concept emerged, not earlier described in work capacity studies. Rehabilitation processes would benefit from deeper knowledge of the individual’s capacity to work in order to make efficient adjustments at work. Results can have particular relevance both in clinical and occupational health practice, as well as in the workplaces, in supporting re-entering workers after sickness absence.Implications for RehabilitationThe reduced capacity to work due to depression and anxiety is not always understandable or observable for others, therefore, the rehabilitation process would benefit from increased knowledge and understanding of the difficulties afflicted individuals experience at work.Identifying tasks that contribute to “refueling” at work might enhance the success of the rehabilitation.Rehabilitation programs could be tailored to better address the inabilities that impact on the capacity to work when depressed and anxious.
  • Billstedt, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • A 37-year prospective study of neuroticism and extraversion in women followed from mid-life to late life.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 1600-0447. ; 129:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Personality traits are presumed to endure over time, but the literature regarding older age is sparse. Furthermore, interpretation may be hampered by the presence of dementia-related personality changes. The aim was to study stability in neuroticism and extraversion in a population sample of women who were followed from mid-life to late life.Method: A population-based sample of women born in 1918, 1922 or 1930 was examined with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) in 1968-1969. EPI was assessed after 37years in 2005-2006 (n=153). Data from an interim examination after 24years were analysed for the subsample born in 1918 and 1922 (n=75). Women who developed dementia at follow-up examinations were excluded from the analyses.Results: Mean levels of neuroticism and extraversion were stable at both follow-ups. Rank-order and linear correlations between baseline and 37-year follow-up were moderate ranging between 0.49 and 0.69. Individual changes were observed, and only 25% of the variance in personality traits in 2005-2006 could be explained by traits in 1968-1969.Conclusion: Personality is stable at the population level, but there is significant individual variability. These changes could not be attributed to dementia. Research is needed to examine determinants of these changes, as well as their clinical implications.
  • Billstedt, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Secular changes in personality: study on 75-year-olds examined in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. - 0885-6230. ; 28:3, s. 298-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In order to study secular changes in personality factors neuroticism and extroversion, representative population samples of non-demented 75-year-olds underwent psychiatric examinations in 1976-1977 (total n?=?223, 138 women, 85 men) and 2005-2006 (total n?=?556, 322 women and 234 men). METHODS: Eysenck Personality Inventory was used at both occasions. Demographic factors (educational level, marital status, having children) were registered. RESULTS: Seventy-five-year-olds examined in 2005-2006 had higher values on extroversion and lower values on the Lie scale compared with those examined in 1976-1977. Neuroticism did not differ between the two birth cohorts. Neuroticism scores were higher in women than in men both in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006, and Lie score was higher in women than in men in 2005-2006. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that present cohorts of 75-year-olds are more extroverted and less prone to respond in a socially desirable manner than those born three decades earlier. Neuroticism levels remained unchanged, suggesting this trait may be less influenced by environmental factors than the other traits studied.
  • Bjerke, Maria, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 3 is Related to Dementia Development in a Population-Based Sample of Older Adult Women Followed for 8 Years.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - 1875-8908. ; Epub ahead of print
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Increased fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP-3) levels have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) FABP-3 has therefore been proposed as a putative marker for dementia. Population-based studies examining whether CSF FABP-3 predicts later development of dementia are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine CSF levels of FABP-3 in relation to later development of dementia in elderly women and in relation to Aβ42, T-tau, P-tau181, and CSF: serum albumin ratio. METHODS: 86 non-demented women aged 70-84 years who participated in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden took part in a lumbar puncture in 1992-93. CSF-FABP-3, Aβ42, T-tau, P-tau181, and the CSF: serum albumin ratio were measured at baseline. Participants were examined with a neuropsychiatric exam at baseline and at follow-up in 2000. Dementia was diagnosed in accordance with DSM-III-R criteria. RESULTS: Between 1992 and 2000, 8 women developed dementia (4 AD, 3 vascular dementia, 1 mixed vascular dementia and AD). Higher levels of CSF-FABP-3 at baseline were related to development of dementia (OR 1.36 CI [1.05-1.76] p = 0.022) and the subtype AD (OR 1.38 CI [1.06-1.82), p = 0.019) during follow-up. FABP-3 correlated with CSF T-tau (r = 0.88, p <  0.001), P-tau181 (r = 0.619, p <  0.001), and CSF:serum albumin ratio (r = 0.233, p = 0.031), but not with Aβ42 (r = -0.08, p = 0.444)Conclusion: CSF FABP-3 may be an early marker for later development of dementia, probably related to neuronal degeneration, but independent of Aβ metabolism.
  • Brain, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Drug attitude and other predictors of medication adherence in schizophrenia: 12 months of electronic monitoring (MEMS(®)) in the Swedish COAST-study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. - 1873-7862. ; 23:12, s. 1754-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to investigate clinical predictors of adherence to antipsychotics. Medication use was electronically monitored with a Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS (R)) for 12 months in 112 outpatients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis according to DSM-IV. Symptom burden, insight, psychosocial function (PSP) and side effects were rated at baseline. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered and a global composite score was calculated. The Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10) was filled in. A slightly modified DAI-10 version for informants was distributed as a postal questionnaire. Nonadherence (MEMS (R) adherence &lt;= 0.80) was observed in 27%. In univariate regression models low scores on DAI-10 and DAI-10 informant, higher positive symptom burden, poor function, psychiatric side effects and lack of insight predicted non-adherence. No association was observed with global cognitive function. In multivariate regression models, low patient-rated DAI-10 and PSP scores emerged as predictors of non-adherence. A ROC analysis showed that DAI-10 had a moderate ability to correctly identify non-adherent patients (AUC=0.73, p&lt;0.001). At the most "optimal" cut-off of 4, one-third of the adherent would falsely be. identified as non-adherent. A somewhat larger AUC (0.78, p&lt;0.001) was observed when the ROC procedure was applied to the final regression model including DAI-10 and PSP. For the subgroup with informant data, the AUC for the DAI-10 informant version was 0.68 (p=0.021). Non-adherence cannot be properly predicted in the clinical setting on the basis of these instruments alone. The DAI-10 informant questionnaire needs further testing.
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