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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Göteborgs universitet > Waern Margda 1955 > Engelska

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  • Andersson, Christina, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Drinking context and problematic alcohol consumption in young Swedish women
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Addiction Research and Theory. - 1606-6359. ; 21:6, s. 457-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has indicated that a variety of contextual factors are involved in the development of drinking behavior. An integrated perspective can extend our understanding of the context and circumstances in which individuals drink. In this study, a person-oriented approach, cluster analysis, was used to identify drinking context clusters in a population of 20- and 25-year-old Swedish women. A further aim was to analyze how these clusters were associated with problematic alcohol consumption (high episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol use disorder (AUD)). A total of 760 respondents were interviewed, some in 1996 and some in 2001. Self-reported effects of drinking and situational factors associated with drinking alcohol were used in the cluster analysis procedure. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations with problematic alcohol consumption. The results revealed four distinct clusters of drinking patterns: coping drinkers, social drinkers, controlled drinkers, and moderate drinkers. Differences between clusters concerning problematic alcohol consumption were found. HED was significantly more common among the social drinkers and alcohol use disorder was more prevalent among the coping drinkers. Age differences and to a lesser extent secular trends in drinking pattern could be observed. The findings suggest that information on drinking context can help to explain differences in patterns of risky drinking and AUD. This highlights the importance of identifying groups of individuals with potentially harmful drinking patterns, which could be the target of specific preventive actions.
  • Beckman, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Secular trends in self reported sexual activity and satisfaction in Swedish 70 year olds: cross sectional survey of four populations, 1971-2001.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 1468-5833. ; 337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study secular trends in self reported sexual behaviour among 70 year olds. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. Settings Four samples representative of the general population in Gothenburg, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1506 adults (946 women, 560 men) examined in 1971-2, 1976-7, 1992-3, and 2000-1. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual intercourse, attitudes to sexuality in later life, sexual dysfunctions, and marital satisfaction. RESULTS: From 1971 to 2000 the proportion of 70 year olds reporting sexual intercourse increased among all groups: married men from 52% to 68% (P=0.002), married women from 38% to 56% (P=0.001), unmarried men from 30% to 54% (P=0.016), and unmarried women from 0.8% to 12% (P<0.001). Men and women from later birth cohorts reported higher satisfaction with sexuality, fewer sexual dysfunctions, and more positive attitudes to sexuality in later life than those from earlier birth cohorts. A larger proportion of men (57% v 40%, P<0.001) and women (52% v 35%, P<0.001) reported very happy relationships in 2000-1 compared with those in 1971-2. Sexual debut before age 20 increased in both sexes: in men from 52% to 77% (P<0.001) and in women from 19% to 64% (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Self reported quantity and quality of sexual experiences among Swedish 70 year olds has improved over a 30 year period.
  • Bergh, Ingrid, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Pain and its relation to cognitive function and depressive symptoms: a Swedish population study of 70-year-old men and women.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of pain and symptom management. - 0885-3924. ; 26:4, s. 903
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pain and its characteristics, and to examine the association of pain with cognitive function and depressive symptoms, in a representative sample of 70-year-old men and women. Data were collected within the gerontological and geriatric population studies in Göteborg, Sweden (H-70). A sample of 124 men and 117 women living in the community took part in the study. A questionnaire was applied which included four different aspects of pain experience: prevalence, frequency of episodes of pain, duration and number of locations. In close connection to this, depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The prevalence of pain during the last 14 days was higher in women (79%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />91) than in men (53%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />65) (P&lt;0.001). Women (68%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />78) also reported pain that had lasted for &gt;6 months to a greater extent than men (38%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />46) (P&lt;0.001). The frequency of episodes of pain was also higher among women, 64% (n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />74) reporting daily pain or pain several days during the last 14 days while 37% of the men (n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />45) did so (P&lt;0.001). Women (33%, n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />38) also reported pain experience from ≥3 locations more often than men (11%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />13) (P&lt;0.001). On the other hand, the association between depressive symptoms and pain experience was more evident in men than in women. Women were taking significantly more antidepressants compared to men (P&lt;0.03). The results show that pain is common in 70-year-old people and especially in women. However, associations between depressive symptoms and the four aspects of pain experience were more pronounced among men
  • Billstedt, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • A 37-year prospective study of neuroticism and extraversion in women followed from mid-life to late life.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 1600-0447. ; 129:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Personality traits are presumed to endure over time, but the literature regarding older age is sparse. Furthermore, interpretation may be hampered by the presence of dementia-related personality changes. The aim was to study stability in neuroticism and extraversion in a population sample of women who were followed from mid-life to late life.Method: A population-based sample of women born in 1918, 1922 or 1930 was examined with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) in 1968-1969. EPI was assessed after 37years in 2005-2006 (n=153). Data from an interim examination after 24years were analysed for the subsample born in 1918 and 1922 (n=75). Women who developed dementia at follow-up examinations were excluded from the analyses.Results: Mean levels of neuroticism and extraversion were stable at both follow-ups. Rank-order and linear correlations between baseline and 37-year follow-up were moderate ranging between 0.49 and 0.69. Individual changes were observed, and only 25% of the variance in personality traits in 2005-2006 could be explained by traits in 1968-1969.Conclusion: Personality is stable at the population level, but there is significant individual variability. These changes could not be attributed to dementia. Research is needed to examine determinants of these changes, as well as their clinical implications.
  • Billstedt, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Secular changes in personality: study on 75-year-olds examined in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. - 0885-6230. ; 28:3, s. 298-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In order to study secular changes in personality factors neuroticism and extroversion, representative population samples of non-demented 75-year-olds underwent psychiatric examinations in 1976-1977 (total n = 223, 138 women, 85 men) and 2005-2006 (total n = 556, 322 women and 234 men). METHODS: Eysenck Personality Inventory was used at both occasions. Demographic factors (educational level, marital status, having children) were registered. RESULTS: Seventy-five-year-olds examined in 2005-2006 had higher values on extroversion and lower values on the Lie scale compared with those examined in 1976-1977. Neuroticism did not differ between the two birth cohorts. Neuroticism scores were higher in women than in men both in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006, and Lie score was higher in women than in men in 2005-2006. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that present cohorts of 75-year-olds are more extroverted and less prone to respond in a socially desirable manner than those born three decades earlier. Neuroticism levels remained unchanged, suggesting this trait may be less influenced by environmental factors than the other traits studied.
  • Börjesson-Hanson, Anne, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • One-Month Prevalence of Mental Disorders in a Population Sample of 95-Year Olds.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. - 1545-7214. ; 19:3, s. 284-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:: To determine the 1-month prevalence of mental disorders among 95-year olds. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional population sample of 95-year olds. SETTING:: All 95-year olds born in the period 1901-1903 living in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited. Elderly living in both community settings and nursing homes were included. PARTICIPANTS:: In total, 338 95-year olds (response rate: 65%) were examined (263 women, 75 men). MEASUREMENTS:: All participants were examined by psychiatrists using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale and cognitive tests. Mental disorders were classified according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised criteria. RESULTS:: Two-third of all 95-year olds had a mental disorder. In the total sample of 95-year olds, the 1-month prevalence was 52% for dementia, 8% for depression, 4% for anxiety, and 3% for psychotic disorders. Almost one-third (29%) of the nondemented 95-year olds fulfilled criteria for a psychiatric disorder: 17% had depression, 9% anxiety, and 7% psychotic disorder. CONCLUSIONS:: The combined prevalence of mental disorders was high among 95-year olds, even after excluding dementia. These findings emphasize the importance of research, care, and detection of psychiatric problems in this age group.
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