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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Göteborgs universitet > Waern Margda 1955 > Engelska

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1.
  • Andersson, Christina, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Drinking context and problematic alcohol consumption in young Swedish women
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Addiction Research and Theory. - 1606-6359. ; 21:6, s. 457-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has indicated that a variety of contextual factors are involved in the development of drinking behavior. An integrated perspective can extend our understanding of the context and circumstances in which individuals drink. In this study, a person-oriented approach, cluster analysis, was used to identify drinking context clusters in a population of 20- and 25-year-old Swedish women. A further aim was to analyze how these clusters were associated with problematic alcohol consumption (high episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol use disorder (AUD)). A total of 760 respondents were interviewed, some in 1996 and some in 2001. Self-reported effects of drinking and situational factors associated with drinking alcohol were used in the cluster analysis procedure. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations with problematic alcohol consumption. The results revealed four distinct clusters of drinking patterns: coping drinkers, social drinkers, controlled drinkers, and moderate drinkers. Differences between clusters concerning problematic alcohol consumption were found. HED was significantly more common among the social drinkers and alcohol use disorder was more prevalent among the coping drinkers. Age differences and to a lesser extent secular trends in drinking pattern could be observed. The findings suggest that information on drinking context can help to explain differences in patterns of risky drinking and AUD. This highlights the importance of identifying groups of individuals with potentially harmful drinking patterns, which could be the target of specific preventive actions.
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3.
  • André, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Personality in women and associations with mortality:
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Women's Health. - 1472-6874. ; 14:61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The question of whether personality traits influence health has long been a focus for research and discussion. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine possible associations between personality traits and mortality in women. Methods: A population-based sample of women aged 38, 46, 50 and 54 years at initial examination in 1968-69 was followed over the course of 40 years. At baseline, 589 women completed the Cesarec-Marke Personality Schedule (the Swedish version of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Associations between personality traits and mortality were tested using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: No linear associations between personality traits or factor indices and mortality were found. When comparing the lowest (Q1) and highest quartile (Q4) against the two middle quartiles (Q2 + Q3), the personality trait Succorance Q1 versus Q2 + Q3 showed hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37 (confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.74), and for the factor index Aggressive non-conformance, both the lowest and highest quartiles had a significantly higher risk of death compared to Q2 + Q3: for Q1 HR = 1.32 (CI = 1.03-1.68) and for Q4 HR = 1.36 (CI = 1.06-1.77). Neither Neuroticism nor Extraversion predicted total mortality. Conclusions: Personality traits did not influence long term mortality in this population sample of women followed for 40 years from mid- to late life. One explanation may be that personality in women becomes more circumscribed due to the social constraints generated by the role of women in society.
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5.
  • Beckman, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Secular trends in self reported sexual activity and satisfaction in Swedish 70 year olds: cross sectional survey of four populations, 1971-2001.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 1468-5833. ; 337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study secular trends in self reported sexual behaviour among 70 year olds. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. Settings Four samples representative of the general population in Gothenburg, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1506 adults (946 women, 560 men) examined in 1971-2, 1976-7, 1992-3, and 2000-1. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual intercourse, attitudes to sexuality in later life, sexual dysfunctions, and marital satisfaction. RESULTS: From 1971 to 2000 the proportion of 70 year olds reporting sexual intercourse increased among all groups: married men from 52% to 68% (P=0.002), married women from 38% to 56% (P=0.001), unmarried men from 30% to 54% (P=0.016), and unmarried women from 0.8% to 12% (P<0.001). Men and women from later birth cohorts reported higher satisfaction with sexuality, fewer sexual dysfunctions, and more positive attitudes to sexuality in later life than those from earlier birth cohorts. A larger proportion of men (57% v 40%, P<0.001) and women (52% v 35%, P<0.001) reported very happy relationships in 2000-1 compared with those in 1971-2. Sexual debut before age 20 increased in both sexes: in men from 52% to 77% (P<0.001) and in women from 19% to 64% (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Self reported quantity and quality of sexual experiences among Swedish 70 year olds has improved over a 30 year period.
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6.
  • Bergh, Ingrid, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Pain and its relation to cognitive function and depressive symptoms: a Swedish population study of 70-year-old men and women.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of pain and symptom management. - 0885-3924. ; 26:4, s. 903
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pain and its characteristics, and to examine the association of pain with cognitive function and depressive symptoms, in a representative sample of 70-year-old men and women. Data were collected within the gerontological and geriatric population studies in Göteborg, Sweden (H-70). A sample of 124 men and 117 women living in the community took part in the study. A questionnaire was applied which included four different aspects of pain experience: prevalence, frequency of episodes of pain, duration and number of locations. In close connection to this, depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The prevalence of pain during the last 14 days was higher in women (79%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />91) than in men (53%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />65) (P&lt;0.001). Women (68%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />78) also reported pain that had lasted for &gt;6 months to a greater extent than men (38%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />46) (P&lt;0.001). The frequency of episodes of pain was also higher among women, 64% (n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />74) reporting daily pain or pain several days during the last 14 days while 37% of the men (n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />45) did so (P&lt;0.001). Women (33%, n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />38) also reported pain experience from ≥3 locations more often than men (11%; n<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />=<img src="http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/webfiles/images/transparent.gif" />13) (P&lt;0.001). On the other hand, the association between depressive symptoms and pain experience was more evident in men than in women. Women were taking significantly more antidepressants compared to men (P&lt;0.03). The results show that pain is common in 70-year-old people and especially in women. However, associations between depressive symptoms and the four aspects of pain experience were more pronounced among men
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8.
  • Bertilsson, Monica, et al. (författare)
  • A Prospective Study on Self-Assessed Mental Well-Being and Work Capacity as Determinants of All-Cause Sickness Absence
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of occupational rehabilitation. - 1053-0487. ; early on-line
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Purpose The aim of the present study was to estimate whether self-assessed mental well-being and work capacity determines future sickness absence. Methods A questionnaire was sent to employed individuals (n=6140), aged 19–64 years, who were registered as sick-listed with a new sick-leave spell in 2008. The response rate was 54%. In this study we included individuals with a single sick-leave spell in 2008 (n=2502). The WHO (Ten) Well-Being Index and four dimensions of self-assessed work capacity (knowledge, mental, collaborative, physical) were used as determinants. Future sickness absence was identified through national register in 2009. Outcome was defined as no sickness benefit compensated days (no SBCD) and at least one sickness benefit compensated day (SBCD). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of SBCD. Results In 2009, 28% of the women and 22% of the men had SBCD; the median was 59 and 66 benefit days, respectively. Individuals with low mental well-being had higher odds for SBCD with OR 1.29 (95% CI 1.01–1.65) in the fully adjusted model. Participants reporting low work capacity in relation to knowledge (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13–2.13), collaborative (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03–1.79) and physical (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.22–1.86) demands at work had higher odds for SBCD after adjustments for all covariates; no relation was demonstrated with mental work capacity (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76–1.27). Conclusion Mental well-being and work capacity emerged as determinants of future SA. Screening in health care could facilitate early identification of persons in need of interventions to prevent future SA. Keywords Mental well-being, Self-assessed work capacity, Sickness absence, Insurance medicine
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9.
  • Bertilsson, Monica, et al. (författare)
  • Capacity to work while depressed and anxious - a phenomenological study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Disability and rehabilitation. - 1464-5165. ; 35:20, s. 1705-1711
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The aim was to explore experiences of capacity to work in persons working while depressed and anxious in order to identify the essence of the phenomenon capacity to work. Method: Four focus groups were conducted with 17 participants employed within the regular job market. Illness experiences ranged from symptoms to clinical diagnoses. A phenomenological approach was employed. Results: The phenomenon of capacity to work was distinguished by nine constituents related to task, time, context and social interactions. The phenomenon encompassed a lost familiarity with one’s ordinary work performance, the use of a working facade and adoption of new time-consuming work practices. Feelings of exposure in interpersonal encounters, disruption of work place order, lost “refueling” and a trade-off of between work capacity and leisure-time activities was also identified. The reduced capacity was pointed out as invisible, this invisibility was considered troublesome. Conclusions: A complex and comprehensive concept emerged, not earlier described in work capacity studies. Rehabilitation processes would benefit from deeper knowledge of the individual’s capacity to work in order to make efficient adjustments at work. Results can have particular relevance both in clinical and occupational health practice, as well as in the workplaces, in supporting re-entering workers after sickness absence.Implications for RehabilitationThe reduced capacity to work due to depression and anxiety is not always understandable or observable for others, therefore, the rehabilitation process would benefit from increased knowledge and understanding of the difficulties afflicted individuals experience at work.Identifying tasks that contribute to “refueling” at work might enhance the success of the rehabilitation.Rehabilitation programs could be tailored to better address the inabilities that impact on the capacity to work when depressed and anxious.
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10.
  • Billstedt, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • A 37-year prospective study of neuroticism and extraversion in women followed from mid-life to late life.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 1600-0447. ; 129:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Personality traits are presumed to endure over time, but the literature regarding older age is sparse. Furthermore, interpretation may be hampered by the presence of dementia-related personality changes. The aim was to study stability in neuroticism and extraversion in a population sample of women who were followed from mid-life to late life.Method: A population-based sample of women born in 1918, 1922 or 1930 was examined with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) in 1968-1969. EPI was assessed after 37years in 2005-2006 (n=153). Data from an interim examination after 24years were analysed for the subsample born in 1918 and 1922 (n=75). Women who developed dementia at follow-up examinations were excluded from the analyses.Results: Mean levels of neuroticism and extraversion were stable at both follow-ups. Rank-order and linear correlations between baseline and 37-year follow-up were moderate ranging between 0.49 and 0.69. Individual changes were observed, and only 25% of the variance in personality traits in 2005-2006 could be explained by traits in 1968-1969.Conclusion: Personality is stable at the population level, but there is significant individual variability. These changes could not be attributed to dementia. Research is needed to examine determinants of these changes, as well as their clinical implications.
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