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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Högskolan i Halmstad > Doktorsavhandling > Övrigt vetenskapligt

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  • Blomkvist, Marita, 1959- (författare)
  • Entreprenörer som redovisare
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Entrepreneurs seem to be highly valuable for the firms in which they are involved. However, the knowledge of the role of accounting in a context of entrepreneurship is limited. In fact, some literature on entrepreneurship indicates that the role of accounting is only about the past and therefore not of interest for entrepreneurs in the entrepreneurial process.This dissertation reports the results of two empirical studies. The first study is a qualitative pilot study of five entrepreneurs in fast growing firms and their participation in the year-end procedure. The respondents were presented the adjustments in the final step of the recording process and the annual report in order to assess their participation and to focus on how the entrepreneurs as producers of accounting reflect and act in relation to other actors and to the process of reporting. The pilot study found that the entrepreneurs were certainly involved in use and produce of certain accounting in the year-end procedures. The second study is based on the result from the pilot study and on agency theory the study aimed to describe and explain how and why entrepreneurs in successful fast growing firms, i.e. Gazelle firms, compared with a control group of managers in not growing firms, are participating in the year-end procedures. Also, the study aimed to analyse differences between entrepreneurs´ participation and other managers´ participation in this process. The study focused on the activities in the year-end procedures concerned with the values of R&D, stock and work-in-progress and accounts receivables. In order to find entrepreneurs the survey was sent to a sample of 257 managers of Gazelle firms and to a sample of 227 managers in not growing firms. Also, the annual report from the firms where the respondents where involved were collected. This data was also included in the study. The responding rate was 50% from both groups. The most notable finding is, in contradiction to literature on entrepreneurship, that entrepreneurs in Gazelle firms use and produce formal financial accounting information. Entrepreneurs in Gazelle firms spend more time and they are also involved in discussions with more actors compared with managers in not growing firms. Further, the results indicate that entrepreneurs in Gazelle firms will participate to a larger extent when the profitability in the firm decreases compared to managers in not growing firms. Finally, the dissertation gives insight in the role of formal financial accounting in the context of entrepreneurship, a research area we know little about.
  • Brorsson, Sofia, 1973- (författare)
  • Biomechanical studies of finger extension function. Analysis with a new force measuring device and ultrasound examination in rheumatoid arthritis and healhty muscles
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to further our understanding of extensor muscles and their role for hand function.The aims of the studies were: To develop and evaluate a new device for finger extensor force measurements. To evaluate ultrasound as a tool for assessment of muscle architecture. To determine the correlation between extensor muscle force and hand function. To evaluate the degree of impaired finger extensor force in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the correlation to impaired... mer hand function. To analyse the effect of hand exercise in RA patients and healthy subjects with ultrasound and finger extension force measurements.Method: A new finger extension force measuring device was developed and an ultrasound based method was used to be able to objectively measure the finger extension force and analyze the static and dynamic extensor muscle architectures. Measurements were made of healthy volunteers (n=127) and RA patients (n=77) during uninfluenced and experimental conditions. A hand exercise program was performed and evaluated with hand force measurements, hand function test, patient relevant questionnaires (DASH and SF-36) and ultrasound measurements.Results: The new finger extension force measurement device was developed and then validated with measurements of accuracy as well as test-retest reliability. The coefficient of variation was 1.8 % of the applied load, and the test-retest reliability showed a coefficient of variation no more than 7.1% for healthy subjects. Ultrasound examination on m. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) showed significant differences between healthy men and healthy women as well as between healthy women and RA patients. The extension and flexion force improved in both groups after six weeks of hand exercise (p<0.01). Hand function improved in both groups (p<0.01). The RA group showed improvement in the results of the DASH questionnaire (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area of the EDC increased significantly in both groups.Conclusions: A new finger extension force measuring device has been developed which provides objective and reliable data on the extension force capacity of normal and dysfunctional hands and is sufficiently sensitive to evaluate the effects of hand exercise. US provide useful information about muscle architecture. A significant improvement of hand strength and hand function in RA patients was seen after six weeks of hand training, the improvement was even more pronounced after 12 weeks. Hand exercise is thus an effective intervention for RA patients, providing better strength and function.
  • Ihlström, Carina, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • The evolution of a new(s) genre
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis describes and analyzes how the online newspaper genre has evolved since its inception on the Internet in the mid-nineties. The overall research question is: What characterizes the online newspaper genre evolution? The thesis is based on both synchronic and diachronic studies with a multimethod approach (including six different studies involving, e.g., interviews, questionnaires and web site analyses) intended to provide a comprehensive picture of this genre evolution. On the basis of genre theory, the thesis proposes a framework for understanding online newspaper genre evolution, integrating design (layout) aspects with publisher and audience views. Applying this framework to the collected empirical material, the thesis presents a comprehensive and integrated view of this evolution. Over time, online newspapers have evolved into a specific digital genre, with genre characteristics such as content and form, distinguishing them from other digital genres. However, this rapid development has also lead to diversities in form and function, triggering both academics and practitioners to seek ways to design for consistency within the genre. Several factors have influenced the online newspaper genre evolution, e.g., inhouse attitudes, business model shifts and technological progress at the publishers’ side. The audience demographics, habits and preferences have also changed. The layout of the online newspapers has been altered into long pages stuffed with content like news streams, headlines, photos, and services not possible in the printed edition. There has also been a shift towards frequent updates throughout the day and more content produced for the web. In addition, the thesis contributes to digital genre theory by modifications relevant to the online newspaper genre. For example, the concepts of genre awareness and genre interdependence are elaborated, a framework for identifying genre characteristics is proposed, and the concept “positioning” is introduced. Further, the thesis also contributes with implications for online newspaper design and publishing with longitudinal mappings of online newspaper layout and the habits and preferences of the audience.
  • Jansson, Inger (författare)
  • Planerad processorienterad omvårdnad – nytta och implementering
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To ensure the provision of good and safe nursing care in the ward, the nursing needs of each patient should be established and clearly documented in the form of care plans in his/her medical record. There is a lack of scientific evidence of the benefits of this method of working as well as why this part of the nursing process is not always successful. The main aim of this thesis was to describe the assessment and decision-making process pertaining to nursing needs performed by nurses, to evaluate the consequences of planned, process oriented nursing care and to identify the factors and conditions that have had an impact on the implementation of individual care plans (ICP) and standardized care plans (SCP). In studies I and III, qualitative methods were used. In study I, data collection and analysis were carried out by means of Grounded theory. Study III was conducted by means of directed content analysis and guided by “The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework”. In studies II and IV, quantitative methods were employed. The benefits of a planned, process oriented method of working involving documentation of care plans have been investigated from the perspective of both the patient and the nurse. Nurses who applied the process oriented method adopted a nursing perspective in the assessment of and decision making pertaining to the patient’s nursing needs, which was not the case with nurses who did not work in this way and who instead exhibited a more medical approach (I). Patients cared for in wards where care plans were documented reported being more involved and that the care was more tailored to their individual needs compared to those not cared for in this manner (II). Leadership that prioritises the development of nursing care is essential for the implementation and continued use of ICPs and SCPs. Another important factor was the presence of internal facilitators in the ward in the form of nurses with a clear mandate to work with these issues. The nurses reported that they did not discuss scientific evidence as a basis for performing planned process oriented nursing care and that they did not listen to patient experiences to any great extent (III, IV). The conclusion is that structured, process oriented nursing care based on written care plans probably promotes the nursing perspective and enables patient participation. Leadership as well as facilitators with a clear role and mandate are important factors in the implementation of this method of working and scientific evidence is of less importance.
  • Lagergren, Anniqa, 1964- (författare)
  • Barns musikkomponerande i tradition och förändring
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focuses on education at Swedish community music and arts schools and at primary schools. The aim of the study is to contribute to knowledge formation within the field of music education by examining how children make music in an institutional context and how the development of new approaches in teaching and learning affect how children practise music. This is studied by observing what happens when children aged 9 to 12, compose music when they have access to digital tools in a community music and arts school and in a primary school – with specific focus on how composing tasks take shape under varying contextual and interpersonal conditions. 13 children from a community music and arts school and 21 children from a primary school participated in the study. In order to gather material for this study a survey was undertaken to examine the children’s experiences of music, instruments and digital tools. In order to observe and examine composing activities and the music the children had composed, these sessions were recorded on video. The theoretical framework for the study is based on a sociocultural perspective. The results indicate contextual-related differences between the activities in the community music and arts school and the primary school. The differences are observed in the activities and the music the children compose. By addressing interpersonal-related differences the reason why some groups of children undertake the task of composing and some groups of children do not undertake this task can be examined further.
  • Niklas, Westberg, et al. (författare)
  • Meddelanden från enskildheten
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study explorea and analyse how loneliness and solitude are constructed as problems and how they are explained by ”society” in different forms of texts and by people who themselves define their situations as characterized by loneliness or solitude. The latter forms a special focus and my ambition is to understand how they answer to a social situation that in different ways problematize them as persons and construct their life situation as an anomaly. Even if the situation is characterized by loneliness or a search for social distance the task of explaining the situation is not taking place in a social or cultural vacuum; as the situation is viewed as an anomaly society creates it’s own interpretations and discourses which influences individuals and groups understanding. Therefore two different kinds of empirical material have been used. First, texts from research and science concerning loneliness and solitude as well as representations from other textual genres. Second, texts written by self defined lonely people and persons who expressly seek solitude and these are collected from two ”places” on Internet. From a dating service specialised in lonely people and a community of people who strives towards solitude as a way of life. The main unit of analysis consits of the language in these texts and are interpretated  by an textual analysis influenced by discource analysis. A major problem regarding loneliness and solitude is ”the social”. Even if solitude are about social inattention, discourses are often occupied by social life in different manifestations; mostly in form of a social dissatisfaction that motivates freedom from society and community. In loneliness discourses lack of social connection, naturally, represents a central theme. Because solitude is understood as motivated by the individual and loneliness as caused by forces that the individual usually doesn’t control, the individual in discourses of solitude appears as one of pride and agency while the individual in loneliness discourses appears as a shameful victim. Solitude and loneliness are deviances which are managed with help of explanatory ”accounts”: 1) Excuses in form of ”scapegoats” where other peoples deficiencies is singled out as cause or motive to both loneliness and solitude. 2) Excuses with reference to illness and psychological problems, which to a large extent explains loneliness. 3) Justifications of solitude with reference to freedom to self-realization and communion. Based on my analysis a composed situation appears wherein lonely people and people seeking a private space seems to have a lot in common: social dissatisfaction and alienation, designation of scapegoats, a longing for authenticity etc. It is even possible that they, to a degree, share a life-situation characterized by alienation and despair but ”choses” different vocabularies or discourses for rendering the situation as intelligible, which makes a shared situation into different ones.
  • Pedersen, Eja, 1957- (författare)
  • Human response to wind turbine noise ? perception, annoyance and moderating factors
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aims: The aims of this thesis were to describe and gain an understanding of how people who live in the vicinity of wind turbines are affected by wind turbine noise, and how individual, situational and visual factors, as well as sound properties, moderate the response.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a flat, mainly rural area in Sweden, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of noise annoyance and to examine the dose-response relationship between A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) and perception of and annoyance with wind turbine noise. Subjective responses were obtained through a questionnaire (n = 513; response rate: 68%) and outdoor, A-weighted SPLs were calculated for each respondent. To gain a deeper understanding of the observed noise annoyance, 15 people living in an area were interviewed using open-ended questions. The interviews were analysed using the comparative method of Grounded Theory (GT). An additional cross-sectional study, mainly exploring the influence of individual and situational factors, was carried out in seven areas in Sweden that differed with regard to terrain (flat or complex) and degree of urbanization (n = 765; response rate: 58%). To further explore the impact of visual factors, data from the two cross-sectional studies were tested with structural equation modelling. A proposed model of the influence of visual attitude on noise annoyance, also comprising the influence of noise level and general attitude, was tested among respondents who could see wind turbines versus respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling, and respondents living in flat versus complex terrain.Results: Dose-response relationships were found both for perception of noise and for noise annoyance in relation to A-weighted SPLs. The risk of annoyance was enhanced among respondents who could see at least one turbine from their dwelling and among those living in a rural in comparison with a suburban area. Noise from wind turbines was appraised as an intrusion of privacy among people who expected quiet and peace in their living environment. Negative experiences that led to feelings of inferiority added to the distress. Sound characteristics describing the amplitude modulated aerodynamic sound were appraised as the most annoying (swishing, whistling and pulsating/throbbing). Wind turbines were judged as environmentally friendly, efficient and necessary, but also as ugly and unnatural. Being negative towards the visual impact of the wind turbines on the landscape scenery, rather than towards wind turbines as such, was strongly associated with annoyance. Self-reported health impairment was not correlated to SPL, while decreased well-being was associated with noise annoyance. Indications of possible hindrance to psycho-physiological restoration were observed.Conclusions: Wind turbine noise is easily perceived and is annoying even at low A-weighted SPLs. This could be due to perceived incongruence between the characteristics of wind turbine noise and the background sound. Wind turbines are furthermore prominent objects whose rotational movement attracts the eye. Multimodal sensory effects or negative aesthetic response could enhance the risk of noise annoyance. Adverse reactions could possibly lead to stress-related symptoms due to prolonged physiological arousal and hindrance to psychophysiological restoration. The observed differences in prevalence of noise annoyance between living environments make it necessary to assess separate dose-response relationships for different types of landscapes.
  • Ranagården, Lisbeth, 1947- (författare)
  • Lärares lärande om elever - en sociologisk studie om yrkespraktik
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This is a study of how professional teachers’ learning about students takes place in relation to changed requirements and new organisational preconditions. Based on an approach from the theory of professions with inspiration by Lipsky’s concept of street level bureaucrats, it examines which strategies or methods teachers develop in order to cope with the changes. Important points of departure for the study are theories of organisation, professions and knowledge. The three phases that are considered to distinguish professional work – diagnosis, inference, treatment – organise the disposition of the work. The study is empirically based on interviews with primary school teachers, recorded development conversations, and teachers’ written documentation for the latter. The teachers’ own accounts of their learning process, as well as how they interpret what is experienced, form an interpretive and analytical foundation together with analysis of the development conversations. Teachers’ meetings with students usually occur with the entire class as a collective, which makes the teaching profession special. Other professionals normally meet their clients individually. At the same time, teachers are expected to individualise the instruction. The study shows how the organisation creates obstacles by intensifying the teachers’ work. This diminishes the leeway for teachers to work professionally. A recurrent problem for the teachers’ teaching is therefore lack of time. They have to find standardised forms such as the categorising of students. The analyses demonstrate that there is great uncertainty about the measures’ effects, and that teachers do not have enough knowledge. One develops new knowledge by trial and error, and the study points to a need for the teachers’ teaching in and through its practice to be given room to develop. In this context the study discusses teachers’ professional language as a hindrance to professional development. As the study also shows, leeway for conversations is a prerequisite for learning about students. This in turn influences the possibilities of creating good relations. The study discusses teachers’ interest in relation-building from a power perspective and as an important tool for successful instruction. But teachers lack tools for handling certain students who challenge the teaching role, and the analysis reveals deficiencies in both the organisation in the profession. According to the study’s results, teachers do not have support for coping with the changes that were made in the schools. Especially the profession’s social dimensions prove to be a weakness for newly educated teachers, who need continued learning in professional practice, but more experienced teachers also lack tools for being able to individualise the instruction. While the causes are numerous, the bottom line is a scarcity of resources – in terms of time, institutional measures for solving problems, and knowledge about how the problems should be solved.
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