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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Högskolan i Halmstad > Doktorsavhandling > Engelska

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  • Aldrin, Viktor, 1980- (författare)
  • Prayer in Peasant Communities:
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this study has been to identify, explain and delineate praying among peasant communities in the ecclesiastical province of Uppsala, Sweden. Four aspects have been examined through the perspectives of ideals and practices, namely the standards of prayer, devotional prayer, prayer in times of need and prayer cultures. The standards of prayer considered the physical and mental behaviour of the praying peasant woman or man. The most ordinary way to act during prayer was to stand with hands together, palm against palm, and to pray in the vernacular often using mental themes to enhance the devotion. Devotional prayers were foremost the three ‘standard’ prayers Paternoster, Hail Mary and Apostolic Creed, and could be used separately or combined. Prayer in times of need was possibly considered a matter of praying to saints, something that cannot be proven to have been either practiced or recommended on other, ordinary occasions where God and the Virgin Mary were considered the proper recipients of prayer. A few authentic prayers exist that were possibly said by peasant women and men in connection with miracles and these show the ability to construct elaborate prayers and to propose businesslike agreements with saints. These three prayers were required knowledge for a peasant woman or man and were put to the test in order to become a godparent, and were therefore made available in the vernacular by the parish priests. Ways to maintain the prayer cultures were through mnemonic techniques, and indulgences stipulating and confirming prayers used or to be used in connection with certain churches, days and places within the churches. Name saints could also be used, since the person and the name saint were considered to have a special bond. Prayer could also be used as protection for the living; since a prayer was considered to generate either merits or favours from a celestial patron to his or her client. The prayer life of those belonging to peasant communities was both elaborate and full of nuances.
  • Brorsson, Sofia, 1973- (författare)
  • Biomechanical studies of finger extension function. Analysis with a new force measuring device and ultrasound examination in rheumatoid arthritis and healhty muscles
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to further our understanding of extensor muscles and their role for hand function.The aims of the studies were: To develop and evaluate a new device for finger extensor force measurements. To evaluate ultrasound as a tool for assessment of muscle architecture. To determine the correlation between extensor muscle force and hand function. To evaluate the degree of impaired finger extensor force in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the correlation to impaired... mer hand function. To analyse the effect of hand exercise in RA patients and healthy subjects with ultrasound and finger extension force measurements.Method: A new finger extension force measuring device was developed and an ultrasound based method was used to be able to objectively measure the finger extension force and analyze the static and dynamic extensor muscle architectures. Measurements were made of healthy volunteers (n=127) and RA patients (n=77) during uninfluenced and experimental conditions. A hand exercise program was performed and evaluated with hand force measurements, hand function test, patient relevant questionnaires (DASH and SF-36) and ultrasound measurements.Results: The new finger extension force measurement device was developed and then validated with measurements of accuracy as well as test-retest reliability. The coefficient of variation was 1.8 % of the applied load, and the test-retest reliability showed a coefficient of variation no more than 7.1% for healthy subjects. Ultrasound examination on m. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) showed significant differences between healthy men and healthy women as well as between healthy women and RA patients. The extension and flexion force improved in both groups after six weeks of hand exercise (p<0.01). Hand function improved in both groups (p<0.01). The RA group showed improvement in the results of the DASH questionnaire (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area of the EDC increased significantly in both groups.Conclusions: A new finger extension force measuring device has been developed which provides objective and reliable data on the extension force capacity of normal and dysfunctional hands and is sufficiently sensitive to evaluate the effects of hand exercise. US provide useful information about muscle architecture. A significant improvement of hand strength and hand function in RA patients was seen after six weeks of hand training, the improvement was even more pronounced after 12 weeks. Hand exercise is thus an effective intervention for RA patients, providing better strength and function.
  • Fåhraeus, Anna, 1963- (författare)
  • Black males and white masculinity in four Renaissance tragedies of blood
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this study is to look at how the black North African man is repre-sented in relation to white men in four Renaissance tragedies of blood: Shake-speare’s Titus Andronicus, the multi-authored Lust’s Dominion, William Rowley’s All’s Lost by Lust, and Thomas Rawlins’ The Rebellion. While previous studies have traced the most common racist tropes in 16th and 17th century lit-erature, such as the demonization trope and the animality trope (e.g. Hall), and the historical presence of modern stereotypes of the black man (Jones, Barthelemy, Tokson), they have not looked at Renaissance discourses of white masculinity and their relationship to the construction of the black man. There-fore, the present study focuses on the articulation of the black man as a gendered concept, and specifically its racialized difference in relation to localized white masculinity. I argue that black masculinity is not its own discourse that is separate from white masculinity, but rather is fashioned using the same strategies that enabled white masculine self-fashioning in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, i.e. through the manipulation of discourses to enhance the self and discredit male enemies or rivals. I specifically look at four discourses that were important to the social perception and thus construction of white masculinity in the Renais-sance: relationships to women and the feminine, honour, sociality (humour), and ambition. What emerges as an overall feature in all four tragedies of blood is that there is not a polar distinction between black and white masculinity. My approach builds on Michel Foucault and the idea that discourses structure society and relationships of power. It is also indebted to Reinhardt Koselleck’s theory that concepts have a history, i.e. a contemporary polemic edge in Renaissance even as other meanings looked to the past, and others to the future. I argue that the difference in English tragedies of blood between the black men and the white men in the relationship to honour is temporal; that the distinction in vice and humour is a matter of attitude; and that black men have a blurred rather than distinct relationship to femininity. Racialization oc-curs through the discourse on blackness but also through everyday Renaissance discourses in historically contingent ways.
  • Ihlström, Carina, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • The Evolution of a New(s) Genre
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis describes and analyzes how the online newspaper genre has evolved since its inception on the Internet in the mid-nineties. The overall research question is: What characterizes the online newspaper genre evolution? The thesis is based on both synchronic and diachronic studies with a multimethod approach (including six different studies involving, e.g., interviews, questionnaires and web site analyses) intended to provide a comprehensive picture of this genre evolution. On the basis of genre theory, the thesis proposes a framework for understanding online newspaper genre evolution, integrating design (layout) aspects with publisher and audience views. Applying this framework to the collected empirical material, the thesis presents a comprehensive and integrated view of this evolution. Over time, online newspapers have evolved into a specific digital genre, with genre characteristics such as content and form, distinguishing them from other digital genres. However, this rapid development has also lead to diversities in form and function, triggering both academics and practitioners to seek ways to design for consistency within the genre. Several factors have influenced the online newspaper genre evolution, e.g., inhouse attitudes, business model shifts and technological progress at the publishers’ side. The audience demographics, habits and preferences have also changed. The layout of the online newspapers has been altered into long pages stuffed with content like news streams, headlines, photos, and services not possible in the printed edition. There has also been a shift towards frequent updates throughout the day and more content produced for the web. In addition, the thesis contributes to digital genre theory by modifications relevant to the online newspaper genre. For example, the concepts of genre awareness and genre interdependence are elaborated, a framework for identifying genre characteristics is proposed, and the concept “positioning” is introduced. Further, the thesis also contributes with implications for online newspaper design and publishing with longitudinal mappings of online newspaper layout and the habits and preferences of the audience.
  • Josefsson, Torbjörn, 1965- (författare)
  • Mindfulness
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The current research project consists of three separate studies. The general aim of this project was to contribute to previous mindfulness research by exploring fundamental aspects of mindfulness in an effort to increase the understanding of mindfulness as a construct as well as its mechanisms. The purpose of the study I was to investigate the relation between mindfulness and sustained and executive attention by comparing Buddhist and Western mindfulness meditators (n = 47) and non-meditators (n = 45) in performance on computerized attention. The main purpose of study II was to compare these meditators and non-meditators on self-reported mindfulness, and also to investigate whether facets of mindfulness mediate the relation between meditation experience and psychological well-being. Study III aimed at investigating the unique effects of mindfulness practice as well as the proposed mindfulness mechanism; decentering. A short-term mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) (n = 46) was compared with relaxation training (n = 40) and a waiting-list group (n = 40) on a battery of tests - executive attention, self-reported mindfulness, decentering, psychological well-being, anxiety, depression, and coping styles – in 126 employees with no prior meditation experience. The results showed no significant differences between meditators and non-meditators either in sustained or executive attention. Meditators rated themselves higher than non-meditators on four of the five facets of mindfulness. The multiple mediation analysis showed that the five mindfulness facets mediated the relationship between meditation experience and psychological well-being but no single facet contributed significantly. Simple mediation analyses indicated, however, that Non-React was the primary mediator. No unique mindfulness effects were found since there were no differences between mindfulness and relaxation in any of the variables. However, the mindfulness group scored higher than the waiting-list group on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire total scale and psychological wellbeing. Meditators may have an increased awareness of internal processes and the ability to quickly attend to them, but this type of refined attentional ability does not seem to be related to performance on attention tests requiring quick responses to external targets. It may be concluded that effects on attention regulation are of less importance compared to other beneficial psychological and physiological health outcomes due to mindfulness meditation. Mediation analyses supported (i) the notion that meditation experience is related to increased mindfulness, which in turn is associated with improved psychological well-being, and (ii) the idea that increases in mindfulness lead to increased decentering abilities which in turn leads to improved psychological well-being. Possible explanations for the absence of unique group differences between mindfulness and relaxation are that the length of the intervention was too short and the sessions too few, similarities between body exercises in MBI and relaxation, and the lack of group differences on decentering. Investigating unique mindfulness effects to distinguish mindfulness effects from relaxation should be prioritized in future studies. The promising theory of mechanisms proposed in the Buddhist Psychological Model (BPM) needs to be empirically evaluated. MBI-related changes in selfperceptions, value systems, and ethical aspects may play a more important role for improved psychological health than what has previously been recognized. Other Buddhist practices such as loving-kindness meditation and compassion meditation also need to be examined. Finally, an in-depth dialogue between Western researchers, expert meditators, and Buddhist theoreticians may be increasingly important for mindfulness research to advance.
  • Nilsson, Bertil, 1951- (författare)
  • Finite element procedures for virtual tribology
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main purpose of this thesis is to use modern goal-oriented adap- tive finite element techniques in order to improve the numerical simulation of tribology. Two novel adaptive finite element methods for the Reynolds thin film model, and Stokes model including cavitation are presented and their different strategies are compared. The algorithms are inspired by an analogy with the obstacle problem and the cavitation problem that we con- sider is written as a variational inequality considering in the formulation the fact that the lubricant cannot stand negative stresses induced by sub- atmospheric pressure. A posteriori error estimates and adaptive algorithms are derived, and numerical examples illustrating the theory are supplied. The cavitation problem and calculations is introduced and put into his- torical and modern perspective. Modern thoughts and techniques around the oil-pocket idea in sheet metal forming are presented. The influence of oil pockets on the contact regime is assessed, and in particular the likely effect of oil-pocket-induced cavitation in order to produce lift, is discussed. The ultimate goal with the numerical simulation is to be able to optimize the surface structure so as to take advantage of cavitation effects in the lubricant.
  • Pedersen, Eja, 1957- (författare)
  • Human response to wind turbine noise ? perception, annoyance and moderating factors
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aims: The aims of this thesis were to describe and gain an understanding of how people who live in the vicinity of wind turbines are affected by wind turbine noise, and how individual, situational and visual factors, as well as sound properties, moderate the response.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a flat, mainly rural area in Sweden, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of noise annoyance and to examine the dose-response relationship between A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) and perception of and annoyance with wind turbine noise. Subjective responses were obtained through a questionnaire (n = 513; response rate: 68%) and outdoor, A-weighted SPLs were calculated for each respondent. To gain a deeper understanding of the observed noise annoyance, 15 people living in an area were interviewed using open-ended questions. The interviews were analysed using the comparative method of Grounded Theory (GT). An additional cross-sectional study, mainly exploring the influence of individual and situational factors, was carried out in seven areas in Sweden that differed with regard to terrain (flat or complex) and degree of urbanization (n = 765; response rate: 58%). To further explore the impact of visual factors, data from the two cross-sectional studies were tested with structural equation modelling. A proposed model of the influence of visual attitude on noise annoyance, also comprising the influence of noise level and general attitude, was tested among respondents who could see wind turbines versus respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling, and respondents living in flat versus complex terrain.Results: Dose-response relationships were found both for perception of noise and for noise annoyance in relation to A-weighted SPLs. The risk of annoyance was enhanced among respondents who could see at least one turbine from their dwelling and among those living in a rural in comparison with a suburban area. Noise from wind turbines was appraised as an intrusion of privacy among people who expected quiet and peace in their living environment. Negative experiences that led to feelings of inferiority added to the distress. Sound characteristics describing the amplitude modulated aerodynamic sound were appraised as the most annoying (swishing, whistling and pulsating/throbbing). Wind turbines were judged as environmentally friendly, efficient and necessary, but also as ugly and unnatural. Being negative towards the visual impact of the wind turbines on the landscape scenery, rather than towards wind turbines as such, was strongly associated with annoyance. Self-reported health impairment was not correlated to SPL, while decreased well-being was associated with noise annoyance. Indications of possible hindrance to psycho-physiological restoration were observed.Conclusions: Wind turbine noise is easily perceived and is annoying even at low A-weighted SPLs. This could be due to perceived incongruence between the characteristics of wind turbine noise and the background sound. Wind turbines are furthermore prominent objects whose rotational movement attracts the eye. Multimodal sensory effects or negative aesthetic response could enhance the risk of noise annoyance. Adverse reactions could possibly lead to stress-related symptoms due to prolonged physiological arousal and hindrance to psychophysiological restoration. The observed differences in prevalence of noise annoyance between living environments make it necessary to assess separate dose-response relationships for different types of landscapes.
  • Staland Nyman, Carin, 1963- (författare)
  • Domestic Workload and Multiple Roles. Epidemiological findings on health and sickness absence in women
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: The objective of this thesis was to analyse the importance of specific exposures in women’s lives to health and sickness absence; more precisely to study the association between domestic work, multiple roles and the experience of being sick-listed, and self-rated health, psychiatric disorders and sickness absence. Method: The thesis was based on two datasets. ‘Women’s health and living conditions’ (WHL) is a cross-sectional study on 1 417 employed women aged 17 to 64 years old. Data was collected with a questionnaire, and register and employee data on sickness absence. ‘Women and alcohol in Göteborg’ (WAG) is a prospective cohort study on 1 799 women in eight age cohorts born from 1925 to 1980. Data was collected with a screening questionnaire, interviews and register-based sickness absence. Several aspects of domestic work, multiple roles and experience of sickness absence were analysed in relation to self-rated health (SF-36), psychiatric disorders (DSM-III and IV) and sickness absence. The study on multiple roles emanated from the role strain and role enhancement hypotheses and roles were analysed as single roles and as combinations of roles. Changes in self-rated physical health were assessed in relation to experience of sickness absence over five year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted using multivariate regressions analyses. Results: Domestic job strain and a lack of domestic work equity and marital satisfaction were associated with lower self-rated health particularly vitality and mental health. The former was not associated to sickness absence, but the latter was. Women with domestic workload due to children and adults with special needs had higher odds for medium-long sick-leave spells, while parental responsibility gave lower odds for any sick-leave spell. Occupation was related to lower odds for poor self-rated physical health and sickness absence, while the parental role was associated with higher odds for sickness absence. Compared with women who had all three roles women with occupation and partner role had lower odds for negative health outcomes. Support was found for the role strain hypothesis in the cross-sectional analyses of role combinations while neither of the hypotheses was supported in the five year follow up. A lower proportion of those who had experience of being sick-listed reported good health at both baseline and follow up. Women with psychiatric disorders had higher odds for a change from poor to good self-rated physical health over the five years if they had been sick-listed. Conclusion: Domestic workload was associated to health and sickness absence in women, but there were inconsistencies in the findings on children and being a parent and on multiple roles. From a public health perspective, deeper knowledge on the importance of women’s engagement domestic work and its different dimensions is important for promoting women’s health. A multidimensional assessment of domestic work is important and the content and complexity of domestic work and of different roles needs to be further explored in relation to health and sickness absence in women.
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