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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Högskolan i Gävle

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1.
  • Bengtsson, Inger M., 1944-, et al. (författare)
  • The cortisol awakening response and the metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of middle-aged men and women
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Metabolism. - 0026-0495. ; 59:7, s. 1012-1019
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was to explore the relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. The final study sample consisted of 91 women (14 with MetS) and 84 men (15 with MetS), aged 45 to 70 years, from a general population sample. The only exclusion criteria were no consent, pregnancy, or insufficient cortisol testing. On the day of measurement (weekday), salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening and 15 minutes after awakening. Relative CAR (CAR%) and the MetS were the main variables studied. Results showed that, in women with the MetS, cortisol at awakening was significantly lower (mean, 8.92 vs 12.33 nmol/L; P = .05) and the CAR was significantly higher (91.4% vs 36.5%, P < .001) than in women without the syndrome. Significant difference in the relative CAR was also present between men and women with MetS (38.5% and 91.4%, respectively; P = .02). No difference was seen in the awakening response comparing men with and without the MetS. In a regression model, the response to awakening was dependent on the MetS in women (F(1,89) = 13.19, P < .001); but the model was not significant in men. Furthermore, the awakening response was associated with more depressive symptoms in women (F(1,80) = 8.12, P = .01) and with weekday/weekend cortisol sampling in men (F(1,82) = 4.63, P = .03). The association between the relative CAR and the MetS remained significant but somewhat attenuated after adjusting for depressive symptoms (P = .01). Results indicate a sex difference in the CAR% in the presence of the MetS independent of depressive symptoms, a known correlate of the MetS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Bengtsson, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluations of effects due to low frequency noise in a low demanding work situation
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sound and Vibration. - 0022-460X. ; 278:1-2, s. 83-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Noise sources with a dominating content of low frequencies (20-200 Hz) are found in many occupational environments. This study aimed to evaluate effects of moderate levels of low-frequency noise on attention, tiredness and motivation in a low demanding work situation. Two ventilation noises at the same A-weighted sound pressure level of 45 dB were used: one of a low-frequency character and one of a flat frequency character (reference noise). Thirty-eight female subjects worked with six performance tasks for 4 h in the noises in a between-subject design. Most of the tasks were monotonous and routine in character. Subjective reports were collected using questionnaires and cortisol levels were measured in saliva. The major finding in this study was that low-frequency noise negatively influenced performance on two tasks sensitive to reduced attention and on a proof-reading task. Performances of tasks aimed at evaluating motivation were not significantly affected. The difference in work performance was not reflected by the subjective reports. No effect of noise was found on subjective stress or cortisol levels. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Bengtsson, Johanna, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Sound characteristics in low frequency noise and their relevance for the perception of pleasantness
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Acta Acoustica. ; 90, s. 171-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Noise sources with a dominant content of low frequencies (20-200 Hz) are found in many occupational environments. Work efficiency has been found in two earlier studies to be impaired to a larger degree when working in a low frequency ventilation noise than when working in a flat frequency ventilation noise at the same A-weighted sound pressure level. Other previous studies indicate that different sound characteristics found in low frequency noise are important for the way in which low frequency noise affects humans, and better knowledge of these characteristics could lead to better methods for assessing low frequency noise in occupational environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of frequency balance between low and high frequencies, which affects the slope of the frequency spectra, and the modulation frequency on subjects' perception of a pleasant low frequency noise. The results showed that the subjects preferred either a higher or a lower modulation frequency as compared to that of the original low frequency noise, both choices leading to less perceivable modulations. Furthermore, the subjects preferred a lower relative content of frequencies below 500 Hz, but only as long as the original low frequency noise contained modulations and the variations were made within a constant A-weighted sound pressure level. The results are discussed in relation to improved guidelines and to the previously suggested theory of slope of the frequency spectra and problems involved with the implementation of that theory.
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4.
  • Björk, Robert G., 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term warming effects on root morphology, root mass distribution, and microbial activity in two dry tundra plant communities in northern Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: New Phytologist. - 0028-646X. ; 176:4, s. 862-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • center dot Effects of warming on root morphology, root mass distribution and microbial activity were studied in organic and mineral soil layers in two alpine ecosystems over > 10 yr, using open-top chambers, in Swedish Lapland. center dot Root mass was estimated using soil cores. Washed roots were scanned and sorted into four diameter classes, for which variables including root mass (g dry matter (g DM) m(-2)), root length density (RLD; cm cm(-3) soil), specific root length (SRL; m g DM-1), specific root area (SRA; m(2) kg DM-1), and number of root tips m(-2) were determined. Nitrification (NEA) and denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) in the top 10 cm of soil were measured. center dot Soil warming shifted the rooting zone towards the upper soil organic layer in both plant communities. In the dry heath, warming increased SRL and SRA of the finest roots in both soil layers, whereas the dry meadow was unaffected. Neither NEA nor DEA exhibited differences attributable to warming. center dot Tundra plants may respond to climate change by altering their root morphology and mass while microbial activity may be unaffected. This suggests that carbon may be incorporated in tundra soils partly as a result of increases in the mass of the finer roots if temperatures rise.
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5.
  • Björklund, Elisabeth, 1945- (författare)
  • Att erövra litteracitet
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is based on an ethnographic field study among a group of monolingual children from one and a half to three years old at a pre-school in a Swedish village. The primary aim of the study has been to gain knowledge about how young children conquer and express literacy in their everyday lives. One assumption was that children are active and competent in their search for meaning when dealing with texts, signs and images. A second aim has been to investigate whether children’s literacy could have an impact on the social and cultural context of pre-school.Research questions addressed in the study focus on children’s participation in literacy events and their actions in literacy practice. An additional question was  whether children were contributing to literacy practice when interacting with other children in the group.The theoretical framework draws upon socio-cultural theory. The empirical material consists of video recordings and the focus of observation has been on children’s actions related to literacy, expressed as early literacy, including reading and writing as well as telling and retelling narratives, singing and other verbal and non verbal communication. In children’s literacy events and literacy practice the specific context was of central interest. All the material collected has been transcribed and transferred into text and constitutes the basis for analyzing what children are performing in actual events and practices. The guiding principle for description was at first to give a close reproduction of children’s verbal utterances and their acting linked to the concept of early literacy. Secondly, the aim was to describe and analyze whether the utterances and actions could be linked to the specific social and cultural context.The analysed material demonstrates how children participate and interact with each other while engaged in literacy and the material also displays the content of their communication. Two different kinds of literacy appear: one is narrative tellings and the other is reading and drawing/writing. A deeper analysis shows that children are building knowledge of telling and also creating a specific manifesto of literacy. The children also underline what they are doing through verbal expressions where they defined  themselves as both readers and writers.The result gives a contribution to new knowledge and an understanding of early literacy among very young children as something they have created in pre-school as a social and cultural environment. Literacy in the studied group of children uncovers many more expressions, including several actions with regard to written material, than we usally relate to the youngest children in pre-school.
6.
  • Burström, Lage, et al. (författare)
  • Acute effects of vibration on thermal perception thresholds
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - Springer. - 0340-0131. ; 81:5, s. 603-611
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on the acute effects of vibration and how vibrations influence the measures of the thermal perception thresholds during different vibration magnitudes, frequencies, and durations. METHODS: The fingers of ten healthy subjects, five males and five females, were exposed to vibration under 16 conditions with a combination of different frequency, intensity and exposure time. The vibration frequency was 31.5 and 125 Hz and exposure lasted between 2 and 16 min. The energy-equivalent frequency weighted acceleration, according to ISO 5349-1, for the experimental time of 16 min was 2.5 or 5.0 m/s(2) (r.m.s.), corresponding to a 8-h equivalent acceleration, A(8) of 0.46 and 0.92 m/s(2), respectively. A measure of the thermal perception of cold and warmth was conducted before the different exposures to vibration. Immediately after the vibration exposure the acute effect was measured continuously on the exposed index finger for the first 75 s, followed by 30 s of measures at every minute for a maximum of 10 min. If the subject's thermal thresholds had not recovered, the measures continued for a maximum of 30 min with measurements taken every 5 min. RESULTS: For all experimental conditions and 30 s after exposure, the mean changes of the thresholds compared with the pre-test were found to be 0.05 and -0.67 degrees C for the warmth and cold thresholds, respectively. The effect of the vibration exposure was only significant on the cold threshold and only for the first minute after exposure when the threshold was decreased. The warmth threshold was not significantly affected at all. The frequency and the exposure time of the vibration stimuli had no significant influence on the perception thresholds for the sensation of cold or warmth. Increased equivalent frequency weighted acceleration resulted in a significant decrease of the subjects' cold threshold, not the warmth. The thresholds were unaffected when changes in the vibration magnitude were expressed as the frequency weighted acceleration or the unweighted acceleration. CONCLUSION: When testing for the thermotactile thresholds, exposure to vibration on the day of a test might influence the results. Until further knowledge is obtained the previous praxis of 2 h avoidance of vibration exposure before assessment is recommended.
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7.
  • Byström, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Appraised psychological workload, musculoskeletal symptoms, and the mediating effect of fatigue: A structural equation modeling approach.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. ; 45, s. 331-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to test two structural models of the relationship between appraised psychological workload and musculoskeletal symptoms from the neck, shoulder, and upper and lower back with different aspects of perceived fatigue as mediating variables. In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire survey was conducted among employees at three Swedish assembly plants (n= 305). The proposed models were tested for one general fatigue dimension - lack of energy - and four specific fatigue dimensions - physical discomfort, physical exertion, lack of motivation, and sleepiness - using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that the role of perceived fatigue in the relationship between appraised workload and musculoskeletal symptoms is different for different aspects of fatigue. The general fatigue dimension, lack of energy, does not mediate the relationship. As regards the specific fatigue dimensions, the relationship is partially mediated by physical discomfort and lack of motivation but not by physical exertion or sleepiness. Appraised psychological workload has a unique effect on musculoskeletal symptoms not mediated by fatigue.
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8.
  • Eliasson, Ingegärd, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Climate and behaviour in a Nordic city
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: LANDSCAPE AND URBAN PLANNING. - 0169-2046. ; 82:1-2, s. 72-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Four urban public spaces, representing various designs and microclimates, were investigated in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to estimate how weather and microclimate affect people in urban outdoor environments. The research strategy was both multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary and included scientists from three disciplines: architecture, climatology and psychology. The project is based on common case studies carried out during four seasons, including measurements of meteorological variables, interviews and observations of human activity at each place. Multiple regression analysis of meteorological and behavioural data showed that air temperature, wind speed and clearness index (cloud cover) have a significant influence on people's assessments of the weather, place perceptions and place-related attendance. The results support the arguments in favour of employing climate sensitive planning in future urban design and planning projects, as the physical component of a place can be designed to influence the site-specific microclimate and consequently people's place-related attendance, perceptions and emotions.
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9.
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10.
  • Eriksson, Mårten, et al. (författare)
  • Problems and limitations in studies on screening for language delay.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities. - 1873-3379. ; 31:5, s. 943-950
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study discusses six common methodological limitations in screening for language delay (LD) as illustrated in 11 recent studies. The limitations are (1) whether the studies define a target population, (2) whether the recruitment procedure is unbiased, (3) attrition, (4) verification bias, (5) small sample size and (6) inconsistencies in choice of "gold standard". It is suggested that failures to specify a target population, high attrition (both at screening and in succeeding validation), small sample sizes and verification bias in validations are often caused by a misguided focus on screen positives (SPs). Other limitations are results of conflicting methodological goals. We identified three such conflicts. One consists of a dilemma between unbiased recruitment and attrition, another between the comprehensiveness of the applied gold standard and sample size in validation and the third between the specificity of the gold standard and the risk of not identifying co-morbid conditions.
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