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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Högskolan i Gävle

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1.
  • Allelin, Majsa, et al. (författare)
  • Välfärdsmodellens omvandling det privata kapitalets utvidgning i den offentliga sektorn
  • 2018
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Den universella välfärdsmodell, som tillämpats i Sverige sedan andra världskriget, vägleddes av ambitionen att hålla marknadsintressen utanför välfärden för att undvika ojämlik tillgång och kvalitet samt för att stärka den demokratiska styrningen av välfärdssektorn. Sverige präglades därmed av en välutvecklad offentlig sektor med god tillgång till offentlig service.Den här rapporten kan dock genom omfattande statistiska studier visa hur den svenska välfärdsmodellen sedan 80-talet och framåt har genomgått genomgripande förändringar. Resultaten är bland annat:• Antalet privata aktörer i välfärdssektorn ökar som en följd av politiskt skapade välfärdsmarknader.• Gemensamma skattemedlen finansierar i högre grad privata välfärdstjänster, som i allt större utsträckning utförs av stora koncernägda aktiebolag, liksom dessa företags vinster.• Omfattande privatiseringar av gemensamt ägande har genomförts.• Andelen offentligt anställda har minskat med 10 procentenheter och antalet statsanställda har halverats, medan antalet sysselsatta i privat välfärdsverksamhet fyrdubblats.• En högre andel skatter går i allt större utsträckning till att finansiera välfärdsverksamhet som bedrivs av det privata näringslivet.• Offentlig sektors totala andel av samhällsekonomin har minskat från 60 procent till 50 procent av BNP.Dessa resultat tyder sammanfattningsvis på att den svenska välfärdsmodellen har genomgått kritiska förändringar vars följder inneburit att en omfattande omfördelning av makt, resurser och inflytande har skett från den demokratiskt styrda gemensamma sektorn – till den marknadsstyrda privata sektorn. Den svenska universella välfärdsmodellen som en gång hyllades har ersatts av en allt mer marknadsliberal modell. Bland konsekvenserna finns försämrad jämlikhet i tillgången till exempelvis skola, vård och omsorg, mindre ekonomisk omfördelningspolitik och mindre demokratisk styrning. Samtidigt går en allt växande andel av medborgarnas skattepengar till de privata välfärdsföretagens vinster.
2.
  • Allelin, Majsa, et al. (författare)
  • Ägande- och förmögenhetsstrukturen och dess förändring sedan 1980
  • 2018
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Den här rapporten visar, genom omfattande studier av en mängd tidigare genomförda undersökningar om ägande och förmögenhetsförhållanden i Sverige, att koncentrationen av makt och ägande har blivit allt mer ojämlik. Resultaten är bland annat att:• Ungefär hälften av den samlade svenska ekonomin ägsnumera från utlandet.• Det utländska ägandet på Stockholmsbörsen har ökat från 4 procent år 1979 till 39,4 procent 2016.• Det offentliga bolagsägandet har minskat och antalet anställda i statliga företag har halverats från 310 000 år 1980 till 158 000 år 2015.• Det institutionella ägandet har ökat och utgör cirka 20 procent av ägandet i de börsnoterade bolagen.• Det så kallade riskkapitalet har vuxit kraftfullt i omfattning och störst i sektorn är Wallenbergkontrollerade EQT.• I de stora börsnoterade bolagen på Stockholmsbörsen har den största ägarens andel av röstetalet ökat från i genomsnitt 26,8 procent till 31,2 procent av bolagsstämmans röster.• De 15 största finansfamiljerna styrde år 2017 bolag värda 4 935 miljarder kronor. Som jämförelse var Sveriges totala BNP samma år 4 604 miljarder kronor.• Familjen Wallenberg kontrollerade företag värderade till närmare 2 000 miljarder kronor.• Vad gäller de samlade förmögenheterna så har den allra rikaste procentens andel av de samlade förmögenheterna fördubblats från 20,5 procent 1978 till 39,6 procent 2006 och har fortsatt öka sedan dess.• Antalet svenska miljardärer har ökat från 83 personer 2001 till 178 år 2016.För att samhällsutvecklingen ska kunna vändas i riktning mot ökad jämlikhet krävs det att den breda vänstern tar kampen för att återskapa former för reglering och begränsningar av kapitalets makt både i Sverige men också internationellt i en allt mer globaliserad värld. Utvecklandet av ett nytt gemensamt projekt, som utgör ett verkligt alternativ till den ojämlikhetsskapande marknadsliberalismen, är av avgörande betydelse för socialdemokratins framtid.
3.
  • Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne, et al. (författare)
  • A framework for assessing urban greenery's effects and valuing its ecosystem services
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management. - 0301-4797 .- 1095-8630. ; 205, s. 274-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes. The framework is unique as it recognizes that an urban greenery comprises several components and functions that can contribute to multiple ecosystem services in one or more ways via different functional traits (e.g. foliage characteristics) for which readily measured indicators have been identified. The framework consists of five steps including compilation of an inventory of indicator; application of effectivity factors to rate indicators' effectiveness; estimation of effects; estimation of benefits for each ES; estimation of the total ES value of the ecosystem. The framework was applied to assess ecosystem services provided by trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and bees, in green areas spanning an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden. Estimates of perceived values of ecosystem services were obtained from interviews with the public and workshop activities with civil servants. The framework is systematic and transparent at all stages and appears to have potential utility in the existing spatial planning processes.
4.
  • Backe-Hansen, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Out of home care in Norway and Sweden – similar and different
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Psychosocial Intervention. - 1132-0559. ; 22:3, s. 193-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An overview of the current situation in the out-of-home care in Norway and Sweden is presented in this article; also the development in later years is described and discussed. Socially, politically and culturally there are few differences between Norway and Sweden. Child protection and out-of-home placement of children and young people are integrated parts in the welfare state that are shared by the Nordic countries. It is a model that builds on principles of universalism and decommodification of social rights. The welfare model presupposes high public legitimacy for a high level of social expenditure. However the idea of marketization and privatization has also affected the welfare model in Sweden and Norway. Although there are more similarities than differences between the two countries' child protection systems, the article discusses some differences, for example the after care services, new groups of children and young people in the out-of-home care, like young unaccompanied asylum seekers. There are also some differences when it comes to privatization, the introduction of evidence-based methods in the child protection system and the tension between general and residual services for children and young people in the child protection system.
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5.
  • Bengtsson, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • The cortisol awakening response and the metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of middle-aged men and women
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Metabolism. - 0026-0495. ; 59:7, s. 1012-1019
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was to explore the relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. The final study sample consisted of 91 women (14 with MetS) and 84 men (15 with MetS), aged 45 to 70 years, from a general population sample. The only exclusion criteria were no consent, pregnancy, or insufficient cortisol testing. On the day of measurement (weekday), salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening and 15 minutes after awakening. Relative CAR (CAR%) and the MetS were the main variables studied. Results showed that, in women with the MetS, cortisol at awakening was significantly lower (mean, 8.92 vs 12.33 nmol/L; P = .05) and the CAR was significantly higher (91.4% vs 36.5%, P < .001) than in women without the syndrome. Significant difference in the relative CAR was also present between men and women with MetS (38.5% and 91.4%, respectively; P = .02). No difference was seen in the awakening response comparing men with and without the MetS. In a regression model, the response to awakening was dependent on the MetS in women (F1,89 = 13.19, P < .001); but the model was not significant in men. Furthermore, the awakening response was associated with more depressive symptoms in women (F1,80 = 8.12, P = .01) and with weekday/weekend cortisol sampling in men (F1,82 = 4.63, P = .03). The association between the relative CAR and the MetS remained significant but somewhat attenuated after adjusting for depressive symptoms (P = .01). Results indicate a sex difference in the CAR% in the presence of the MetS independent of depressive symptoms, a known correlate of the MetS.
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6.
  • Bengtsson, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluations of effects due to low frequency noise in a low demanding work situation
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sound and Vibration. - 0022-460X. ; 278:1-2, s. 83-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Noise sources with a dominating content of low frequencies (20-200 Hz) are found in many occupational environments. This study aimed to evaluate effects of moderate levels of low-frequency noise on attention, tiredness and motivation in a low demanding work situation. Two ventilation noises at the same A-weighted sound pressure level of 45 dB were used: one of a low-frequency character and one of a flat frequency character (reference noise). Thirty-eight female subjects worked with six performance tasks for 4 h in the noises in a between-subject design. Most of the tasks were monotonous and routine in character. Subjective reports were collected using questionnaires and cortisol levels were measured in saliva. The major finding in this study was that low-frequency noise negatively influenced performance on two tasks sensitive to reduced attention and on a proof-reading task. Performances of tasks aimed at evaluating motivation were not significantly affected. The difference in work performance was not reflected by the subjective reports. No effect of noise was found on subjective stress or cortisol levels. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Berggren Kleja, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Biogeochemistry. - Springer. - 1573-515X. ; 89:1, s. 7-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents an integrated analysis of organic carbon (C) pools in soils and vegetation, within-ecosystem fluxes and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in three 40-year old Norway spruce stands along a north-south climatic gradient in Sweden, measured 2001-2004. A process-orientated ecosystem model (CoupModel), previously parameterised on a regional dataset, was used for the analysis. Pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) and tree growth rates were highest at the southernmost site (1.6 and 2.0-fold, respectively). Tree litter production (litterfall and root litter) was also highest in the south, with about half coming from fine roots (< 1 mm) at all sites. However, when the litter input from the forest floor vegetation was included, the difference in total litter input rate between the sites almost disappeared (190-233 g C m(-2) year(-1)). We propose that a higher N deposition and N availability in the south result in a slower turnover of soil organic matter than in the north. This effect seems to overshadow the effect of temperature. At the southern site, 19% of the total litter input to the O horizon was leached to the mineral soil as dissolved organic carbon, while at the two northern sites the corresponding figure was approx. 9%. The CoupModel accurately described general C cycling behaviour in these ecosystems, reproducing the differences between north and south. The simulated changes in SOC pools during the measurement period were small, ranging from -8 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the north to +9 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the south. In contrast, NEE and tree growth measurements at the northernmost site suggest that the soil lost about 90 g C m(-2) year(-1).
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8.
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9.
  • Björk, Robert G., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term warming effects on root morphology, root mass distribution, and microbial activity in two dry tundra plant communities in northern Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: New Phytologist. - 0028-646X. ; 176:4, s. 862-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • • Effects of warming on root morphology, root mass distribution and microbialactivity were studied in organic and mineral soil layers in two alpine ecosystems over &gt; 10 yr, using open-top chambers, in Swedish Lapland.• Root mass was estimated using soil cores. Washed roots were scanned and sortedinto four diameter classes, for which variables including root mass (g dry matter(g DM) m –2 ), root length density (RLD; cm cm –3 soil), specific root length (SRL; m gDM –1 ), specific root area (SRA; m 2 kg DM –1 ), and number of root tips m –2 weredetermined. Nitrification (NEA) and denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) in the top10 cm of soil were measured.• Soil warming shifted the rooting zone towards the upper soil organic layer in bothplant communities. In the dry heath, warming increased SRL and SRA of the finestroots in both soil layers, whereas the dry meadow was unaffected. Neither NEA norDEA exhibited differences attributable to warming.• Tundra plants may respond to climate change by altering their root morphologyand mass while microbial activity may be unaffected. This suggests that carbon maybe incorporated in tundra soils partly as a result of increases in the mass of the finerroots if temperatures rise.
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10.
  • Björklund, Elisabeth, 1945- (författare)
  • Att erövra litteracitet : Små barns kommunikativa möten med berättande, bilder, text och tecken i förskolan
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is based on an ethnographic field study among a group of monolingual children from one and a half to three years old at a pre-school in a Swedish village. The primary aim of the study has been to gain knowledge about how young children conquer and express literacy in their everyday lives. One assumption was that children are active and competent in their search for meaning when dealing with texts, signs and images. A second aim has been to investigate whether children’s literacy could have an impact on the social and cultural context of pre-school.Research questions addressed in the study focus on children’s participation in literacy events and their actions in literacy practice. An additional question was  whether children were contributing to literacy practice when interacting with other children in the group.The theoretical framework draws upon socio-cultural theory. The empirical material consists of video recordings and the focus of observation has been on children’s actions related to literacy, expressed as early literacy, including reading and writing as well as telling and retelling narratives, singing and other verbal and non verbal communication. In children’s literacy events and literacy practice the specific context was of central interest. All the material collected has been transcribed and transferred into text and constitutes the basis for analyzing what children are performing in actual events and practices. The guiding principle for description was at first to give a close reproduction of children’s verbal utterances and their acting linked to the concept of early literacy. Secondly, the aim was to describe and analyze whether the utterances and actions could be linked to the specific social and cultural context.The analysed material demonstrates how children participate and interact with each other while engaged in literacy and the material also displays the content of their communication. Two different kinds of literacy appear: one is narrative tellings and the other is reading and drawing/writing. A deeper analysis shows that children are building knowledge of telling and also creating a specific manifesto of literacy. The children also underline what they are doing through verbal expressions where they defined  themselves as both readers and writers.The result gives a contribution to new knowledge and an understanding of early literacy among very young children as something they have created in pre-school as a social and cultural environment. Literacy in the studied group of children uncovers many more expressions, including several actions with regard to written material, than we usally relate to the youngest children in pre-school.
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