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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Lunds universitet > Leboyer Marion

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1.
  • Beggiato, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Gender differences in autism spectrum disorders: Divergence among specific core symptoms
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Autism Research. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1939-3806. ; 10:4, s. 680-689
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Community-based studies have consistently shown a sex ratio heavily skewed towards males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The factors underlying this predominance of males are largely unknown, but the way girls score on standardized categorical diagnostic tools might account for the underrecognition of ASD in girls. Despite the existence of different norms for boys and girls with ASD on several major screening tests, the algorithm of the Autism Diagnosis Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has not been reformulated. The aim of our study was to investigate which ADI-R items discriminate between males and females, and to evaluate their weighting in the final diagnosis of autism. We then conducted discriminant analysis (DA) on a sample of 594 probands including 129 females with ASD, recruited by the Paris Autism Research International Sibpair (PARIS) Study. A replication analysis was run on an independent sample of 1716 probands including 338 females with ASD, recruited through the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange (AGRE) program. Entering the raw scores for all ADI-R items as independent variables, the DA correctly classified 78.9% of males and 72.9% of females (P<0.001) in the PARIS cohort, and 72.2% of males and 68.3% of females (P<0.0001) in the AGRE cohort. Among the items extracted by the stepwise DA, four belonged to the ADI-R algorithm used for the final diagnosis of ASD. In conclusion, several items of the ADI-R that are taken into account in the diagnosis of autism significantly differentiates between males and females. The potential gender bias thus induced may participate in the underestimation of the prevalence of ASD in females.
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2.
  • Buxbaum, Joseph D, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation analysis of the NSD1 gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - 1471-2350. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, advanced bone age, characteristic facial features, and learning disabilities, caused by mutations or deletions of the NSD1 gene, located at 5q35. Sotos syndrome has been described in a number of patients with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that NSD1 could be involved in other cases of autism and macrocephaly. Methods: We screened the NSD1 gene for mutations and deletions in 88 patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly (head circumference 2 standard deviations or more above the mean). Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions. Dosage analysis of NSD1 was carried out using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results: We identified three missense variants (R604L, S822C and E1499G) in one patient each, but none is within a functional domain. In addition, segregation analysis showed that all variants were inherited from healthy parents and in two cases were also present in unaffected siblings, indicating that they are probably nonpathogenic. No partial or whole gene deletions/duplications were observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Sotos syndrome is a rare cause of autism spectrum disorders and that screening for NSD1 mutations and deletions in patients with autism and macrocephaly is not warranted in the absence of other features of Sotos syndrome.
3.
  • Buxbaum, Joseph D, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation screening of the PTEN gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841. ; 144B:4, s. 484-491
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the PTEN gene are associated with a broad spectrum of disorders, including Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, Proteus syndrome, and Lhermitte-Duclos disease. In addition, PTEN mutations have been described in a few patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and macrocephaly. In this study, we screened the PTEN gene for mutations and deletions in 88 patients with ASDs and macrocephaly (defined as >or=2 SD above the mean). Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions, as well as the promoter region. Dosage analysis of PTEN was carried out using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). No partial or whole gene deletions were observed. We identified a de novo missense mutation (D326N) in a highly conserved amino acid in a 5-year-old boy with autism, mental retardation, language delay, extreme macrocephaly (+9.6 SD) and polydactyly of both feet. Polydactyly has previously been described in two patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease and CS and is thus likely to be a rare sign of PTEN mutations. Our findings suggest that PTEN mutations are a relatively infrequent cause of ASDs with macrocephaly. Screening of PTEN mutations is warranted in patients with autism and pronounced macrocephaly, even in the absence of other features of PTEN-related tumor syndromes.
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4.
  • Chaste, Pauline, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variations of the melatonin pathway in patients with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pineal Research. - 0742-3098. ; 51:4, s. 394-399
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and a synchronizer of many physiological processes. Alteration in melatonin signaling has been reported in a broad range of diseases, but little is known about the genetic variability of this pathway in humans. Here, we sequenced all the genes of the melatonin pathway -AA-NAT, ASMT, MTNR1A, MTNR1B and GPR50 - in 321 individuals from Sweden including 101 patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 220 controls from the general population. We could find several damaging mutations in patients with ADHD, but no significant enrichment compared with the general population. Among these variations, we found a splice site mutation in ASMT (IVS5+2T>C) and one stop mutation in MTNR1A (Y170X) - detected exclusively in patients with ADHD - for which biochemical analyses indicated that they abolish the activity of ASMT and MTNR1A. These genetic and functional results represent the first comprehensive ascertainment of melatonin signaling deficiency in ADHD.
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5.
  • Chaste, Pauline, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of pathway-biased and deleterious melatonin receptor mutants in autism spectrum disorders and in the general population.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PloS One. - 1932-6203. ; 5:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and a synchronizer of many physiological processes. Alteration of the melatonin pathway has been reported in circadian disorders, diabetes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, very little is known about the genetic variability of melatonin receptors in humans. Here, we sequenced the melatonin receptor MTNR1A and MTNR1B, genes coding for MT1 and MT2 receptors, respectively, in a large panel of 941 individuals including 295 patients with ASD, 362 controls and 284 individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. We also sequenced GPR50, coding for the orphan melatonin-related receptor GPR50 in patients and controls. We identified six non-synonymous mutations for MTNR1A and ten for MTNR1B. The majority of these variations altered receptor function. Particularly interesting mutants are MT1-I49N, which is devoid of any melatonin binding and cell surface expression, and MT1-G166E and MT1-I212T, which showed severely impaired cell surface expression. Of note, several mutants possessed pathway-selective signaling properties, some preferentially inhibiting the adenylyl cyclase pathway, others preferentially activating the MAPK pathway. The prevalence of these deleterious mutations in cases and controls indicates that they do not represent major risk factor for ASD (MTNR1A case 3.6% vs controls 4.4%; MTNR1B case 4.7% vs 3% controls). Concerning GPR50, we detected a significant association between ASD and two variations, Delta502-505 and T532A, in affected males, but it did not hold up after Bonferonni correction for multiple testing. Our results represent the first functional ascertainment of melatonin receptors in humans and constitute a basis for future structure-function studies and for interpreting genetic data on the melatonin pathway in patients.
6.
  • Chaste, Pauline, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation screening of the ARX gene in patients with autism.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841. ; 144B:2, s. 228-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the Aristaless related homeobox (ARX) gene are associated with a broad spectrum of disorders, including nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation, sometimes associated with epilepsy, as well as syndromic forms with brain abnormalities and abnormal genitalia. Furthermore, ARX mutations have been described in a few patients with autism or autistic features. In this study, we screened the ARX gene in 226 male patients with autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation; 42 of the patients had epilepsy. The mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions. No ARX mutations were identified in any of the patients tested. These findings indicate that mutations in the ARX gene are very rare in autism.
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8.
  • Depienne, Christel, et al. (författare)
  • Screening for genomic rearrangements and methylation abnormalities of the 15q11-q13 region in autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - 0006-3223. ; 66:4, s. 349-359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Maternally derived duplications of the 15q11-q13 region are the most frequently reported chromosomal aberrations in autism spectrum disorders (ASD).Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, caused by 15q11-q13 deletions or abnormal methylation of imprinted genes, are also associated with ASD. However, the prevalence of these disorders in ASD is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of 15q11-q13 rearrangements in a large sample of patients ascertained for ASD. METHODS: A total of 522 patients belonging to 430 families were screened for deletions, duplications, and methylation abnormalities involving 15q11-q13 with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). RESULTS: We identified four patients with 15q11-q13 abnormalities: a supernumerary chromosome 15, a paternal interstitial duplication, and two subjects with Angelman syndrome, one with a maternal deletion and the other with a paternal uniparental disomy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that abnormalities of the 15q11-q13 region are a significant cause of ASD, accounting for approximately 1% of cases. Maternal interstitial 15q11-q13 duplications, previously reported to be present in 1% of patients with ASD, were not detected in our sample. Although paternal duplications of chromosome 15 remain phenotypically silent in the majority of patients, they can give rise to developmental delay and ASD in some subjects, suggesting that paternally expressed genes in this region can contribute to ASD, albeit with reduced penetrance compared with maternal duplications. These findings indicate that patients with ASD should be routinely screened for 15q genomic imbalances and methylation abnormalities and that MLPA is a reliable, rapid, and cost-effective method to perform this screening.
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9.
  • Durand, Christelle M, et al. (författare)
  • Expression and genetic variability of PCDH11Y, a gene specific to Homo sapiens and candidate for susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics : The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841. ; 141:1, s. 67-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Synaptogenesis, the formation of functional synapses, is a crucial step for the development of the central nervous system. Among the genes involved in this process are cell adhesion molecules, such as protocadherins and neuroligins, which are essential factors for the identification of the appropriate partner cell and the formation of synapses. In this work, we studied the expression and the genetic variability of two closely related members of the protocadherin family PCDH11X/Y, located on the X and the Y chromosome, respectively. PCDH11Y is one of the rare genes specific to the hominoid lineage, being absent in other primates. Expression analysis indicated that transcripts of the PCDH11X/Y genes are mainly detected in the cortex of the human brain. Mutation screening of 30 individuals with autism identified two PCDH11Y polymorphic amino acid changes, F885V and K980N. These variations are in complete association, appeared during human evolution approximately 40,000 years ago and represent informative polymorphisms to study Y chromosome variability in populations. We studied the frequency of these variants in males with autism spectrum disorders (n = 110), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 61), bipolar disorder (n = 61), obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 51), or schizophrenia (n = 61) and observed no significant differences when compared to ethnically-matched control populations. These findings do not support the role of PCDH11Y, or more generally of a frequent specific Y chromosome, in the susceptibility to these neuropsychiatric disorders.
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10.
  • Durand, Christelle M, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in the gene encoding the synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK3 are associated with autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 39:1, s. 25-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SHANK3 (also known as ProSAP2) regulates the structural organization of dendritic spines and is a binding partner of neuroligins; genes encoding neuroligins are mutated in autism and Asperger syndrome. Here, we report that a mutation of a single copy of SHANK3 on chromosome 22q13 can result in language and/or social communication disorders. These mutations concern only a small number of individuals, but they shed light on one gene dosage-sensitive synaptic pathway that is involved in autism spectrum disorders.
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