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  • After the Tsunami : crisis communication in Finland and Sweden
  • 2009
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The tsunami disaster in Southeast Asia during Christmas 2004 caused many deaths among vacationers from Finland and Sweden. It could be described as one of the worst catastrophes experienced during the post-war period in these countries. This book examines how this dramatic and unexpected event affected public communication patterns and practices in countries like Finland and Sweden. The communicative relations between government actors, the media and citizens always significantly affect the development of crucial democratic values such as trust, accountability and legitimacy.The book covers different topics related to this issue, such as strategic political communication, media coverage, newsroom practices, public opinion and the use of new media in Finland and Sweden after the tsunami disaster.Ullamaija Kivikuru, Lars Nord IntroductionLars Nord, Jesper Strömbäck When a Natural Disaster Becomes a Political Crisis. A Study of the 2004 Tsunami and Swedish Political CommunicationJesper Falkheimer Rhetorical Defence Strategies after The Tsunami Flood DisasterJohanna Jääsaari Restoring Consensus after the Blame Game. The Reception of Finnish Tsunami Crisis Management CoverageMervi Pantti Wave of Compassion. Nationalist Sentiments and Cosmopolitan. Sensibilities in the Finnish Press Coverage of the Tsunami DisasterLynn Letukas, Anna Olofsson, John Barnshaw Solidarity Triumphs Catastrophe? An Empirical and Theoretical Analysis of Post-Tsunami Media in Two Western NationsMaria Hellman, Kristina Riegert Transnational News and Crisis Reporting. The Indian Ocean Tsunami on CNN and Swedish TV4Ullamaija Kivikuru Popular Magazine and Responsive News Journalism. Is There Space for Both?Salli Hakala, Hannele Seeck Crisis and Web-enabled Agency in Practice. The Cases of Sukellus.fi and Thairy.netUlf Wallin, Marina Ghersetti, Tomas A. Odén Independence – Then Adaption. How Swedish Journalists Covered the Tsunami Catastrophe
  • Alem, Yonas, et al. (författare)
  • The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: World Development. - 0305-750X. ; 56:1, s. 51-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.
  • Alem, Yonas, et al. (författare)
  • The Persistence of Subjective Poverty in Urban Ethiopia
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Using panel data spanning 15 years, this paper  investigates the persistence and correlates of subjective and consumption  poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite the decline in consumption poverty in  recent years, which has been linked to rapid economic growth, subjective  poverty has remained largely unchanged. Dynamic probit regression results  show that households with a history of past poverty continue to perceive  themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. Our results  also suggest that the relative economic position of households is a strong  determinant of subjective poverty, and having at least some type of  employment reduces the likelihood that households will perceive themselves  as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. Receiving remittances  from abroad, on the other hand, does not reduce perceived poverty, even if  it raises material consumption. We argue that any analysis to measure the  impact of growth on welfare should encompass subjective measures as  well.
  • Aminoff, Ulla Britt, et al. (författare)
  • The nurse--a resource in hypertension care.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of advanced nursing. - 0309-2402. ; 35:4, s. 582-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim of the study. To explore the content and structure of communication between patient and nurse at follow-up appointments concerning hypertension. Background. Hypertension is a chronic condition and calls for co-operation between health care providers and patients over a long period of time. One important purpose of the follow-up consultations is to transfer knowledge between patients and health care providers in order to empower patients. This is an important determinant of the quality of care. Design/methods. The study was based on 20 audio-recordings of actual follow-up appointments and was approved by ethics committees. The consultations took place at four different health care units for hypertensive patients. Findings. The average length of consultations was 18 minutes. In the consultations, patients initiated an average of eight new topics and nurses an average of 20. All nurses talked with patients about life style. Compared with previous studies of follow-ups with physicians, consultations with nurses addressed lifestyle factors and adherence to treatment to a higher degree. It was also observed that patients were more actively involved in interaction with nurses compared with the follow-ups with physicians. Conclusions. Active patient participation in care is a critical factor in improving adherence to treatment. It would be of value to develop and assess a more patient-centred. organization of hypertension care and thereby more individualized hypertension treatment. Nurses may have a pivot role in such care.
  • Anderbrant, Olle, et al. (författare)
  • Release of sex pheromone and its precursors in the pine sawfly Diprion pini (Hym., Diprionidae)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Chemoecology. - Birkhaüser. - 1423-0445 .- 0937-7409. ; 15:3, s. 147-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first identification of a sex pheromone of a pine sawfly (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae) dates back almost thirty years. Since then, female-produced pheromones of over twenty diprionid species have been investigated by solvent extraction followed by separation and identification. However, no study has shown what the females actually release. Collection of airborne compounds using absorbtion on charcoal filter as well as solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by analysis employing gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed an unusual system in Diprion pini, in which the pheromone precursor alcohol, 3,7-dimethyl-2-tridecanol, is released together with acetic, propionic, butyric and isobutyric acids. The corresponding acetate, propionate and butyrate esters of 3,7-dimethyl-2-tridecanol were also found in the samples. All esters were electrophysiologically active, and the propionate and isobutyrate were attractive in trapping experiments. Based on these and earlier reported results, it seems that at least in part of its range, the pheromone response of D. pini is not very specific with regard to the functional group, as long as this is an ester.
  • Andersson, Camilla, et al. (författare)
  • Formal microlending and adverse (or non-existent) selection a case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Applied Economics. - Taylor & Francis Group. - 0003-6846. ; 43:28, s. 4203-4213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders' access to credit and making long term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers - both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans - remain credit-constrained; both types overutilize labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders - with their closer ties to the individual farmers - remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.
  • Andersson, Camilla, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Impacts of the Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia on livestock and tree holdings of rural households
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Development Economics. - 0304-3878. ; 94:1, s. 119-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We evaluated the impacts of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on rural households' holdings of livestock and forest assets/trees. We found no indication that participation in PSNP induces households to disinvest in livestock or trees. In fact, households that participated in the program increased the number of trees planted, but there was no increase in their livestock holdings. We found no strong evidence that the PSNP protects livestock in times of shock. Shocks appear to lead households to disinvest in livestock, but not in trees. Our results suggest that there is increased forestry activity as a result of PSNP, and that improved credit access encourages households to increase their livestock holdings.
  • Andersson, E, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of asthma among workers exposed to sulfur dioxide and other irritant gases
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936. ; 27:4, s. 720-725
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repeated peak exposure (gassings) to sulphur dioxide (SO2) and other irritant gases increases the risk of new-onset asthma. A questionnaire was sent to 4,112 sulphite workers, of whom 1,919 completed the questionnaire and 396 completed the short-form questionnaire, which was sent out as a last reminder. A sample of 130 nonrespondents completed a telephone interview using the short-form questionnaire. The incidence of adult-onset, physician-diagnosed asthma during employment duration was analysed in relation to exposure to SO2 and gassings giving rise to respiratory symptoms. Incidence rates, as well as incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI), were calculated. Further Cox regression models were used allowing assessment of hazard ratios (HR) stratified for sex and adjusted for atopy, smoking habits and age. The incidence rate for asthma among sulphite mill workers reporting gassings of SO2 was 6.2 out of 1,000 person-yrs, compared with 1.9 out of 1,000 person-yrs among subjects unexposed to SO2 and any gassings (HR (95% CI) 4.0 (2.1-7.7)). Among males reporting gassings to SO2, the HR (95% CI) for asthma was 5.8 (2.6-13) compared with unexposed males. In conclusion, repeated peak exposure to sulphur dioxide increased the incidence of asthma during work in sulphite pulp mills, which supports the hypothesis of irritant-induced asthma.
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