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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Tidskriftsartikel > Refereegranskat > Sjöström Lars > Jacobson Peter 1962

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  • Ahlin, Sofie, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Macrophage Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue is Associated with Insulin Sensitivity and Serum Lipid Levels Independent of Obesity.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). - 1930-739X. ; 21:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Obesity is linked to both increased metabolic disturbances and increased adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. However, whether macrophage infiltration directly influences human metabolism is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are obesity-independent links between adipose tissue macrophages and metabolic disturbances. Design and Methods: Expression of macrophage markers in adipose tissue was analyzed by DNA microarrays in the SOS Sib Pair study and in patients with type 2 diabetes and a BMI-matched healthy control group. Results: The expression of macrophage markers in adipose tissue was increased in obesity and associated with several metabolic and anthropometric measurements. After adjustment for BMI, the expression remained associated with insulin sensitivity, serum levels of insulin, C-peptide, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and triglycerides. In addition, the expression of most macrophage markers was significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our study shows that infiltration of macrophages in human adipose tissue, estimated by the expression of macrophage markers, is increased in subjects with obesity and diabetes and associated with insulin sensitivity and serum lipid levels independent of BMI. This indicates that adipose tissue macrophages may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
  • Carlsson, Lena M S, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • ALK7 expression is specific for adipose tissue, reduced in obesity and correlates to factors implicated in metabolic disease.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Biochemical and biophysical research communications. - 1090-2104. ; 382:2, s. 309-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human adipose tissue is a major site of expression of inhibin beta B (INHBB) which homodimerizes to form the novel adipokine activin B. Our aim was to determine if molecules needed for a local action of activin B are expressed in adipose tissue. Microarray analysis showed that adipose tissue expressed activin type I and II receptors and that the expression of activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) was adipose tissue specific. In obesity discordant siblings from the SOS Sib Pair study, adipose tissue ALK7 expression was higher in lean (n=90) compared to obese (n=90) subjects (p=4 x 10(-31)). Adipose tissue ALK7 expression correlated with several measures of body fat, carbohydrate metabolism and lipids. In addition, ALK7 and INHBB expression correlated but only in lean subjects and in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. We conclude that activin B may have local effects in adipose tissue and thereby influence obesity and its comorbidities.
  • Carlsson, Lena M S, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • The incidence of albuminuria after bariatric surgery and usual care in swedish obese subjects (SOS): a prospective controlled intervention trial.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 39:1, s. 169-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Obesity is associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease and albuminuria is a predictor of renal impairment. Bariatric surgery reduces body weight in obese subjects, but it is not known whether surgery can prevent development of albuminuria. This study aims to determine the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on the incidence of albuminuria.Subjects:The Swedish Obese Subjects study is a non-randomized, prospective, controlled study conducted at 25 public surgical departments and 480 primary health care centers in Sweden. Between 1 September 1987 and 31 January 2001, 2010 participants who underwent bariatric surgery and 2037 controls were recruited. Inclusion criteria were age 37-60 years and BMI⩾34 in men and BMI⩾38 in women. In this analysis, we included 1498 patients in the surgery group and 1610 controls without albuminuria at baseline. Patients in the bariatric surgery group underwent banding (18%), vertical banded gastroplasty (69%) or gastric bypass (13%); controls received usual obesity care. Date of analysis was 1 January 2011. Median follow-up was 10 years, and the rates of follow-up were 87%, 74 and 52% at 2, 10 and 15 years, respectively. The main outcome of this report is incidence of albuminuria (defined as urinary albumin excretion >30 mg per 24 h) over up to 15 years.Results:During the follow-up, albuminuria developed in 246 participants in the control group and in 126 in the bariatric surgery group, corresponding to incidence rates of 20.4 and 9.4 per 1000 person years, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.47; P<0.001). The expected number of surgeries needed to prevent the development of albuminuria in one patient at 10 years was nine.Conclusions:Bariatric surgery is associated with reduced incidence of albuminuria compared with usual obesity care.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 10 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.72.
  • Clark, Stephen J, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) Gene SNPs and Transcript Expression Levels With Severe Obesity.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Obesity. - 1930-7381. ; 20:1, s. 178-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies have reported associations of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to both obesity and BMI. This study was designed to investigate association between SIRT1 SNPs, SIRT1 gene expression and obesity. Case-control analyses were performed using 1,533 obese subjects (896 adults, BMI >40 kg/m(2) and 637 children, BMI >97th percentile for age and sex) and 1,237 nonobese controls, all French Caucasians. Two SNPs (in high linkage disequilibrium (LD), r(2) = 0.96) were significantly associated with adult obesity, rs33957861 (P value = 0.003, odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, confidence interval (CI) = 0.61-0.92) and rs11599176 (P value: 0.006, OR = 0.74, CI = 0.61-0.90). Expression of SIRT1 mRNA was measured in BMI-discordant siblings from 154 Swedish families. Transcript expression was significantly correlated to BMI in the lean siblings (r(2) = 0.13, P value = 3.36 × 10(-7)) and lower SIRT1 expression was associated with obesity (P value = 1.56 × 10(-35)). There was also an association between four SNPs (rs11599176, rs12413112, rs33957861, and rs35689145) and BMI (P values: 4 × 10(-4), 6 × 10(-4), 4 × 10(-4), and 2 × 10(-3)) with the rare allele associated with a lower BMI. However, no SNP was associated with SIRT1 transcript expression level. In summary, both SNPs and SIRT1 gene expression are associated with severe obesity.
  • Falchi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Low copy number of the salivary amylase gene predisposes to obesity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:5, s. 492-497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common multi-allelic copy number variants (CNVs) appear enriched for phenotypic associations compared to their biallelic counterparts. Here we investigated the influence of gene dosage effects on adiposity through a CNV association study of gene expression levels in adipose tissue. We identified significant association of a multi-allelic CNV encompassing the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) with body mass index (BMI) and obesity, and we replicated this finding in 6,200 subjects. Increased AMY1 copy number was positively associated with both amylase gene expression (P = 2.31 × 10-14) and serum enzyme levels (P &lt; 2.20 × 10-16), whereas reduced AMY1 copy number was associated with increased BMI (change in BMI per estimated copy =-0.15 (0.02) kg/m 2; P = 6.93 × 10-10) and obesity risk (odds ratio (OR) per estimated copy = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.26; P = 1.46 × 10-10). The OR value of 1.19 per copy of AMY1 translates into about an eightfold difference in risk of obesity between subjects in the top (copy number &gt; 9) and bottom (copy number &lt; 4) 10% of the copy number distribution. Our study provides a first genetic link between carbohydrate metabolism and BMI and demonstrates the power of integrated genomic approaches beyond genome-wide association studies. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Herder, C., et al. (författare)
  • Adiponectin and bariatric surgery: Associations with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Swedish obese subjects study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0149-5992. ; 37:5, s. 1401-1409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, but its role for incident diabetes, myocardial infarction, or stroke in obesity is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between systemic levels of adiponectin and the aforementioned outcomes in a population with severe obesity at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured serum concentrations of total adiponectin in 3,299 participants of the prospective controlled Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Study (bariatric surgery group, n = 1,570; control group given usual care, n = 1,729). Median follow-up periods ranged between 10 and 13 years for different outcomes. RESULTS: In models containing both baseline adiponectin and 2-year changes in adiponectin, high baseline adiponectin and 2-year increases in adiponectin were associated with decreased risk of diabetes and myocardial infarction among controls. In the surgery group, the 2-year weight loss was paralleled by substantial increase in circulating adiponectin (1,807-1,958 ng/mL per 10-kg weight loss). However, neither baseline adiponectin nor 2-year increases in adiponectin were associated with risk of diabetes or myocardial infarction in the fully adjusted models in the surgery group. No associations were found for stroke in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, baseline adiponectin and 2-year changes were associated with incident diabetes and myocardial infarction in the control group but not in the surgery group. Baseline adiponectin did not predict treatment benefit of bariatric surgery. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.
  • Jacobson, Peter, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Melanocortin 4 receptor sequence variations are seldom a cause of human obesity: the Swedish Obese Subjects, the HERITAGE Family Study, and a Memphis cohort.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 87:10, s. 4442-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence of mutations within and in the flanking regions of the gene encoding the melanocortin 4 receptor was investigated in severely obese and normal-weight subjects from the Swedish Obese Subjects study, the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family study, and a Memphis cohort. A total of 433 white and 95 black subjects (94% females) were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. Three previously described missense variants and nine novel (three missense, six silent) variants were detected. None of them showed significant association with obesity or related phenotypes. In addition, two novel deletions were found in two heterozygous obese women: a -65_-64delTG mutation within the 5' noncoding region and a 171delC frameshift mutation predicted to result in a truncated nonfunctional receptor. No pathogenic mutations were found among obese blacks or nonobese controls. Furthermore, none of the null mutations found in other populations was present in this sample. In conclusion, our results do not support the prevailing notion that sequence variation in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene is a frequent cause of human obesity.
  • Jacobson, Peter, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Spouse resemblance in body mass index: effects on adult obesity prevalence in the offspring generation.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American journal of epidemiology. - 0002-9262. ; 165:1, s. 101-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accruing evidence indicates that mate selection is promoted by similarity in body fatness. Assortative mating for obesity may contribute genetically to the obesity epidemic by increasing the risk in subsequent generations. To test this hypothesis, the authors analyzed measured and validated questionnaire data on family members, obtained between 1987 and 2000 from 7,834 obese probands and from 829 subjects randomly ascertained from the general Swedish population. Spouse correlations in body mass index were strongest among couples with the shortest duration of cohabitation. Obesity concordance in parents was associated with an obesity prevalence of 20.1% in adult offspring compared with 1.4% if parents were concordantly nonobese (odds ratio = 18.3, 95% confidence interval: 9.0, 37.4). The prevalence was 8.2% if parents were obesity discordant (odds ratio = 6.5, 95% confidence interval: 3.2, 13.2). No association was found between rearing parents' and nonbiologic offspring's body mass index. These results agree with the hypothesis that assortative mating for obesity confers a higher risk of obesity in the offspring generation and thus contributes to the obesity epidemic. Parental obesity concordance is a strong, easily identifiable genetic risk factor that should be considered in the complex network of risk factors for obesity in designing primary prevention programs.
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