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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Tidskriftsartikel > Blekinge Tekniska Högskola

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  • Ademovski, Seida Erovic, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of different treatment modalities for oral halitosis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6357. ; 70:3, s. 224-233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. To assess the effects on intra-oral halitosis by a mouth rinse containing zinc acetate (0.3%) and chlorhexidine diacetate (0.025%) with and without adjunct tongue scraping. Materials and methods. Twenty-one subjects without a diagnosis of periodontitis were randomized in a cross-over clinical trial. Organoleptic scores (OLS) were assessed to define intra-oral halitosis by total volatile sulfur compound (T-VSC) measurements and by gas chromatography. Results. Twenty-one subjects with a mean age of 45.7 years (SD: ±13.3, range: 21–66). The OLS were significantly lower following active rinse combined with tongue scraping (p < 0.001) at all time points. Immediately after, at 30 min, and at day 14, the T-VSC values were lower in the active rinse sequence than in the negative rinse sequence (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). At 30 min and at day 14, the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (MM) values were lower in the active rinse sequence compared to the inactive rinse sequence (p < 0.001). The inactive rinse sequence with tongue scraping reduced T-VSC at 30 min (p < 0.001) but not at 14 days. Similar reductions in T-VSC, H2S and MM were found in the active rinse sequence with or without tongue scraping. Conclusion. The use of a tongue scraper did not provide additional benefits to the active mouth rinse, but reduced OLS and tongue coating index.
  • Ademovski, S. Erovic, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of different mouth rinse products on intra-oral halitosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Dental Hygiene. - 1601-5029. ; 14:2, s. 117-123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To evaluate the effect of different mouth rinses 12 h after rinsing on genuine intra-oral halitosis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adults with halitosis were included in a double-blind, crossover, randomized clinical trial. Halitosis was evaluated 12 h after rinsing with placebo and five mouth rinse products containing zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate; zinc lactate, chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride; zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate with reduced amounts of mint and menthol; zinc chloride and essential oil; and chlorine dioxide using the organoleptic method and a gas chromatograph. Test periods were separated by 1 week. Results: Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (MM) and the organoleptic scores (OLS) were significantly reduced 12 h following rinsing with all substances compared to placebo (P < 0.05). H2S was more effectively reduced after rinsing with zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate and zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate with reduced amounts of mint and menthol compared to rinsing with zinc chloride and essential oil (P < 0.05), and significantly lower values of MM were obtained after rinsing with zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate compared to zinc lactate, chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride (P < 0.05). The percentage effectively treated individuals (H2S (<112 ppb), MM (<26 ppb) and OLS score <2) varied from 58% percentage (zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate) to 26% (zinc chloride and essential oil). Conclusion: All treatments resulted in reduction in halitosis 12 h after rinsing compared to placebo. H2S and MM were most effectively reduced by zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate.
  • Afzal, Wasif, et al. (författare)
  • An experiment on the effectiveness and efficiency of exploratory testing
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering. - Springer. - 1382-3256. ; 20:3, s. 844-878
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The exploratory testing (ET) approach is commonly applied in industry, but lacks scientific research. The scientific community needs quantitative results on the performance of ET taken from realistic experimental settings. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of ET vs. testing with documented test cases (test case based testing, TCT). We performed four controlled experiments where a total of 24 practitioners and 46 students performed manual functional testing using ET and TCT. We measured the number of identified defects in the 90-minute testing sessions, the detection difficulty, severity and types of the detected defects, and the number of false defect reports. The results show that ET found a significantly greater number of defects. ET also found significantly more defects of varying levels of difficulty, types and severity levels. However, the two testing approaches did not differ significantly in terms of the number of false defect reports submitted. We conclude that ET was more efficient than TCT in our experiment. ET was also more effective than TCT when detection difficulty, type of defects and severity levels are considered. The two approaches are comparable when it comes to the number of false defect reports submitted.
  • Afzal, Wasif, et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of faults-slip-through in large software projects: An empirical evaluation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Software quality journal. - 0963-9314. ; 22:1, s. 51-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by finding more faults earlier in a software test process. Therefore, determination of which software test phases to focus improvement work on has considerable industrial interest. We evaluate a number of prediction techniques for predicting the number of faults slipping through to unit, function, integration, and system test phases of a large industrial project. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different test phases by striving toward finding the faults in the right phase. The results show that a range of techniques are found to be useful in predicting the number of faults slipping through to the four test phases; however, the group of search-based techniques (genetic programming, gene expression programming, artificial immune recognition system, and particle swarm optimization-based artificial neural network) consistently give better predictions, having a representation at all of the test phases. Human predictions are consistently better at two of the four test phases. We conclude that the human predictions regarding the number of faults slipping through to various test phases can be well supported by the use of search-based techniques. A combination of human and an automated search mechanism (such as any of the search-based techniques) has the potential to provide improved prediction results.
  • Aurum, Aybüke, et al. (författare)
  • Increasing the understanding of effectiveness in software inspections using published data sets
  • 2005
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since its inception into software engineering software inspection has been viewed as a cost-effective way of increasing software quality. Despite this many questions remain unanswered regarding, for example, ideal team size or cost effectiveness. This paper addresses some of these questions by performing an analysis using 30 published data sets from empirical experiments of software inspections. The main question is concerned with determining a suitable team size for software inspections. The effectiveness of different team sizes is also studied. Furthermore, the differences in mean effectiveness between different team sizes are investigated based on the inspection environmental context, document types and reading technique. It is concluded that it is possible to choose a suitable team size based on the effectiveness of inspections. This can be used as a tool to assist in the planning of inspections. A particularly interesting result is that variation in the effectiveness between different teams is considerably higher for certain types of documents than for others. Our findings contain important information for anyone planning, controlling or managing software inspections.
  • Edison, Henry, et al. (författare)
  • Towards innovation measurement in the software industry
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software. - Elsevier. - 0164-1212. ; 86:5, s. 1390-1407
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In today's highly competitive business environments with shortened product and technology life cycle, it is critical for software industry to continuously innovate. This goal can be achieved by developing a better understanding and control of the activities and determinants of innovation. Innovation measurement initiatives assess innovation capability, output and performance to help develop such an understanding. This study explores various aspects relevant to innovation measurement ranging from definitions, measurement frameworks and metrics that have been proposed in literature and used in practice. A systematic literature review followed by an online questionnaire and interviews with practitioners and academics were employed to identify a comprehensive definition of innovation that can be used in software industry. The metrics for the evaluation of determinants, inputs, outputs and performance were also aggregated and categorised. Based on these findings, a conceptual model of the key measurable elements of innovation was constructed from the findings of the systematic review. The model was further refined after feedback from academia and industry through interviews.
  • Erovic Ademovski, Seida, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • The short-term treatment effects on the microbiota at the dorsum of the tongue in intra-oral halitosis patients : a randomized clinical trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Oral Investigations. - 1432-6981. ; 17:2, s. 463-473
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives This study aims to assess the effects of rinsing with zinc- and chlorhexidine-containing mouth rinse with or without adjunct tongue scraping on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in breath air, and the microbiota at the dorsum of the tongue. Material and methods A randomized single-masked controlled clinical trial with a cross-over study design over 14 days including 21 subjects was performed. Bacterial samples from the dorsum of the tongue were assayed by checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization. Results No halitosis (identified by VSC assessments) at day 14 was identified in 12/21 subjects with active rinse alone, in 10/21with adjunct use of tongue scraper, in 1/21 for negative control rinse alone, and in 3/21 in the control and tongue scraping sequence. At day 14, significantly lower counts were identified only in the active rinse sequence ( p < 0.001) for 15/78 species including , Fusobacterium sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , and Tannerella forsythia . A decrease in bacteria from baseline to day 14 was found in successfully treated subjects for 9/74 species including: P. gingivalis , Prevotella melaninogenica , S. aureus , and Treponema denticola . Baseline VSC scores were correlated with several bacterial species. The use of a tongue scraper combined with active rinse did not change the levels of VSC compared to rinsing alone. Conclusions VSC scores were not associated with bacterial counts in samples taken from the dorsum of the tongue. The active rinse alone containing zinc and chlorhexidine had effects on intra-oral halitosis and reduced bacterial counts of species associated with malodor. Tongue scraping provided no beneficial effects on the microbiota studied. Clinical relevance Periodontally healthy subjects with intra-oral halitosis benefit from daily rinsing with zinc- and chlorhexidine-containing mouth rinse.
  • Fagerstrom, C., et al. (författare)
  • Factorial validity and invariance of the Life Satisfaction Index in older people across groups and time: : Addressing the heterogeneity of age, functional ability, and depression.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print). - 0167-4943. ; 55:2, s. 349-356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the last decades, extensive research efforts have been directed at exploring life satisfaction in old age, and the Life Satisfaction Index A scale (LSIA), developed by Neugarten et al. in the 1960s, is one of the most commonly used instruments. However, studies have focused on predicting and comparing changes in people’s life satisfaction without testing if the LSIA instrument is equally valid for different subgroups of people. The present study investigated the underlying dimensions of the LSIA in a Swedish population (n=1402) of people 60−96 years of age. The study also examined factorial invariance across age, gender, functional ability and depression during a six-year period. The results showed that while a five-factor solution of the LSIA did not exhibit an acceptable fit to the data, a three-factor solution did show a close fit. The two three-factor models that demonstrated the best fit showed invariance across gender and across time, but noninvariance across groups with different levels of reduced functional ability, depressive symptoms and age. These findings suggest that the psychometric properties of life satisfaction instruments like the LSIA need to be taken into consideration before drawing conclusions about life satisfaction when comparing older people of different ages and with different depression and function levels. 
  • Holmgren, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Modelling modal choice effects of regulation on low-sulphur marine fuels in Northern Europe
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. - 1361-9209. ; 28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The implementation of MARPOL Annex VI in the North and Baltic Sea Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA) has raised economic concerns among shippers and shipowners, as well as spurred policymakers to appeal to various interests, such as citizen health, export industry competitiveness, and consumer prices. To justify their cases, policymakers and stakeholders have commissioned various agencies to monitor the implementation’s effects upon sustainability, especially regarding a potential modal shift from sea to road transport. This article thus reviews some of these commissioned studies in order to analyse the effects of the implementation and the possibility of modal shift. It also provides an agent-based simulation study of route choice for comparatively high-value cargo from Lithuania in the east to the United Kingdom in the west. Ultimately, the results of our TAPAS study do not provide concrete evidence supporting a modal shift from sea to road transport and indeed, they indicate that a shift is unlikely to occur.
  • Holt, Nina E., et al. (författare)
  • Empirical evaluations on the cost-effectiveness of state-based testing: An industrial case study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Information and Software Technology. - 0950-5849. ; 56:8, s. 890-910
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context Test models describe the expected behavior of the software under test and provide the basis for test case and oracle generation. When test models are expressed as UML state machines, this is typically referred to as state-based testing (SBT). Despite the importance of being systematic while testing, all testing activities are limited by resource constraints. Thus, reducing the cost of testing while ensuring sufficient fault detection is a common goal in software development. No rigorous industrial case studies of SBT have yet been published. Objective In this paper, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SBT on actual control software by studying the combined influence of four testing aspects: coverage criterion, test oracle, test model and unspecified behavior (sneak paths). Method An industrial case study was used to investigate the cost-effectiveness of SBT. To enable the evaluation of SBT techniques, a model-based testing tool was configured and used to automatically generate test suites. The test suites were evaluated using 26 real faults collected in a field study. Results Results show that the more detailed and rigorous the test model and oracle, the higher the fault-detection ability of SBT. A less precise oracle achieved 67% fault detection, but the overall cost reduction of 13% was not enough to make the loss an acceptable trade-off. Removing details from the test model significantly reduced the cost by 85%. Interestingly, only a 24–37% reduction in fault detection was observed. Testing for sneak paths killed the remaining eleven mutants that could not be killed by the conformance test strategies. Conclusions Each of the studied testing aspects influences cost-effectiveness and must be carefully considered in context when selecting strategies. Regardless of these choices, sneak-path testing is a necessary step in SBT since sneak paths are common while also undetectable by conformance testing.
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