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  • A.O., Tillmar, et al. (författare)
  • Using X-chromosomal markers in relationship testing: : How to calculate likelihood ratios taking linkage and linkage disequilibrium into account
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International : Genetics. - Elsevier. - 1872-4973. ; 5:5, s. 506-511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • X-chromosomal markers in forensic genetics have become more widely used during the recent years, particularly for relationship testing. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) must typically be accounted for when using close X-chromosomal markers. Thus, when producing the weight-of-evidence, given by a DNA-analysis with markers that are linked, the normally used product rule is invalid. Here we present an efficient model for calculating likelihood ratio (LR) with markers on the X-chromosome which are linked and in LD. Furthermore, the model was applied on several cases based on data from the eight X-chromosomal loci included in the Mentype® Argus X-8 (Biotype). Using a simulation approach we showed that the use of X-chromosome data can offer valuable information for choosing between the alternatives in each of the cases we studied, and that the LR can be high in several cases. We demonstrated that when linkage and LD were disregarded, as opposed to taken into account, the difference in calculated LR could be considerable. When these differences were large, the estimated haplotype frequencies often had a strong impact and we present a method to estimate haplotype frequencies. Our conclusion is that linkage and LD should be accounted for when using the tested set of markers, and the presented model is an efficient way of doing so.
  • Aas, W., et al. (författare)
  • Lessons learnt from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 12:17, s. 8073-8094
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first EMEP intensive measurement periods were held in June 2006 and January 2007. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol chemical compositions, including the gas/aerosol partitioning of inorganic compounds. The measurement program during these periods included daily or hourly measurements of the secondary inorganic components, with additional measurements of elemental- and organic carbon (EC and OC) and mineral dust in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. These measurements have provided extended knowledge regarding the composition of particulate matter and the temporal and spatial variability of PM, as well as an extended database for the assessment of chemical transport models. This paper summarise the first experiences of making use of measurements from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods along with EMEP model results from the updated model version to characterise aerosol composition. We investigated how the PM chemical composition varies between the summer and the winter month and geographically. The observation and model data are in general agreement regarding the main features of PM10 and PM2.5 composition and the relative contribution of different components, though the EMEP model tends to give slightly lower estimates of PM10 and PM2.5 compared to measurements. The intensive measurement data has identified areas where improvements are needed. Hourly concurrent measurements of gaseous and particulate components for the first time facilitated testing of modelled diurnal variability of the gas/aerosol partitioning of nitrogen species. In general, the modelled diurnal cycles of nitrate and ammonium aerosols are in fair agreement with the measurements, but the diurnal variability of ammonia is not well captured. The largest differences between model and observations of aerosol mass are seen in Italy during winter, which to a large extent may be explained by an underestimation of residential wood burning sources. It should be noted that both primary and secondary OC has been included in the calculations for the first time, showing promising results. Mineral dust is important, especially in southern Europe, and the model seems to capture the dust episodes well. The lack of measurements of mineral dust hampers the possibility for model evaluation for this highly uncertain PM component. There are also lessons learnt regarding improved measurements for future intensive periods. There is a need for increased comparability between the measurements at different sites. For the nitrogen compounds it is clear that more measurements using artefact free methods based on continuous measurement methods and/or denuders are needed. For EC/OC, a reference methodology (both in field and laboratory) was lacking during these periods giving problems with comparability, though measurement protocols have recently been established and these should be followed by the Parties to the EMEP Protocol. For measurements with no defined protocols, it might be a good solution to use centralised laboratories to ensure comparability across the network. To cope with the introduction of these new measurements, new reporting guidelines have been developed to ensure that all proper information about the methodologies and data quality is given.
  • Abbas, Aamer, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization and mapping of carotenoids in the algae Dunaliella and Phaeodactylum using Raman and target orthogonal partial least squares.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems. - 0169-7439. ; 107:1, s. 174-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A method was developed for the characterisation of carotenoid pigments in algal species using Raman spectroscopy in combination with multivariate hyperspectral analysis. Target orthogonal partial least squares (T-OPLS) operates by designating one known reference spectrum as the target. The target spectrum is put as the single y column in an OPLS regression model where the X matrix consists of the unfolded image spectra as variables in its columns. The spectral shape of the OPLS first orthogonal target score enabled us to verify the peak positions of the standard, and detect new peaks, not present in the reference standard. It was shown that the mixture of carotenoids present in the algae did not fully match the reference spectrum, however, the method provided enough information to make an analysis possible also in this case. The image results were constructed from the OPLS loading vectors that were showing a correlation map for the reference spectrum from the predictive loadings and maps of the occurrence of deviations from the orthogonal loadings.
  • Abbas, Aamer, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Chemical images of marine bio-active compounds by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and transposed orthogonal partial least squares (T-OPLS)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Analytica Chimica Acta. - 0003-2670. ; 737, s. 37-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with transposed Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (T-OPLS) was shown to produce chemical images of the natural antibacterial surface-active compound 1,1,3,3-tetrabromo-2-heptanone (TBH) on Bonnemaisonia hamifera. The use of gold colloids function-alised with the internal standard 4-mercapto-benzonitrile (MBN) made it possible to create images of the relative concentration of TBH over the surfaces. A gradient of TBH could be mapped over and in the close vicinity of the B. hamifera algal vesicles at the attomol/pixel level. T-OPLS produced a measure of the spectral correlation for each pixel of the hyperspectral images whilst not including spectral variation that was linearly independent of the target spectrum. In this paper we show the possibility to retrieve specific spectral information with a low magnitude in a complex matrix.
  • Abel, Andreas, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Normalization by Evaluation for Martin-Löf Type Theory with Equality Judgements
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of 22nd IEEE Annual Symposium on Logic in ComputerScience, Wroclaw, Poland, July 2007.. ; s. 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The decidability of equality is proved for Martin-Löf type theory with a universe a la Russell and typed beta-eta-equality judgements. A corollary of this result is that the constructor for dependent function types is injective, a property which is crucial for establishing the correctness of the type-checking algorithm. The decision procedure uses normalization by evaluation, an algorithm which first interprets terms in a domain with untyped semantic elements and then extracts normal forms. The correctness of this algorithm is established using a PER-model and a logical relation between syntax and semantics.
  • Abel, Frida, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • A 6-gene signature identifies four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Cell International. - 1475-2867. ; 11:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples). Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples) using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA test). PCA clusters p1, p2, and p3 were found to correspond well to the postulated subtypes 1, 2A, and 2B, respectively. Remarkably, a fourth novel cluster was detected in all three independent data sets. This cluster comprised mainly 11q-deleted MNA-negative tumours with low expression of ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and/or dead of disease, p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group's specific characteristics.
  • Abel, Frida, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Imbalance of the mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in neuroblastoma tumours with unfavourable biology.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). - 0959-8049. ; 41:4, s. 635
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been proposed that a lack of apoptosis plays an important role in neuroblastoma (NB) progression. We therefore screened cDNA array filters, including 198 apoptotic genes, in order to identify mRNA transcripts that are differentially expressed in tumours with unfavourable versus favourable biology. Twenty-one genes were analysed further using real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Significantly lower levels of DNCL1 (PIN; P(c)(corrected) = 0.0054) and NTRK1 (TrkA; P(c) = 0.039) were found in NB tumours with unfavourable biology. In addition, BID, BCL2, APAF1, CASP2, CASP3 and CASP9 were found to be preferentially expressed in tumours with favourable biology, whereas CDKN1A (p21), IL2RA, and MCL1, were found to be preferentially expressed in NB tumours with unfavourable biology. In conclusion, mRNA levels of transcripts encoding pro-apoptotic mediators of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway were found to be expressed to a lower extent in tumours with unfavourable biology. Our data also suggest that the mitochondrial pathway is suppressed in advanced stages of NB tumours, due to an imbalance between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic mediators which is a finding that may have therapeutic significance.
  • Abel, Frida, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in the N-terminal domain of DFF45 in a primary germ cell tumor and in neuroblastoma tumors.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International journal of oncology. - 1019-6439. ; 25:5, s. 1297-302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DFF45 has essential functions in the final stage of apoptosis by acting both as a folding chaperone and a DNase inhibitor of DFF40. The gene encoding DFF45 (DFFA) maps to the consensus deleted region in primary neuroblastoma (NB; 1p36.2-3) and within the homozygously deleted region in an NB cell line (1p36.2). DFF45 is therefore an attractive candidate NB tumor suppressor. In a previous study we found a rare allele variant, causing a non-polar to a polar amino acid exchange (Ile69Thr) in a preserved hydrophobic patch of DFF45, and we also found DFFA to be preferentially expressed in favorable NB tumors. We have extended the previous study and performed mutation analyses in another 56 NB tumors (100 in total) as well as a set of other tumors for coding mutations in DFFA. We have also performed studies of the DFFA expression in tumors using real-time PCR. We found a missense mutation (Ile15Met) in the remaining allele of a teratoma with heterozygous deletion of 1p, and a three base-pair deletion in an NB of unknown stage causing a deletion of amino acid 37 in DFF45. The one-base substitution detected in the teratoma was not present in the patients constitutional DNA, i.e. it is a true mutation present in the tumor DNA only. In conclusion, three different coding alterations have been found in the region encoding the N-terminal regulatory domain of DFF45, responsible for binding and achieving its chaperone and inhibitor functions on other proteins. Moreover, by real-time RT-PCR expression study, we found the mRNA level of DFFA to be significantly (p=0.038) reduced by a factor of 1.7 times in NB tumors of unfavorable outcome.
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