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  • A, Komonen, et al. (författare)
  • Insects associated with fruit bodies of the wood-decaying fungus Oak mazegill (Daedalea quercina) in mixed oak forests in southern Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Entomologisk Tidskrift. - 0013-886X. ; 133:4, s. 173-181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polypores host species rich insect assemblages, but relatively few polypore species have been studied in detail. We investigated insect assemblages associated with the fruit bodies of Daedalea quercina, a specialist species on oak in southern Sweden. Fruit bodies (n = 228) were collected from 25 nature reserves and woodland key habitats, and were taken into the laboratory to collect emerging insects. A total of 245 insect individuals were recorded, belonging to at least 45 species. The numerically dominant fungivores were the tineid moths Montescardia tessulatella (n = 38 individuals) and Nemapogon fungivorellus (n = 10) and the coleopteran Ennearthron cornutum (Ciidae) (n = 44). Altogether 40 individuals of hymenopteran parasitoids were recorded, belonging to Braconidae (Exothecinae, Microgastrinae and Rogadinae, altogether 6 spp.), Ichneumonidae (Banchinae, Cryptinae and Orthocentrinae, altogether 4 spp.), Torymidae (1 sp.), Perilampidae (1 sp.) and Scelionidae (1 sp.). Most of the remaining insect species are not specifically associated with fruit bodies, but occupy many types of decaying material. In conclusion, D. quercina hosted a low number of insect individuals in general and only a few coleopteran species. The fungus apparently has only one specialist species, N. fungivorellus, which is a near-threatened (NT) species on the Swedish red list; the record from Norra Vi is the first from the Jönköping. The overall low number of insect individuals and the dominance of Lepidoptera among the fungivores is possibly explained by the tough fruit bodies of D. quercina, which only moths are able to utilize; fruit bodies which had already started to rot were devoid of moths.
  • A. Nojima, et al. (författare)
  • Calculational aspects of electron-phonon coupling at surfaces
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: J. Phys: Condens. Matter. - 1361-648X. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study the validity of two frequently used approximations in calculations of electron–phonon coupling at surfaces. The rigid-ion approximation is a standard approximation used for the bulk metals. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we find that for Be this approximation is as valid for surface atoms as for bulk atoms. In addition, the slab method for calculations of a phonon induced surface state lifetime is examined. The convergence of the electron–phonon matrix element with respect to the thickness of the slab is studied for several systems. When the number of slab layers is increased, the net effect of decreasing overlap and increasing number of final states depends strongly on the decay length of the surface state wavefunction and the band structure.
  • A.O., Tillmar, et al. (författare)
  • Using X-chromosomal markers in relationship testing: : How to calculate likelihood ratios taking linkage and linkage disequilibrium into account
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International : Genetics. - Elsevier. - 1872-4973. ; 5:5, s. 506-511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • X-chromosomal markers in forensic genetics have become more widely used during the recent years, particularly for relationship testing. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) must typically be accounted for when using close X-chromosomal markers. Thus, when producing the weight-of-evidence, given by a DNA-analysis with markers that are linked, the normally used product rule is invalid. Here we present an efficient model for calculating likelihood ratio (LR) with markers on the X-chromosome which are linked and in LD. Furthermore, the model was applied on several cases based on data from the eight X-chromosomal loci included in the Mentype® Argus X-8 (Biotype). Using a simulation approach we showed that the use of X-chromosome data can offer valuable information for choosing between the alternatives in each of the cases we studied, and that the LR can be high in several cases. We demonstrated that when linkage and LD were disregarded, as opposed to taken into account, the difference in calculated LR could be considerable. When these differences were large, the estimated haplotype frequencies often had a strong impact and we present a method to estimate haplotype frequencies. Our conclusion is that linkage and LD should be accounted for when using the tested set of markers, and the presented model is an efficient way of doing so.
  • A, Teschendorff, et al. (författare)
  • The dynamics of DNA methylation covariation patterns in carcinogenesis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS Computational Biology. - 1553-734X. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently it has been observed that cancer tissue is characterised by an increased variability in DNA methylation patterns. However, how the correlative patterns in genome-wide DNA methylation change during the carcinogenic progress has not yet been explored. Here we study genome-wide inter-CpG correlations in DNA methylation, in addition to single site variability, during cervical carcinogenesis. We demonstrate how the study of changes in DNA methylation covariation patterns across normal, intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer allows the identification of CpG sites that indicate the risk of neoplastic transformation in stages prior to neoplasia. Importantly, we show that the covariation in DNA methylation at these risk CpG loci is maximal immediately prior to the onset of cancer, supporting the view that high epigenetic diversity in normal cells increases the risk of cancer. Consistent with this, we observe that invasive cancers exhibit increased covariation in DNA methylation at the risk CpG sites relative to normal tissue, but lower levels relative to pre-cancerous lesions. We further show that the identified risk CpG sites undergo preferential DNA methylation changes in relation to human papilloma virus infection and age. Results are validated in independent data including prospectively collected samples prior to neoplastic transformation. Our data are consistent with a phase transition model of carcinogenesis, in which epigenetic diversity is maximal prior to the onset of cancer. The model and algorithm proposed here may allow, in future, network biomarkers predicting the risk of neoplastic transformation to be identified.
  • Aagaard, P, et al. (författare)
  • Early Repolarization in Middle-Age Runners-Cardiovascular Characteristics.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - 0195-9131. ; 46:7, s. 1285-1292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and patterns of early repolarization (ER) in middle-age long-distance runners, its relation to cardiac structure and function, and its response to strenuous physical activity. Methods: Male first-time cross-country race participants >45 yr were assessed pre-and postrace by medical history and physical examination, 12-lead ECG, vectorcardiography, blood tests, and echocardiography. ER was defined either as ST elevation or J wave and categorized according to localization and morphology. Results: One hundred and fifty-one subjects (50 +/- 5 yr) were evaluated before the race, and 47 subjects were evaluated after the race. Altogether, 67 subjects (44%) had ER. Subjects with versus without ER had a lower resting HR (56 +/- 8 vs 69 +/- 9 bpm, P = 0.02), lower body mass index (24 +/- 2 vs 25 +/- 3 kg.m(-2), P < 0.001), higher training volume (3.0 +/- 2.6 vs 2.1 +/- 2.7 h.wk(-1), P = 0.03), and faster 30-km running times (194 +/- 28 vs 208 +/- 31 min, P = 0.01). Vectorcardiography parameters in subjects with ER showed more repolarization heterogeneity: vector gradient (QRS-T-area) (120 +/- 25 vs 92 +/- 29 mu Vs, P < 0.001), T-area (105 +/- 18 vs 73 +/- 23 mu Vs, P < 0.001), and T-amplitude (0.63 +/- 0.13 vs 0.53 +/- 0.16 mm, P < 0.001); these parameters were inversely related to HR (r = -0.37 to -0.48, P < 0.001). ER disappeared in 15 (75%) of 20 subjects after the race. Conclusions: ER is a common finding in middle-age male runners. This ECG pattern, regardless of morphology and localization, is associated with normal cardiac examinations including noninvasive electrophysiology, features of better physical conditioning, and disappears after strenuous exercise in most cases. These findings support that ER should be regarded as a common and training-related finding also in middle-age physically active men.
  • Aagaard, P., et al. (författare)
  • Heart Rate and Its Variability in Response to Running-Associations with Troponin
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. - 0195-9131. ; 46:8, s. 1624-1630
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigate the time course of autonomic tone changes after a first-time endurance running race participation and associations with postexertional high-sensitivity troponin (hsTnT) levels in middle-aged males. Methods: Male (n = 42) first-time long-distance running race (Lidingoloppet 30 km) participants >= 45 yr (50.5 +/- 5) were examined. HR and HR variability (HRV) in the time domain (SDANN) was measured continuously from 2 d before to 4 d after the race using a wireless cardiovascular monitor that also recorded arrhythmia episodes. In addition, subjects were assessed pre- and postrace by medical history and physical examination, 12-lead ECG, blood tests including hsTnT, and echocardiography. Results: Compared with corresponding prerace values, nighttime (2: 00-4: 00 a.m.) HR was significantly elevated (63.6 +/- 9.4 vs 53.9 +/- 8.3 bpm, P < 0.001) on the first night postrace, whereas HRV remained reduced for a median of 64 h (interquartile range, 51-102 h). A prolonged HR recovery period (r = 0.48, P = 0.005) and a larger reduction in postrace HRV (r = -0.49, P = 0.003) correlated with higher postrace hsTnT levels. The association between reduced HRV and higher hsTnT remained significant after multivariate analysis (A = -0.48, P = 0.01). No sustained ventricular arrhythmias were recorded, but atrial fibrillation occurred in two subjects. Conclusion: Endurance running race participation caused a prolonged alteration of autonomic tone. More marked and prolonged changes were associated with higher levels of hsTnT, suggesting that the magnitude of troponin increase after strenuous exercise may reflect the magnitude of exercise-induced cardiovascular stress.
  • Aagaard, P, et al. (författare)
  • Preparticipation Evaluation of Novice, Middle-Age Long-Distance Runners.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Medicine and science in sports and exercise. - 0195-9131. ; 45:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract PURPOSE: To assess the cardiovascular health and risk profile in middle-aged males making an entry to participate for their first time in a long-distance race. METHODS: Male first-time participants ≥45 years in the world's largest cross-country running race, the Lidingöloppet, were evaluated with a medical history and physical exam, European risk-SCORE, 12-lead ECG, echocardiography and blood tests. Further diagnostic work-up was performed when clinically indicated. RESULTS: Of 265 eligible runners, 153 (58%, age 51±5 y) completed the study. While the 10-year fatal cardiovascular event risk was low (SCORE: 1% (IQR: 0 - 1%)), mild abnormalities were common, e.g. elevated blood-pressure (19%), left ventricular hypertrophy (6%), elevated LDL cholesterol (5%). ECG changes compatible with "athlete's heart" were present in 82%, e.g. sinus bradycardia (61%) and/or early repolarization (32%). ECG changes considered training-unrelated were found in 24%, e.g. prolonged QTc: 13%; left axis deviation: 5.3%; left atrial enlargement: 4%). In 14 runners (9%) additional diagnostic work-up was clinically motivated, and 4 (2%) were ultimately discouraged from vigorous exercise due to QTc intervals >500 ms (n=2), symptomatic atrioventricular block (n=1), and a cardiac tumor (n=1). The physician exam and the ECG identified 12 of the 14 subjects requiring further evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-aged men, including a physician exam and a 12-lead ECG, appears useful to identify individuals requiring further testing prior to vigorous exercise. The additional yield of routine echocardiography was small.
  • Aagaard, Philip, et al. (författare)
  • Tidig repolarisation på EKG - Definitioner, prevalens och prognostisk betydelse.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - 1652-7518. ; 112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early repolarization defined as antero-lateral ST-segment elevation exists in 1-2 % of the general population and has been considered a benign ECG finding for decades. However, early repolarization, defined as infero-lateral J-waves, has in recent studies been associated with an increased - albeit low - risk of sudden and cardiovascular death. This ECG pattern is present in 3-13% of the general population. However, exercise training can induce all types of early repolarization, and the prevalence in the athletic population rises to 20-90%. There is large variability between sports (higher in endurance athletes) and also throughout the season (higher during times of peak fitness). In athletes, early repolarization, regardless of type, is considered benign. In asymptomatic non-athletes, the absolute risk is too low to use this ECG finding in clinical practice. In individuals with J-wave syndrome, on the other hand, ICD implantation should be strongly considered to prevent sudden cardiac death.
  • Aagerup, Ulf, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Green consumer behavior: : being good or seeming good?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Product & Brand Management. - Bingley : Emerald Group Publishing Limited. - 1061-0421. ; 25:3, s. 274-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: This paper aims to expand the emerging field of symbolic green consumer behavior (GCB) by investigating the impact of anticipated conspicuousness of the consumption situation on consumers’ choice of organic products. In addition, the paper also explores whether self-monitoring ability and attention to social comparison information (ATSCI) influence GCB in situations of anticipated high conspicuousness.Design/methodology/approach: Two experiments test the study’s hypotheses.Findings: The results of both experiments show that the anticipation of conspicuousness has a significant effect on GCB. Moreover, in Experiment 2, this effect is moderated by consumers’ level of ATSCI but not by their self-monitoring ability.Research limitations/implications: Because ATSCI significantly interacts with green consumption because of the anticipation of a conspicuous setting, although self-monitoring ability does not, we conclude that social identification is an important determinant of green consumption.Practical implications: Marketers who focus on building green brands could consider designing conspicuous consumption situations to increase GCB.Social implications: Policymakers could enact change by making the environmental unfriendliness of non-eco-friendly products visible to the public and thus increase the potential for GCB.Originality/value: The results validate the emerging understanding that green products are consumed for self-enhancement, but also expand the literature by highlighting that a key motivating factor of GCB is the desire to fit in.
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