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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Tidskriftsartikel > Högskolan i Halmstad > Fritt online

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  • Ahmadi, Nasser S., et al. (författare)
  • Breathlessness in everyday life from a patient perspective:
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Palliative & supportive care. - 1478-9515. ; 12:3, s. 189-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Breathlessness is a subjective symptom, which makes it difficult to define and understand. The aim of the present study was to illuminate how patients suffering from breathlessness experience their everyday life. Method: The study was a qualitative study, and the focus of the analysis was the patients' descriptions of their experiences of breathlessness using a diary with two unstructured questions for a period of 7 consecutive days. Sixteen participants: 7 men, mean age 65 ± 7 (range 55-73 years old), and 9 women, mean age 65 ± 9 (range 50-72 years old) participated in the study. Results: Two themes emerged from the analysis: 1) Impaired quality of life and 2) symptom tolerance and adaptation. The theme "impaired quality of life" included the categories limited physical ability, psychological burdens, and social life barriers. The theme "symptom tolerance and adaptation" included importance of health care, social support, hobbies and leisure activities, and coping strategies. Significance of results: The findings in our study showed that patients, in spite of considerable difficulties with shortness of breath, found relief in several types of activities, in addition to drug therapy. The result indicates that the "biopsychosocial model" is an appealing approach that should be discussed further to gain a better understanding of breathlessness. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.
  • Aldrin, Viktor, 1980- (författare)
  • Kursguidernas roll i högre utbildning
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Högre Utbildning. - Lund : Högre Utbildning. - 2000-7558. ; 3:1, s. 37-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kursguider är en text som finns mellan kursplanens målformuleringar och själva genomförandet av en kurs. Den skrivs om för varje kurstillfälle för att anpassas till datum och specifika examinationsformer. Som undersökningsmaterial är kursguider därmed mycket praktiknära och ger mycket god insyn i hur undervisning är tänkt att ske. Trots detta har ingen tidigare forskning gjorts i Sverige kring detta material, och internationell forskning finns endast i begränsad omfattning kring denna typ av praktiknära material. Denna artikel är en del i ett större projekt, Bättre kursguider, på Enheten för Pedagogisk utveckling och interaktivt lärande (PIL) vid Göteborgs universitet som bedrivits 2011–2012.
  • Almquist-Tangen, Gerd, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age:
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC public health. - 1471-2458. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy.METHODS: A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n=2,407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. <10%, 10-19%, 20-29% and ≥ 30% of the resident families with low purchasing power.RESULTS: The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p=0.00004): from 16.3% (< 10% with low purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR=1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p=0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio).CONCLUSION: The neighbourhood purchasing power provided a spatial determinant of low numbers of mothers breastfeeding at four months of age, which could be relevant to consider for targeted actions. The elevated observed-to-expected ratio in the neighbourhoods with the lowest purchasing power points toward a possible contextual influence. © 2013 Almquist-Tangen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
  • Arvidsson, B, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of process-oriented group supervision as reported by nursing students:
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Vård i Norden. - 0107-4083. ; 28:1, s. 26-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One method to ensure that nursing students are better prepared for their future professional role can be to offer them process-oriented group supervision. The aim of this prospective, longitudinal pilot study was to evaluate the effects of a process-oriented group supervision programme (PGSP) comprising educational, supportive and developmental areas based on reports by nursing students undergoing a 3-year nursing education. The students (N=61) evaluated their experiences of the PGSP by means of a questionnaire, which they filled in after each study year. An independent t-test was conducted to compare the educational, supportive, and developmental areas after the first (2002), second (2003) and third year (2004) as well as over the whole 3-year study period. The result showed no significant difference in scores in the educational area. However, there was a significant increase in the supportive area (p=.03) over the 3-year period, which was especially noticeable during the first year (p=.013). There was also an increase in the developmental area over the 3-year period (p=.021) as well as during the first year (p=.024). Thus, PGSP seems to develop nursing students in their professional identity and personal growth. However, as this was a pilot study, a research implication is to perform a large-scale study over a longer period of time.
  • Brorsson, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in muscle activity during hand-dexterity tasks between women with arthritis and a healthy reference group.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. - London, England : BioMed Central. - 1471-2474. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Impaired hand function is common in patients with arthritis and it affects performance of daily activities; thus, hand exercises are recommended. There is little information on the extent to which the disease affects activation of the flexor and extensor muscles during these hand-dexterity tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation during such tasks in subjects with arthritis and in a healthy reference group.METHODS: Muscle activation was measured in m. extensor digitorium communis (EDC) and in m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) with surface electromyography (EMG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 20), hand osteoarthritis (HOA, n = 16) and in a healthy reference group (n = 20) during the performance of four daily activity tasks and four hand exercises. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured to enable intermuscular comparisons, and muscle activation is presented as %MVIC.RESULTS: The arthritis group used a higher %MVIC than the reference group in both FCR and EDC when cutting with a pair of scissors, pulling up a zipper and-for the EDC-also when writing with a pen and using a key (p < 0.02). The exercise "rolling dough with flat hands" required the lowest %MVIC and may be less effective in improving muscle strength.CONCLUSIONS: Women with arthritis tend to use higher levels of muscle activation in daily tasks than healthy women, and wrist extensors and flexors appear to be equally affected. It is important that hand training programs reflect real-life situations and focus also on extensor strength.
  • Brorsson, Sofia, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Ultrasound evaluation in combination with finger extension force measurements of the forearm musculus extensor digitorum communis in healthy subjects
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Imaging. - London : BioMed Central. - 1471-2342. ; 8:Article number 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an ultrasound-based method of examining extensor muscle architecture, especially the parameters important for force development. This paper presents the combination of two non-invasive methods for studying the extensor muscle architecture using ultrasound simultaneously with finger extension force measurements.Methods:M. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) was examined in 40 healthy subjects, 20 women and 20 men, aged 35-73 years. Ultrasound measurements were made in a relaxed position of the hand as well as in full contraction. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle and contraction patterns were measured with ultrasound, and muscle volume and fascicle length were also estimated. Finger extension force was measured using a newly developed finger force measurement device.Results:The following muscle parameters were determined: CSA, circumference, thickness, pennation angles and changes in shape of the muscle CSA. The mean EDC volume in men was 28.3 cm3 and in women 16.6 cm3. The mean CSA was 2.54 cm2 for men and 1.84 cm2 for women. The mean pennation angle for men was 6.5° and for women 5.5°. The mean muscle thickness for men was 1.2 cm and for women 0.76 cm. The mean fascicle length for men was 7.3 cm and for women 5.0 cm. Significant differences were found between men and women regarding EDC volume (p < 0.001), CSA (p < 0.001), pennation angle (p < 0.05), muscle thickness (p < 0.001), fascicle length (p < 0.001) and finger force (p < 0.001). Changes in the shape of muscle architecture during contraction were more pronounced in men than women (p < 0.01). The mean finger extension force for men was 96.7 N and for women 39.6 N. Muscle parameters related to the extension force differed between men and women. For men the muscle volume and muscle CSA were related to extension force, while for women muscle thickness was related to the extension force.Conclusion:Ultrasound is a useful tool for studying muscle architectures in EDC. Muscle parameters of importance for force development were identified. Knowledge concerning the correlation between muscle dynamics and force is of importance for the development of new hand training programmes and rehabilitation after surgery.© 2008 Brorsson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
  • Canivet, C, et al. (författare)
  • Can high psychological job demands, low decision latitude, and high job strain predict disability pensions? A 12-year follow-up of middle-aged Swedish workers
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - 0340-0131. ; 86:3, s. 307-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether job strain, psychological demands, and decision latitude are independent determinants of disability pension rates over a 12-year follow-up period. Methods: We studied 3,181 men and 3,359 women, all middle-aged and working at least 30 h per week, recruited from the general population of Malmö, Sweden, in 1992. The participation rate was 41 %. Baseline data include sociodemographics, the Job Content Questionnaire, lifestyle, and health-related variables. Disability pension information was obtained through record linkage from the National Health Insurance Register. Results: Nearly 20 % of the women and 15 % of the men were granted a disability pension during the follow-up period. The highest quartile of psychological job demands and the lowest quartile of decision latitude were associated with disability pensions when controlling for age, socioeconomic position, and health risk behaviours. In the final model, with adjustment also for health indicators and stress from outside the workplace, the hazard ratios for high strain jobs (i.e. high psychological demands in combination with low decision latitude) were 1.5 in men (95 % CI, 1.04-2.0) and 1.7 in women (95 % CI, 1.3-2.2). Stratifying for health at baseline showed that high strain tended to affect healthy but not unhealthy men, while this pattern was reversed in women. Conclusions: High psychological demands, low decision latitude, and job strain were all confirmed as independent risk factors for subsequent disability pensions. In order to increase chances of individuals remaining in the work force, interventions against these adverse psychosocial factors appear worthwhile. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
  • Egels-Zandén, Niklas, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Misery as Corporate Mission:
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Current Issues in Finance, Business, and Economics. ; 2:1, s. 55-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Elf, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • An investigation of intended and real use of a research web health portal and its implementation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Electronic Journal of Health Informatics. - 1446-4381. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Participatory design (PD) projects involve prospective users as co-designers in a process where the design object emerges through several iterations. However, the result of such a process can only partly anticipate how the future real users will use the designed object. For this reason, its actual use needs to be investigated. The present study investigated the relationship between intended use and real use in two web-based health support systems in order to explore the conditions for redesign. The dependency between intended use and real use was found to be weak. Rather, the real use was dependent on 1) the context of use and 2) the needs or interest of the users. We conclude that redesign should be based on continuous use of web metrics collected in natural settings and by involving users on a recurring basis. While a web health portal must have an agenda it is important to adapt thing design to use design, why redesign in essence will become an adaptation to user needs. ©Copyright of articles originally published in www.eJHI.net under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License is retained by the authors.
  • Elf, Mikael, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • ‘The web is not enough, it's a base’ – an explorative study of what needs a web-based support system for young carers must meet
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Informatics for Health and Social Care. - 1753-8157. ; 36:4, s. 206-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the specific needs that a web-based support system for young carers (YCs) must meet. Twelve young people with experience of caring for and supporting a close friend, partner or relative with mental illness (MI) were interviewed about their life situation, support needs and opinions about a hypothetical web-based support system. The transcribed interviews were analysed using content analysis. The analysed data were organised into three themes relating to support needs, each including a number of sub-themes: knowledge - understanding MI, managing the mentally ill person and self-care; communication - shared experiences, advice and feedback, and befriending; and outside involvement - acute relief, structured help and health care commitments. Web-based support for YCs may be a suitable way to meet the need for knowledge and to meet some of the needs for communication. We have outlined a concept of a geographically anchored web support to meet the need for befriending, facilitate connections to health and social care, and increase understanding and interaction between the parties involved. Further research is needed to corroborate the results.
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