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2.
  • André, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Personality in women and associations with mortality:
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Women's Health. - 1472-6874. ; 14:61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The question of whether personality traits influence health has long been a focus for research and discussion. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine possible associations between personality traits and mortality in women. Methods: A population-based sample of women aged 38, 46, 50 and 54 years at initial examination in 1968-69 was followed over the course of 40 years. At baseline, 589 women completed the Cesarec-Marke Personality Schedule (the Swedish version of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Associations between personality traits and mortality were tested using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: No linear associations between personality traits or factor indices and mortality were found. When comparing the lowest (Q1) and highest quartile (Q4) against the two middle quartiles (Q2 + Q3), the personality trait Succorance Q1 versus Q2 + Q3 showed hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37 (confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.74), and for the factor index Aggressive non-conformance, both the lowest and highest quartiles had a significantly higher risk of death compared to Q2 + Q3: for Q1 HR = 1.32 (CI = 1.03-1.68) and for Q4 HR = 1.36 (CI = 1.06-1.77). Neither Neuroticism nor Extraversion predicted total mortality. Conclusions: Personality traits did not influence long term mortality in this population sample of women followed for 40 years from mid- to late life. One explanation may be that personality in women becomes more circumscribed due to the social constraints generated by the role of women in society.
3.
  • Andreasen, Niels, et al. (författare)
  • Kinesin Light Chain 1 Gene Haplotypes in Three Conformational Diseases.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 12:3, s. 229-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A functional intracellular transport system is essential to maintain cell shape and function especially in elongated cells, e.g. neurons and lens fibre cells. Impaired intracellular transport has been suggested as a common pathological mechanism for age-related diseases characterised by protein aggregation. Here, we hypothesise that common genetic variation in the transport protein kinesin may influence the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related cataract. This case-control study involves a PD material (165 cases and 190 controls), an AD material (653 cases and 845 controls) and a cataract material (495 cases and 183 controls). Genetic variation in the kinesin light chain 1-encoding gene (KLC1) was tagged by six tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Single SNPs and haplotypes were analysed for associations with disease risk, age parameters, mini-mental state examination scores and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for AD using logistic or linear regression. Genetic variation in KLC1 did not influence risk of PD. Weak associations with risk of AD were seen for rs8007903 and rs3212079 (P (c) = 0.04 and P (c) = 0.02, respectively). Two SNPs (rs8007903 and rs8702) influenced risk of cataract (P (c) = 0.0007 and P (c) = 0.04, respectively). However, the allele of rs8007903 that caused increased risk of AD caused reduced risk of cataract, speaking against a common functional effect of this particular SNP in the two diseases. Haplotype analyses did not add significantly to the associations found in the single SNP analyses. Altogether, these results do not convincingly support KLC1 as a major susceptibility gene in any of the studied diseases, although there is a small effect of KLC1 in relation to cataract.
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4.
  • Andreasen, Niels, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced levels of amyloid-beta-binding proteins in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer's disease patients.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - 1387-2877. ; 16:2, s. 389-97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyloid-beta(Abeta) aggregation is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have suggested that only unbound Abeta can take part in the aggregation process. Therefore, endogenous Abeta-binding proteins may have an important role in preventing AD. Here, we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 35 subjects with AD, 18 subjects with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and 29 non-demented controls to test if reduced Abeta-binding capacity in CSF is a specific feature of AD. A panel of known Abeta-binding CSF proteins, including beta-trace/prostaglandin D2 synthase (beta-trace), transthyretin (TTR), cystatin C (CysC) and alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT), were quantified and related to diagnosis and CSF levels of Abeta(1-38), Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42). AD patients displayed a mild reduction in the CSF levels of beta-trace (p=0.020), CysC (p=0.017), AAT (p=0.019) and TTR (p=0.012) compared with controls. While the reductions in AAT and TTR were AD-specific, the levels of beta-trace and CysC were also reduced in FTD. As expected, CSF Abeta(1-42) was reduced in AD compared with controls (p=0.00005) and with FTD patients (p=0.015). Positive correlations between Abeta(1-42) and beta-trace, CysC and TTR, respectively, were seen only in the AD group, suggesting that deficient Abeta-binding capacity in CSF may contribute to the amyloidogenic process in AD.
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6.
  • Beckman, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Secular trends in self reported sexual activity and satisfaction in Swedish 70 year olds: cross sectional survey of four populations, 1971-2001.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 1468-5833. ; 337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study secular trends in self reported sexual behaviour among 70 year olds. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. Settings Four samples representative of the general population in Gothenburg, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1506 adults (946 women, 560 men) examined in 1971-2, 1976-7, 1992-3, and 2000-1. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual intercourse, attitudes to sexuality in later life, sexual dysfunctions, and marital satisfaction. RESULTS: From 1971 to 2000 the proportion of 70 year olds reporting sexual intercourse increased among all groups: married men from 52% to 68% (P=0.002), married women from 38% to 56% (P=0.001), unmarried men from 30% to 54% (P=0.016), and unmarried women from 0.8% to 12% (P<0.001). Men and women from later birth cohorts reported higher satisfaction with sexuality, fewer sexual dysfunctions, and more positive attitudes to sexuality in later life than those from earlier birth cohorts. A larger proportion of men (57% v 40%, P<0.001) and women (52% v 35%, P<0.001) reported very happy relationships in 2000-1 compared with those in 1971-2. Sexual debut before age 20 increased in both sexes: in men from 52% to 77% (P<0.001) and in women from 19% to 64% (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Self reported quantity and quality of sexual experiences among Swedish 70 year olds has improved over a 30 year period.
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7.
  • Billstedt, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • A 37-year prospective study of neuroticism and extraversion in women followed from mid-life to late life.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 1600-0447. ; 129:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Personality traits are presumed to endure over time, but the literature regarding older age is sparse. Furthermore, interpretation may be hampered by the presence of dementia-related personality changes. The aim was to study stability in neuroticism and extraversion in a population sample of women who were followed from mid-life to late life.Method: A population-based sample of women born in 1918, 1922 or 1930 was examined with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) in 1968-1969. EPI was assessed after 37years in 2005-2006 (n=153). Data from an interim examination after 24years were analysed for the subsample born in 1918 and 1922 (n=75). Women who developed dementia at follow-up examinations were excluded from the analyses.Results: Mean levels of neuroticism and extraversion were stable at both follow-ups. Rank-order and linear correlations between baseline and 37-year follow-up were moderate ranging between 0.49 and 0.69. Individual changes were observed, and only 25% of the variance in personality traits in 2005-2006 could be explained by traits in 1968-1969.Conclusion: Personality is stable at the population level, but there is significant individual variability. These changes could not be attributed to dementia. Research is needed to examine determinants of these changes, as well as their clinical implications.
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8.
  • Billstedt, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Secular changes in personality: study on 75-year-olds examined in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. - 0885-6230. ; 28:3, s. 298-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In order to study secular changes in personality factors neuroticism and extroversion, representative population samples of non-demented 75-year-olds underwent psychiatric examinations in 1976-1977 (total n = 223, 138 women, 85 men) and 2005-2006 (total n = 556, 322 women and 234 men). METHODS: Eysenck Personality Inventory was used at both occasions. Demographic factors (educational level, marital status, having children) were registered. RESULTS: Seventy-five-year-olds examined in 2005-2006 had higher values on extroversion and lower values on the Lie scale compared with those examined in 1976-1977. Neuroticism did not differ between the two birth cohorts. Neuroticism scores were higher in women than in men both in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006, and Lie score was higher in women than in men in 2005-2006. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that present cohorts of 75-year-olds are more extroverted and less prone to respond in a socially desirable manner than those born three decades earlier. Neuroticism levels remained unchanged, suggesting this trait may be less influenced by environmental factors than the other traits studied.
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9.
  • Björkelund, Cecilia, 1948-, et al. (författare)
  • Sleep disturbances in midlife unrelated to 32-year diabetes incidence: the prospective population study of women in Gothenburg
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. ; 28, s. 2739-2744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Department of Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. cecilia.bjorkelund@allmed.gu.se OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between diabetes incidence and sleep problems in a population-based sample of women followed for 32 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The researchers conducted a prospective population study initiated in 1968-1969, with follow-ups in 1974-1975, 1980-1981, 1992-1993, and 2000-2001 in Gothenburg, Sweden. A total of 1,462 women born in 1908, 1914, 1918, 1922, and 1930, representative of women of the same ages in the general population, initially participated (90% participation rate). Reported sleep duration, sleep problems, and use of sleeping medication were related to incident diabetes from 1968 to 2000. Associations between sleep problems and diabetes were corrected for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), BMI, subscapular skinfold, fasting blood glucose and serum lipid concentrations, blood pressure, heart rate, smoking, physical activity, education, and socioeconomic status. Additionally, associations between BMI, WHR, and sleep problems were examined. RESULTS: Over 32 years, 126 women (8.7%) developed diabetes. Associations between diabetes and initial sleep problems were tested in a Cox regression analysis, taking into consideration factors associated (P < 0.1) with diabetes. Sleep problems in 1968 did not increase risk of developing diabetes during the following 32 years. Obesity, particularly centralized, was associated with sleep problems. CONCLUSIONS: No association between sleep problems and developing diabetes was seen in this 32-year follow-up of middle-aged women. Obesity, on the other hand, known to cause increased risk of diabetes, was associated with current sleep problems. PMID: 16249549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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10.
  • Bornstein, N. M., et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes and the brain: issues and unmet needs
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neurological Sciences. - 1590-1874. ; 35:7, s. 995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment, dementia and stroke. The association between DM and dementia appears to be stronger for vascular cognitive impairment than for Alzheimer's disease, suggesting cerebrovascular disease may be an important factor in cognitive impairment in DM. Although the exact mechanisms by which DM affects the brain remain unclear, changes to brain vasculature, disturbances of cerebral insulin signaling, insulin resistance, glucose toxicity, oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation end products, hypoglycemic episodes, and alterations in amyloid metabolism may all be involved. Cognitive impairment and dementia associated with DM may also be mediated via vascular risk factors, in particular brain ischemia, the occurrence of which can have an additive or synergistic effect with concomitant neurodegenerative processes. To date, no drug has been approved for the treatment of vascular dementia and there are no specific pharmacological treatments for preventing or reducing cognitive decline in patients with DM. Most focus has been on tighter management of vascular risk factors, although evidence of reduced cognitive decline through reducing blood pressure, lipid-lowering or tighter glycemic control is inconclusive. Tailored, multimodal therapies may be required to reduce the risk of cognitive dysfunction and decline in patients with DM. The use of pleiotropic drugs with multimodal mechanisms of action (e.g., cerebrolysin, Actovegin) may have a role in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and their use may warrant further investigation in diabetic populations.
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