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1.
  • Aaberge, Rolf, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of an In-work Tax Credit Reform in Sweden: Effects on Labor Supply and Welfare Participation of Single Mothers
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a recent Swedish in-work tax credit reform where we pay particular attention to labor market exclusion; i.e. individuals in as well as outside the labor force are included in the analysis. To highlight the importance of the joint effects from the tax and the benefit systems it appears particular relevant to analyze the labor supply behavior of single mothers. To this end, we estimate a structural microeconometric model of labor supply and welfare participation. The model accounts for heterogeneity in consumption-leisure preferences as well as for constraints in job opportunities. The results of the evaluation show that the reform generates welfare-gains for virtually every single mother, and moreover benefits low-income households. Finally, due to increased labor supply and decline in welfare participation we find that this reform is almost self-financing.
2.
  • Aaberge, Rolf, et al. (författare)
  • U.S. versus Sweden: The Effect of Alternative In-Work Tax Credit Policies on Labour Supply of Single Mothers
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • An essential difference between the design of the Swedish and the US in-work tax credit systems relates to their functional forms. Where the US earned income tax credit (EITC) is phased out and favours low and medium earnings, the Swedish system is not phased out and offers 17 and 7 per cent tax credit for low and medium low incomes and a lump-sum tax deduction equal to approximately 2300 USD for medium and higher incomes. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency and distributional effects of these two alternative tax credit designs. We pay particular attention to labour market exclusion; i.e. individuals within as well as outside the labour force are included in the analysis. To highlight the importance of the joint effects from the tax and the benefit systems it appears particular relevant to analyse the labour supply behaviour of single mothers. To this end, we estimate a structural random utility model of labour supply and welfare participation. The model accounts for heterogeneity in consumption-leisure preferences as well as for heterogeneity and constraints in job opportunities. The results of the evaluation show that the Swedish system without phase-out generates substantial larger labour supply responses than the US version of the tax credit. Due to increased labour supply and decline in welfare participation we find that the Swedish reform is self-financing for single mothers, whereas a 10 per cent deficit follows from the adapted EITC version used in this study. However, where income inequality rises modestly under the Swedish tax credit system, the US version with phase-out leads to a significant reduction in the income inequality.
3.
  • Abbott, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling: An International Collaboration
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • While seen by many as a form of leisure and recreation, gambling can have serious repercussions for individuals, families, and society as a whole. The harmful effects of gambling have been studied for decades to attempt to understand individual differences in gambling engagement and the life- course of gamblingrelated problems. In this publication, we present a comprehensive, internationally relevant conceptual framework of “harmful gambling” that moves beyond a symptoms-based view of harm and addresses a broad set of factors related to population risk, community and societal effects. Interactive factors represented in the framework represent major themes in gambling that range from specific (gambling environment, exposure, types, and resources) to general (cultural, social, psychological, and biological). This framework has been created by international and interdisciplinary experts from a variety of stakeholder perspectives - including researchers, treatment providers, operators, policy makers, and individuals and their families - to facilitate an understanding of harmful gambling. It not only reflects the state of knowledge as it relates to factors influencing harmful gambling, but also acts to guide the development of future research programs and educate policy makers on issues related to harmful gambling. The Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre (Guelph, Ontario, Canada) has facilitated the development of the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling and is committed to updating it over time.
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7.
  • Abiri, Elisabeth, 1962- (författare)
  • Let’s talk! Human Rights meet Peace and Security
  • 2006
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The report focuses on the links between two fields of theories and practices - human rights and peace and security - that appear to have much in common. To be able to find durable solutions to conflicts human rights must be guaranteed, and in order to safeguard human rights violent conflicts must be kept at bay. The report's aim is to enhance knowledge and discussion about the relationship between human rights and peace and security in theory and practice, and to form the base for further work on how development cooperation may develop human rights promoting and conflict sensitive practices.
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10.
  • Abou-Ali, Hala, 1972- (författare)
  • Child mortality, wealth and education: direct versus indirect effects
  • 2003
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Controlling for the Egyptian household choice of health infrastructure (i.e., sanitation facility and water accessibility) is done by means of a discrete choice approach consistent with the random utility model. Evidence of the importance of the indirect effect of the source of drinking water on child mortality is found. Furthermore, changes in wealth and education levels are assessed taking into consideration a priori the choice of health infrastructure. The analysis suggests that wealth and education contribute to the child mortality reduction.
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