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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Rapport > Köhlin Gunnar 1963 > Fritt online

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1.
  • Alem, Yonas, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Life Satisfaction in Urban Ethiopia: Trends and determinants
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Most studies of subjective well-being in developing countries use cross-sectional data, which makes it difficult to control for unobserved individual heterogeneity. In this paper, we use three rounds of panel data and robust non-linear panel data models to investigate the trends and determinants of life satisfaction in urban Ethiopia. Although Ethiopia exhibited rapid economic growth during the analyzed period, the average reported level of life satisfaction declined. Regression results show that despite the significant difference between urban Ethiopia and industrialized countries in terms of economic and social conditions, many of the determinants of life satisfaction are similar. This includes, age, marital status, health, unemployment, economic status, relative position and educational achievement. Our results also indicate that both individual (respondent) and household level versions of these variables are important determinants of life satisfaction. This provides some evidence on the interdependence of individual and household subjective well-being in developing countries. The fact that rapid economic growth was accompanied by a decline in citizens’ average reported level of life satisfaction brings the pro-poorness of the recent economic growth in Ethiopia into question. We argue that economic growth that trickles down to the poor and ensures creation of stable jobs would be welfare enhancing.
2.
  • Alem, Yonas, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • The Dynamics of Electric Cookstove Adoption: Panel data evidence from Ethiopia
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Previous studies on improved cookstove adoption in developing countries use cross-sectional data, which makes it difficult to control for unobserved heterogeneity and investigate what happens to adoption over time. We use robust non-linear panel data and hazard models on three rounds of panel data from urban Ethiopia to investigate the determinants and dynamics of electric cookstove adoption. We find the price of electricity and firewood, and access to credit as major determinants of adoption and transition. Our findings have important implications for policies aiming at promotion of energy transition and reduction of the pressure on forest resources in developing countries.
3.
  • Carlsson, Fredrik, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Are Agricultural Extension Packages What Ethiopian Farmers Want? A Stated Preference Analysis
  • 2005
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • There is an evident dichotomy in many rural development policies in the world between extension driven adoption of modern inputs and community driven local public goods. However, the target populations of these policies seldom have the possibility to express their preference between these two policies. In this paper we report the results of a stated preference survey in the highlands of Ethiopia where the farmers are given a choice between an agricultural extension package and a local public good - health care or protected spring. The study finds that a majority of people prefers the public good. However, when the extension package is combined with insurance in terms of no payback of the credit in case of crop loss, then we find a significant increase in the choice of the extension package. The study thus sheds light on why Ethiopiaâ??s major development strategy has had limited success and gives evidence of how stated preference methodologies can be utilized for development policy design.
4.
  • Carlsson, Fredrik, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Contingent valuation of community plantations in Ethiopia: a look into value elicitation formats and intra-household preference variations
  • 2004
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper is an application of the contingent valuation method on community plantations in the highlands of Ethiopia. A discrete-continuous elicitation format was applied. It was found that there is a problem in applying a closed ended elicitation format in this context with a community resource since a community resource typically implies a community based scenario and such a scenario invites to yea-saying. The wellknown problem of compliance bias is also difficult to avoid in such settings. Application of a closed-ended format under such circumstances would exaggerate the willingness to pay for the good in question. The study asked both spouses in a household for their willingness to pay for a new plantation. The analysis of the bid function shows that there are gender variations in the factors that affect the bids. The common preference model was thus rejected in this application. The analysis also indicates that it might be a good idea to concentrate plantation efforts since there seem to be specialization going on in collection behavior. Women in villages without any existing community plantation are, however, significantly more interested in the establishment of a plantation than men. The aggregate willingness to pay vary dramatically between villages pointing at the need for good selection methods in targeting such interventions.
5.
  • Gebreegziabher, Zenebe, et al. (författare)
  • Household Tree Planting in Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia: Tree Species, Purposes, and Determinants
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Trees have multiple purposes in rural Ethiopia, providing significant economic and ecological benefits. Planting trees supplies rural households with wood products for their own consumption, as well for sale, and decreases soil degradation. In this paper, we used cross-sectional household-level data to analyze the determinants of household tree planting and explored the most important tree attributes or purpose(s) that enhance the propensity to plant trees. We set up a sample selection framework that simultaneously takes into account the two decisions of tree growers (whether or not to plant tree and how many) to analyze the determinants of tree planting. We used logistic regression to analyze the most important tree attributes contributing to households’ tree-planting decisions. We found that land size, age, gender, tenure security, education, exogenous income, and agro-ecology increased both the propensity to plant trees and the amount of tree planting, while increased livestock holding impacted both decisions negatively. Our findings also suggested that households consider a number of attributes in making decision to plant trees. These results can be used by policymakers to promote tree planting in the study area by strengthening tenure security and considering households’ selection of specific tree species for their attributes (criteria).
6.
  • Kassie, Menale, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Economics of Soil Conservation Adoption in High-Rainfall Areas of the Ethiopian Highlands
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study measures the impact of fanya juu bunds (an important soil and water conservation technology and the most popular type of contour bund in east Africa) on the value of crop production in a high-rainfall area in the Ethiopian highlands using cross-sectional multiple plot observations. We applied switching regression, stochastic dominance analysis (SDA), and decomposition and propensity score matching methods to ensure robustness. The switching regression, SDA, and decomposition analyses relied on matched observations, which was important because regression and SDA often do not ensure that comparable plots with conservation technology (conserved) and plots without (unconserved) actually exist in the distribution of covariates. All models told a consistent story that the value of crop production for plots with bunds was lower than for plots without bunds. In addition, the yield decomposition results showed that, although there was little difference in endowments between conserved and unconserved plots, the returns to endowments were substantially higher for unconserved plots. Based on these findings, it was hard to avoid the conclusion that these technologies might reduce soil erosion and associated off-site effects, but they did so at the expense of poor farmers in the Ethiopian highlands. We concluded that unless productivity was increased—for example by increasing fodder grass production on bunds—fanya juu bunds reduced on-farm production and therefore could not be characterized as a “win-win” measure to reduce soil erosion.
7.
  • Kassie, Menale, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Organic Farming Technologies and Agricultural Productivity: The case of Semi-Arid Ethiopia
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Organic farming practices, in as far as they rely on local or farm renewable resources, present desirable options for enhancing agricultural productivity for resource-constrained farmers in developing countries. In this paper we use plot-level data from semi-arid area of Ethiopia to investigate the impact of organic farming practices on crop productivity, with a particular focus on conservation tillage. Specifically we seek to investigate whether conservation tillage results in more or less productivity gains than chemical fertilizer. Our results reveal a clear superiority of organic farming practices over chemical fertilizers in enhancing crop productivity. Thus our results underscore the importance of encouraging resource-constrained farmers in developing countries to adopt organic farming practices, especially since they enable farmers to reduce production costs, provide environmental benefits, and as our results confirm, enhance crop productivity.
8.
  • Kassie, Menale, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainable Agricultural Practices and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia: Does Agroecology Matter?
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sustainable agricultural practices, in as far as they rely on renewable local or farm resources, present desirable options for enhancing agricultural productivity for resource-constrained farmers in developing countries. In this paper, we used two sets of plot-level data—from a low-rainfall area and from a high-rainfall area of Ethiopia—to investigate the impact of sustainable agricultural practices on crop productivity, with a particular focus on reduced tillage. Specifically, we sought to investigate whether reduced tillage results in more or less productivity gain than chemical fertilizer. The nature of the two sets of data allows us to examine whether the productivity of these technologies is conditioned by agroecology. Interestingly, our results revealed a clear superiority of reduced tillage over chemical fertilizers in enhancing crop productivity in the low-rainfall region. In the high-rainfall region, however, chemical fertilizer is overwhelmingly superior and reduced tillage potentially results in productivity losses. Thus, our results underscore the need to understand the role of agroecology in determining the profitability (in terms of productivity gains) of farm technologies. This has particular importance in formulating policies that promote technology adoption. In this particular case, our results support encouraging resource-constrained farmers in semi-arid areas to adopt sustainable agricultural practices, especially since they enable farmers to reduce production costs, provide environmental benefits, and—as our results confirm—enhance crop productivity.
9.
  • Kassie, Menale, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Production Risk in Sustainable Land-Management Technology Adoption in the Ethiopian Highlands
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper provides empirical evidence of production risk impact on sustainable land- management technology adoption, using two years of cross-sectional plot-level data collected in the Ethiopian highlands. We used a moment-based approach, which allowed a flexible representation of the production risk (Antle 1983, 1987). Mundlak’s approach was used to capture the unobserved heterogeneity along with other regressors in the estimation of fertilizer and conservation adoption. The empirical results revealed that impact of production risk varied by technology type. Production risks (variance and crop failure as measured by second and third central moments, respectively) had significant impact on fertilizer adoption and extent of adoption. However, this impact was not observed in adoption of conservation technology. On the other hand, expected return (as measured by the first central moment) had a positive significant impact on both fertilizer (adoption and intensity) and conservation adoption. Economic instruments that hedge against risk exposure, including downside risk and increase productivity, are important to promote adoption of improved technology and reduce poverty in Ethiopia.
10.
  • Kassie, Menale, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Soil Conservation on Mean Crop Yield and Variance of Yield - Evidence from the Ethiopian Highlands
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Land degradation has been one of the major areas of concern in Ethiopia. Governments and development agencies have invested substantial resources to promote land management technologies and reduce land degradation. However, there is little understanding of the impacts that land management technologies have on yield and yield variability. This paper investigates the impact of stone bunds on mean yield and variance of yield, using multiple plot observations per household in low- and highrainfall areas of the Ethiopian highlands. Our analysis incorporated the propensity score matching method, stochastic dominance analysis, and exogenous and endogenous switching regression methods. We found statistically significant and positive impact of stone bunds on yield in low-rainfall areas. This did not hold in high-rainfall areas. We did not find a statistically significant stone-bund impact on production risk in either high- or low-rainfall areas. The results were robust to both parametric and nonparametric analysis. The overall conclusion from the analysis is that the performance of stone bunds varies by agro-ecology type. This implies the need for designing and implementing appropriate technologies that enhance productivity and are better adapted to local conditions.
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