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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Forskningsöversikt > Chalmers tekniska högskola

  • Resultat 1-9 av 9
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  • Borén, Jan, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Kinetic Studies to Investigate Lipoprotein Metabolism.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - 1365-2796.
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To develop novel strategies for prevention and treatment of dyslipidaemia, it is essential to understand the pathophysiology of dyslipoproteinaemia in humans. Lipoprotein metabolism is a complex system in which abnormal concentrations of various lipoprotein particles can result from alterations in their rates of production, conversion and/or catabolism. Traditional methods that measure plasma lipoprotein concentrations only provide static estimates of lipoprotein metabolism and hence limited mechanistic information. By contrast, the use of tracers labelled with stable isotopes and mathematical modelling provides a powerful tool for probing lipid and lipoprotein kinetics in vivo and furthering understanding of the pathogenesis of dyslipoproteinaemia.
  • Borén, Jan, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia as a coronary risk factor.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. - 1873-3492. ; 431, s. 131-42
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is now established as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This metabolic abnormality is principally initiated by overproduction and/or decreased catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and is a consequence of predisposing genetic variations and medical conditions such as obesity and insulin resistance. Accumulation of TRLs in the postprandial state promotes the retention of remnant particles in the artery wall. Because of their size, most remnant particles cannot cross the endothelium as efficiently as smaller low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. However, since each remnant particle contains approximately 40 times more cholesterol compared with LDL, elevated levels of remnants may lead to accelerated atherosclerosis and CVD. The recognition of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in the clinical setting has been severely hampered by technical difficulties and the lack of established clinical protocols for investigating postprandial lipemia. In addition, there are currently no internationally agreed management guidelines for this type of dyslipidemia. Here we review the mechanism for and consequences of excessive postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, epidemiological evidence in support of high triglycerides and remnant particles as risk factors for CVD, the definition of hypertriglyceridemia, methods to measure postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and apolipoproteins and, finally, current and future treatment opportunities.
  • Hyde, Kevin D., et al. (författare)
  • Incorporating molecular data in fungal systematics: a guide for aspiring researchers
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology. - 2229-2225. ; 3:1, s. 1-32
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The last twenty years have witnessed molecular data emerge as a primary research instrument in most branches of mycology. Fungal systematics, taxonomy, and ecology have all seen tremendous progress and have undergone rapid, far-reaching changes as disciplines in the wake of continual improvement in DNA sequencing technology. A taxonomic study that draws from molecular data involves a long series of steps, ranging from taxon sampling through the various laboratory procedures and data analysis to the publication process. All steps are important and influence the results and the way they are perceived by the scientific community. The present paper provides a reflective overview of all major steps in such a project with the purpose to assist research students about to begin their first study using DNA-based methods. We also take the opportunity to discuss the role of taxonomy in biology and the life sciences in general in the light of molecular data. While the best way to learn molecular methods is to work side by side with someone experienced, we hope that the present paper will serve to lower the learning threshold for the reader.
  • Lindfred, Helene, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease and self-esteem in adolescence.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta paediatrica. - 0803-5253. ; 97:2, s. 201-5
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To compare the self-esteem of adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with that of healthy adolescents, and to identify factors affecting self-esteem in the presence of IBD. METHODS: A self-assessment questionnaire, 'I think I am' (ITIA), was completed by 71 (41 boys) out of 77 adolescents (10-16 years) with IBD. Of the participating adolescents, 23 had Crohn's disease, 44 had ulcerative colitis and 4 had indeterminate colitis. The self-esteem of adolescents with IBD was compared with that of 1037 school children. RESULTS: In this population-based study, children with IBD estimated their self-esteem in the same range as healthy adolescents. Using a multiple regression analysis, the self-esteem of adolescents with IBD was related to disease course severity and cohabitation status of parents. Children with severe disease and children of single parents were found to be most at risk of low self-esteem. CONCLUSION: This study shows that, as a group, adolescents with IBD have self-esteem in the same range as their healthy peers, but that there are some adolescents with IBD who are at risk of low self-esteem. Special attention should be given to adolescents with a severe disease course and to those with separated parents.
  • Shekhter, Robert I., 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Electronic spin working mechanically (Review Article)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Low temperature physics. - 1063-777X. ; 40:7, s. 600-614
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A single-electron tunneling (SET) device with a nanoscale central island that can move with respect to the bulk source- and drain electrodes allows for a nanoelectromechanical (NEM) coupling between the electrical current through the device and mechanical vibrations of the island. Although an electromechanical “shuttle” instability and the associated phenomenon of single-electron shuttling were predicted more than 15 years ago, both theoretical and experimental studies of NEM-SET structures are still carried out. New functionalities based on quantum coherence, Coulomb correlations and coherent electron-spin dynamics are of particular current interest. In this article we present a short review of recent activities in this area.
  • Shekhter, Robert I., 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Nonequilibrium and quantum coherent phenomena in the electromechanics of suspended nanowires
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Low Temperature Physics. - 1090-6517. ; 35:8
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Strong coupling between electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom is a basic requirement for the operation of any nanoelectromechanical device. In this Review we consider such devices and in particular investigate the properties of small tunnel-junction nanostructures that contain a movable element in the form of a suspended nanowire. In these systems, electrical currents and charge can be concentrated to small spatial volumes resulting in strong coupling between the mechanics and the charge transport. As a result, a variety of mesoscopic phenomena appear, which can be used for the transduction of electrical currents into mechanical operation. Here we will in particular consider nanoelectromechanical dynamics far from equilibrium and the effect of quantum coherence in both the electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom in the context of both normal and superconducting nanostructures.
  • Trouillon, Raphaël, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Chemical Analysis of Single Cells
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Analytical Chemistry. - 0003-2700. ; 85:2, s. 522-542
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this Review, we provide an overview of methods developed for chemical analysis of single cells over the last two years. Many biological systems contain an ensemble of cells with heterogeneous chemistry; therefore, it is important to analyze them on an individual basis in order to elucidate the role each cell plays in the function of these systems. In clinical diagnostics, the development of extremely sensitive measurements, down to single cells, may provide the best ability for diagnoses. Single cell analysis has, in fact, been present for quite some time. Investigators in life sciences consider the cell as the unit of life and so the pursuit to quantify, image, and modulate the cell has been ongoing for decades.
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