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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Forskningsöversikt > Dahlgren Claes 1949

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  • Björstad, Åse, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Antimicrobial host defence peptides of human neutrophils – roles in innate immunity
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. - 1871-5214. ; 7:3, s. 155-168
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The innate immune system is an old defence mechanism that in primitive organisms consists mainly of humoral components like antimicrobial peptides. Many of these peptides share features such as size, cationicity, amphipathicity and kill microbes primarily by lysing the cell membrane. In more evolved organisms, humoral factors are supplemented by cellular components such as professional phagocytes, but the antimicrobial peptides are still important for host defence. Neutrophils are professional phagocytes that in humans contain two different classes of classical antimicrobial peptides belonging to the cathelicidin family and the α-defensin family, respectively. In addition to these two main groups of poly-peptides, neutrophils are also rich in antimicrobial proteins. It is becoming increasingly clear that the antimicrobial peptides of neutrophils not only contribute to phagosomal killing, but also function as regulators of immunity; therefore the alternative name host defence peptides is more appropriate. The question whether antimicrobial host defence peptides are primarily immunomodulatory or antimicrobial in vivo has not been conclusively determined. At some locations in the body, e.g. in a phagosome, their effect is likely directly antimicrobial, whereas their immunomodulatory functions are probably more important at other sites. This review will provide a background to the field of antimicrobial peptides including their common features, mechanisms of killing and availability in nature. It will focus on the antimicrobial peptides present in human neutrophils and special emphasis will be given to the functional dualism displayed by many peptides giving them the ability to modulate the immune response in addition to being directly antimicrobial
  • Bylund, Johan, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Intracellular generation of superoxide by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase: How, where, and what for?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Free radical biology & medicine. - 1873-4596.
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Professional phagocytes increase their consumption of molecular oxygen during the phagocytosis of microbes or when encountering a variety of nonparticulate stimuli. In these circumstances, oxygen is reduced by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are important for the microbicidal activity of the cells, are generated. The structure and function of the NADPH oxidase have been resolved in part by studying cells from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a condition characterized by the inability of phagocytes to assemble a functional NADPH oxidase and thus to produce ROS. As a result, patients with CGD have a predisposition to infections as well as a variety of inflammatory symptoms. A long-standing paradigm has been that NADPH oxidase assembly occurs exclusively in the plasma membrane or invaginations thereof (phagosomes). A growing body of evidence points to the possibility that phagocytes are capable of NADPH oxidase assembly in nonphagosomal intracellular membranes, resulting in ROS generation within intracellular organelles also in the absence of phagocytosis. The exact nature of these ROS-producing organelles is yet to be determined, but granules are prime suspects. Recent clinical findings indicate that the generation of intracellular ROS by NADPH oxidase activation is important for limiting inflammatory reactions and that intracellular and extracellular ROS production are regulated differently. Here we discuss the accumulating knowledge of intracellular ROS production in phagocytes and speculate on the precise role of these oxidants in regulating the inflammatory process.
  • Dahlgren, Claes, 1949-, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of respiratory burst products generated by professional phagocytes
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Methods Mol Biol. ; 412, s. 349-63
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Activation of professional phagocytes, potent microbial killers of our innate immune system, is associated with an increase in cellular consumption of molecular oxygen (O2). The burst of 02 consumption is utilized by an NADPH-oxidase to generate highly-reactive oxygen species (ROS) starting with one and two electron reductions to generate superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), respectively. ROS are strongly bactericidal but may also cause tissue destruction and induce apoptosis in other immune competent cells of both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Thus, the development of basic techniques to measure/quantify ROS generation/release by phagocytes during activation of the respiratory burst is of great importance, and a large number of techniques have been used for this purpose. Three of these techniques, chemiluminescence amplified by luminol/ isoluminol, the absorbance change following reduction of cytochrome c, and the fluorescence increase upon oxidation of p-hydroxyphenylacetate, are described in detail in this chapter. These techniques can be valuable tools in research spanning from basic phagocyte biology to more clinically-oriented research on innate immune mechanisms and inflammation.
  • Ye, Richard D, et al. (författare)
  • International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIII. Nomenclature for the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Pharmacological reviews. - 1521-0081. ; 61:2, s. 119-61
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a small group of seven-transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed mainly by mammalian phagocytic leukocytes and are known to be important in host defense and inflammation. The three human FPRs (FPR1, FPR2/ALX, and FPR3) share significant sequence homology and are encoded by clustered genes. Collectively, these receptors bind an extraordinarily numerous and structurally diverse group of agonistic ligands, including N-formyl and nonformyl peptides of different composition, that chemoattract and activate phagocytes. N-formyl peptides, which are encoded in nature only by bacterial and mitochondrial genes and result from obligatory initiation of bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis with N-formylmethionine, is the only ligand class common to all three human receptors. Surprisingly, the endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide annexin 1 and its N-terminal fragments also bind human FPR1 and FPR2/ALX, and the anti-inflammatory eicosanoid lipoxin A4 is an agonist at FPR2/ALX. In comparison, fewer agonists have been identified for FPR3, the third member in this receptor family. Structural and functional studies of the FPRs have produced important information for understanding the general pharmacological principles governing all leukocyte chemoattractant receptors. This article aims to provide an overview of the discovery and pharmacological characterization of FPRs, to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature, and to discuss unmet challenges, including the mechanisms used by these receptors to bind diverse ligands and mediate different biological functions.
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