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  • Achberger, Christine, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Performance of the Rossby Centre regional atmospheric model in Southern Sweden: comparison of simulated and observed precipitation
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Theoretical and Applied Climatology. - Springer Wien. - 0177-798X. ; 76:3-4, s. 219-234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two climate model simulations made with the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric model version I (RCA1) are evaluated for the precipitation climate in Scania, southern-most Sweden. These simulations are driven by the HadCM2 and the ECHAM4/OPYC3 global circulation models (GCMs) for 10 years. Output from the global and the regional simulations are compared with an observational data set, constructed from a dense precipitation gauge network in Scania. Area-averaged time series corresponding to the size and location of the RCA1 grid points in Scania have been created (the Scanian Data Set). This data set was compared to a commonly used gridded surface climatology provided by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). Relatively large differences were found, mainly due to the fact that the CRU-climatology uses fewer stations and lacks a correction for rain-gauge under-catch. This underlines the importance of the data set chosen for model evaluations. The validation is carried out at a large scale including the whole area of Scania and at the finest resolution of RCA1 (the grid point level). When integrated over the whole area of Scania, RCA1 improves the shape of the annual precipitation cycle and the inter-annual variability compared to output from the GCMs. The RCA1 control climate is generally too wet compared to the observations. At the grid point level, RCA1 improves the simulation of the variability compared to the GCMs. There is a strong positive correlation between precipitation and altitude in all seasons in the observations. This relationship is, however, much weaker and even reversed in the RCA1 simulations. Analysis of the dense rain gauge network reveals features of spatial variability at around 20-35 km in the area and indicates that a finer resolution is needed if the spatial variability in the area is to be better captured by RCA1.
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  • Achberger, Christine, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • The surface winds of Sweden during 1999-2000
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Climatology. - 0899-8418. ; 26:2, s. 159-178
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aims at increasing our understanding of the regional wind climate in Sweden. Spatial and temporal patterns of the surface winds are presented for the years 1999-2000. Annual mean wind speeds range between 2 and 5 m/s with high values at exposed mountainous sites and on islands off the coast. Combining wind speed and direction into mean wind velocities shows that flow conditions are stronger and more coherent in space in southern Sweden than in central and northern Sweden. The spatial scale, defined as the distance between stations when the correlation for wind speed drops to similar to 0.37, was determined by pairwise correlations between all possible station pairs. Scales range from 38 to 530 km for wind speed and from 40 to 830 km for wind direction depending on the region. They tend to be smaller in central and northern Sweden, where the more pronounced relief has a larger influence on the local wind conditions. The strength and the timing of the annual and diurnal wind speed cycle have been estimated for each station. Amplitudes of the annual cycle are greater at exposed sites and correlate generally well with annual mean wind speeds. Monthly mean wind speeds peak in winter in southern Sweden, but peak in other seasons in the remaining regions. In winter, weaker pressure gradients over northern Sweden and surface-near temperature inversions contribute to weaker surface winds. Diurnal cycles vary in strength between summer and winter. Compared to the last normal climate period (1961-1990), 1999-2000 is characterized by the increased occurrence of westerly and southerly geostrophic flow. Copyright (C) 2005 Royal Meteorological Society.
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  • Azorin-Molina, C., et al. (författare)
  • AVHRR warm-season cloud climatologies under various synoptic regimes across the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic islands
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Climatology. - 0899-8418. ; Epub ahead of print
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study we retrieved the spatial distribution of mid-afternoon clouds under various synoptic regimes across the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands for the warm/convective-season, from May to October. Accurate daily cloud masks were derived by applying a daytime over land multispectral convective cloud detection algorithm spanning 15 years (1997–2011) of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) HRPT data. We processed a total of 2094 afternoon overpasses (between 1230 and 1720 UTC) corresponding to the NOAA-14, NOAA-16 and NOAA-18 spacecrafts, and stratified daily cloud masks as a function of: (1) the automated circulation-typing scheme of Jenkinson and Collinson and (2) the prevailing wind field at 850 hPa. The AVHRR warm-season cloud climatology with high spatial resolution (1.1-km) identified six representative areas (regions of interest; ROIs) with intensified cloud activity (hot spots). The results also revealed the typical spatial distribution of clouds for each synoptic regime across the whole region, identified the synoptic patterns and wind regimes under which high amounts of clouds occur for each ROIs, and showed that strong boundary layer winds in general increase the frequency of clouds. The regional cloud climatology presented here could be useful, e.g. to improve convective short-term forecasting by identifying active cloud areas for each atmospheric type.
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