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1.
  • Dahlöf, Björn, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 366:9489, s. 895-906
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The apparent shortfall in prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) noted in early hypertension trials has been attributed to disadvantages of the diuretics and beta blockers used. For a given reduction in blood pressure, some suggested that newer agents would confer advantages over diuretics and beta blockers. Our aim, therefore, was to compare the effect on non-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD of combinations of atenolol with a thiazide versus amlodipine with perindopril. METHODS: We did a multicentre, prospective, randomised controlled trial in 19 257 patients with hypertension who were aged 40-79 years and had at least three other cardiovascular risk factors. Patients were assigned either amlodipine 5-10 mg adding perindopril 4-8 mg as required (amlodipine-based regimen; n=9639) or atenolol 50-100 mg adding bendroflumethiazide 1.25-2.5 mg and potassium as required (atenolol-based regimen; n=9618). Our primary endpoint was non-fatal myocardial infarction (including silent myocardial infarction) and fatal CHD. Analysis was by intention to treat. FINDINGS: The study was stopped prematurely after 5.5 years' median follow-up and accumulated in total 106 153 patient-years of observation. Though not significant, compared with the atenolol-based regimen, fewer individuals on the amlodipine-based regimen had a primary endpoint (429 vs 474; unadjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.79-1.02, p=0.1052), fatal and non-fatal stroke (327 vs 422; 0.77, 0.66-0.89, p=0.0003), total cardiovascular events and procedures (1362 vs 1602; 0.84, 0.78-0.90, p<0.0001), and all-cause mortality (738 vs 820; 0.89, 0.81-0.99, p=0.025). The incidence of developing diabetes was less on the amlodipine-based regimen (567 vs 799; 0.70, 0.63-0.78, p<0.0001). INTERPRETATION: The amlodipine-based regimen prevented more major cardiovascular events and induced less diabetes than the atenolol-based regimen. On the basis of previous trial evidence, these effects might not be entirely explained by better control of blood pressure, and this issue is addressed in the accompanying article. Nevertheless, the results have implications with respect to optimum combinations of antihypertensive agents.
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2.
  • de Simone, G., et al. (författare)
  • Body build and risk of cardiovascular events in hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE (Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension) study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 1524-4539. ; 111:15, s. 1924-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Obesity may independently increase the risk of adverse events in hypertension with target-organ damage. We investigated whether body build was independently associated with higher cardiovascular risk and whether treatment with losartan relative to atenolol influenced the impact of body build on the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction and on cardiovascular death in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study. METHODS AND RESULTS: The population of 9079 patients was divided as follows: thin (body mass index [BMI] <20 kg/m2, 2%), normal weight (BMI 20 to 24.9, 24%), overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9, 45%), and obese (class I: BMI 30 to 34.9, 21%; class II: BMI 35 to 39.9, 6%; class III: BMI > or =40, 2%). Incident diabetes increased progressively with BMI and was somewhat higher in the atenolol arm. Differences in gender and race were detected among the body build groups. Rates (Cox proportional hazard analysis) of the primary composite end point did not differ among body build groups after adjustment for age, gender, race, smoking habit, prevalent cardiovascular disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Cardiovascular death was more frequent among thin (P<0.05) and pooled class II-III obesity (both P<0.04) than normal-weight groups. Risk was not attenuated significantly by losartan treatment, nor did it interfere with the greater benefit of losartan- as opposed to atenolol-based treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In the LIFE study, stratification for classes of body build identified increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in both thin and moderately-to-severely obese individuals. This risk was not attenuated significantly by losartan treatment, nor did it interfere with the greater benefit of losartan-based treatment as opposed to atenolol-based treatment.
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3.
  • Julius, S., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular risk reduction in hypertensive black patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: J Am Coll Cardiol. - 0735-1097. ; 43:6, s. 1047-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We report on a subanalysis of the effects of losartan and atenolol on cardiovascular events in black patients in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study. BACKGROUND: The LIFE study compared losartan-based to atenolol-based therapy in 9,193 hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Overall, the risk of the primary composite end point (cardiovascular death, stroke, myocardial infarction) was reduced by 13% (p = 0.021) with losartan, with similar blood pressure (BP) reduction in both treatment groups. There was a suggestion of interaction between ethnic background and treatment (p = 0.057). METHODS: Exploratory analyses were performed that placed LIFE study patients into black (n = 533) and non-black (n = 8,660) categories, overall, and in the U.S. (African American [n = 523]; non-black [n = 1,184]). RESULTS: A significant interaction existed between the dichotomized groups (black/non-black) and treatment (p = 0.005); a test for qualitative interaction was also significant (p = 0.016). The hazard ratio (losartan relative to atenolol) for the primary end point favored atenolol in black patients (1.666 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.043 to 2.661]; p = 0.033) and favored losartan in non-blacks (0.829 [95% CI 0.733 to 0.938]; p = 0.003). In black patients, BP reduction was similar in both groups, and regression of electrocardiographic-LVH was greater with losartan. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the subanalysis are sufficient to generate the hypothesis that black patients with hypertension and LVH might not respond as favorably to losartan-based treatment as non-black patients with respect to cardiovascular outcomes, and do not support a recommendation for losartan as a first-line treatment for this purpose. The subanalysis is limited by the relatively small number of events.
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4.
  • Kizer, J. R., et al. (författare)
  • Stroke reduction in hypertensive adults with cardiac hypertrophy randomized to losartan versus atenolol: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 1524-4563. ; 45:1, s. 46-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study showed that treatment with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonist losartan reduces overall stroke risk compared with conventional therapy with the beta-blocker atenolol. We conducted secondary analyses in LIFE to determine the extent to which the cerebrovascular benefits of losartan apply to different clinical subgroups and stroke subtypes and to assess the dependence of these benefits on baseline and time-varying covariates. Among 9193 hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy, random allocation to losartan-based treatment lowered the risk of fatal (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.96; P=0.032) and atherothrombotic stroke (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.88; P=0.001) compared with atenolol-based therapy. Although comparable risk reductions occurred for hemorrhagic and embolic stroke, these were not statistically significant. The number of neurological deficits per stroke was similar, but there were fewer strokes in the losartan group for nearly every level of stroke severity. Effects were consistent in all clinical subgroups except for those defined by age and ethnicity. The benefits of losartan on all strokes were independent of baseline and time-varying risk factors, including blood pressure. The number needed to treat for 5 years to prevent 1 stroke was 54 for the average participant, declining to 25, 24, and 9 for patients with cerebrovascular disease, isolated systolic hypertension, and atrial fibrillation, respectively. In conclusion, substantial cerebrovascular benefit could be realized with the institution of losartan-based therapy over conventional therapy among hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy across the spectrum of cardiovascular risk.
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5.
  • Kjeldsen, S. E., et al. (författare)
  • The effects of losartan compared to atenolol on stroke in patients with isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). - 1524-6175. ; 7:3, s. 152-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study reported that a losartan-based antihypertensive regimen reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction) more than therapy based on atenolol in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). Patients aged 55-80 years with blood pressures 160-200/<90 mm Hg were followed for a mean of 4.7 years. Blood pressure was similarly reduced in the losartan (n=660) and atenolol (n=666) ISH groups. There were 88 (6.6%) patients who experienced a stroke, 18 of which were fatal. Of patients experiencing strokes, 72.7% had an ischemic stroke. ISH patients in LIFE compared to the non-ISH group had a higher incidence of any stroke and embolic stroke, and similar incidences of fatal, atherosclerotic, and hemorrhagic/other strokes. The incidence of any stroke (40% risk reduction [RR], p=0.02), fatal stroke (70% RR, p=0.035), and atherothrombotic stroke (45% RR, p=0.022) was significantly lower in losartan-treated compared to the atenolol-treated patients. The 36% RR for embolic strokes in the losartan group was not statistically significantly (p=0.33) different from the atenolol group. These data suggest that losartan-based treatment is more effective than an atenolol-based treatment for patients with ISH and a high risk for stroke.
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6.
  • Kristianson, Krister, et al. (författare)
  • Pulse pressure and effects of losartan or atenolol in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 1524-4563. ; 45:4, s. 580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study, the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction was reduced by losartan versus atenolol in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to determine the influence of pulse pressure on outcome. Patients were divided into quartiles of baseline pulse pressure. Cox regression, including baseline Framingham risk score as a covariate, was used to compare risk in the quartiles. In the atenolol group, there were significantly higher risks in the highest versus lowest quartile for the composite end point 28% (confidence interval [CI], 2% to 62%; P=0.035), stroke 84% (CI, 32% to 157%; P<0.001), and total mortality 41% (CI, 7% to 84%; P=0.013). Risk for myocardial infarction was 44% higher (CI, -5% to 120%; P=0.089). The risks in the losartan group also increased with increasing quartile, but were lower than in the atenolol group, and differences between the highest and lowest quartiles were not significant: composite end point 12% (CI, -13% to 44%; P>0.2), stroke -5% (CI, -34% to 37%; P>0.2), myocardial infarction 30% (CI, -13% to 94%; P>0.2), and total mortality 32% (CI, -1% to 76%; P=0.062). In patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in the LIFE study, there were significantly higher risks, adjusted for the Framingham risk score, for the primary composite end point, stroke, and total mortality in the highest versus lowest quartile of pulse pressure with atenolol-based treatment. The risks in the losartan group also increased with increasing pulse pressure quartile, but were lower than those in the atenolol group, and were not significant.
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7.
  • Ostergren, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Drugs. - 0012-6667. ; 64 Suppl 2, s. 43-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed dyslipidaemic. METHODS: Of 19 342 hypertensive patients (aged 40-79 years with at least three other cardiovascular risk factors) randomised to one of two antihypertensive regimens in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, 10,305 with nonfasting total cholesterol concentrations 6.5 mmol/L or less were randomly assigned additional atorvastatin 10 mg or placebo. These patients formed the lipid-lowering arm of the study. We planned follow-up for an average of 5 years, the primary endpoint being non-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD. Data were analysed by intention to treat. FINDINGS: Treatment was stopped after a median follow-up of 3.3 years. By that time, 100 primary events had occurred in the atorvastatin group compared with 154 events in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.64 [95% CI 0.50-0.83], p = 0.0005). This benefit emerged in the first year of follow-up. There was no significant heterogeneity among prespecified subgroups. Fatal and non-fatal stroke (89 atorvastatin vs 121 placebo, 0.73 [0.56-0.96], p = 0.024), total cardiovascular events (389 vs 486, 0.79 [0.69-0.90], p = 0.0005), and total coronary events (178 vs 247, 0.71 [0.59-0.86], p = 0.0005) were also significantly lowered. There were 185 deaths in the atorvastatin group and 212 in the placebo group (0.87 [0.71-1.06], p = 0.16). Atorvastatin lowered total serum cholesterol by about 1.3 mmol/L compared with placebo at 12 months, and by 1.1 mmol/L after 3 years of follow-up. INTERPRETATION: The reductions in major cardiovascular events with atorvastatin are large, given the short follow-up time. These findings may have implications for future lipid-lowering guidelines.
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8.
  • Ostergren, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Role of blood pressure and other variables in the differential cardiovascular event rates noted in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 366:9489, s. 907
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Results of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA) show significantly lower rates of coronary and stroke events in individuals allocated an amlodipine-based combination drug regimen than in those allocated an atenolol-based combination drug regimen (HR 0.86 and 0.77, respectively). Our aim was to assess to what extent these differences were due to significant differences in blood pressures and in other variables noted after randomisation. METHODS: We used data from ASCOT-BPLA (n=19 257) and compared differences in accumulated mean blood pressure levels at sequential times in the trial with sequential differences in coronary and stroke events. Serial mean matching for differences in systolic blood pressure was used to adjust HRs for differences in these events. We used an updated Cox-regression model to assess the effects of differences in accumulated mean levels of various measures of blood pressure, serum HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and potassium, fasting blood glucose, heart rate, and bodyweight on differences in event rates. FINDINGS: We noted no temporal link between size of differences in blood pressure and different event rates. Serial mean matching for differences in systolic blood-pressure attenuated HRs for coronary and stroke events to a similar extent as did adjustments for systolic blood-pressure differences in Cox-regression analyses. HRs for coronary events and stroke adjusted for blood pressure rose from 0.86 (0.77-0.96) to 0.88 (0.79-0.98) and from 0.77 (0.66-0.89) to 0.83 (0.72-0.96), respectively. Multivariate adjustment gave HRs of 0.94 (0.81-1.08) for coronary events (HDL cholesterol being the largest contributor) and 0.87 (0.73-1.05) for stroke events. INTERPRETATION: Multivariate adjustment accounted for about half of the differences in coronary events and for about 40% of the differences in stroke events between the treatment regimens tested in ASCOT-BPLA, but residual differences were no longer significant. These residual differences could indicate inadequate statistical adjustment, but it remains possible that differential effects of the two treatment regimens on other variables also contributed to the different rates noted, particularly for stroke.
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9.
  • Sever, P., et al. (författare)
  • Potential synergy between lipid-lowering and blood-pressure-lowering in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Eur Heart J. - 0195-668X. ; 27:24, s. 2982-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: A prespecified objective of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) was to assess whether any synergistic effects were apparent between the lipid-lowering and blood-pressure-lowering regimens in preventing cardiovascular events. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 19 257 hypertensive subjects were randomized to an amlodipine-based regimen or an atenolol-based regimen. Of these, 10 305 subjects with total cholesterol < or =6.5 mmol/L were further randomized to atorvastatin 10 mg daily or placebo. In this analysis, the effects of atorvastatin were compared with placebo on coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular and stroke events in those assigned amlodipine-based and atenolol-based regimens. In the ASCOT lipid-lowering arm (LLA), overall, atorvastatin reduced the relative risk of the primary endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD events by 36% (HR 0.64, CI 0.50-0.83, P=0.0005), total cardiovascular events by 21% (HR 0.79, CI 0.69-0.90, P=0.0005), and stroke by 27% (HR 0.73, CI 0.56-0.96, P=0.024). However, atorvastatin reduced the relative risk of CHD events by 53% (HR 0.47, CI 0.32-0.69, P<0.0001) among those allocated the amlodipine-based regimen, and by 16% (HR 0.84, CI 0.60-1.17, p: n.s.) among those allocated the atenolol-based regimen (P=0.025 for heterogeneity). There were no significant differences between the effects of atorvastatin on total cardiovascular events or strokes among those assigned amlodipine (HR 0.73, CI 0.60-0.88, P<0.005 and HR 0.69, CI 0.45-1.06, P: n.s., respectively) or atenolol (HR 0.85, CI 0.71-1.02, P: n.s and HR 0.76, CI 0.53-1.08, P: n.s, respectively). Differences in blood pressure and lipid parameters (placebo corrected) between the two antihypertensive treatment limbs could not account for the differences observed in CHD outcome. CONCLUSION: These findings of an apparent interaction between atorvastatin and an amlodipine-based regimen in the prevention of CHD events are of borderline significance, and hence generate an hypothesis that merits independent evaluation in other trials.
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10.
  • Sever, P. S., et al. (författare)
  • Reduction in cardiovascular events with atorvastatin in 2,532 patients with type 2 diabetes: Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--lipid-lowering arm (ASCOT-LLA)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - 0149-5992. ; 28:5, s. 1151-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish the benefits of lowering cholesterol in diabetic patients with well-controlled hypertension and average/below-average cholesterol concentrations, but without established coronary disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the lipid-lowering arm of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT-LLA), 10,305 hypertensive patients with no history of coronary heart disease (CHD) but at least three cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned to receive 10 mg atorvastatin or placebo. Effects on total cardiovascular outcomes in 2,532 patients who had type 2 diabetes at randomization were compared. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 3.3 years, concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol among diabetic participants included in ASCOT-LLA were approximately 1 mmol/l lower in those allocated atorvastatin compared with placebo. There were 116 (9.2%) major cardiovascular events or procedures in the atorvastatin group and 151 (11.9%) events in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.98; P = 0.036). For the individual components of this composite end point, the number of events occurring in the diabetes subgroup was small. Therefore, although fewer coronary events (0.84, 0.55-1.29; P = 0.14) and strokes (0.67, 0.41-1.09; P = 0.66) were observed among the patients allocated atorvastatin, these reductions were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Atorvastatin significantly reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events and procedures among diabetic patients with well-controlled hypertension and without a history of CHD or markedly elevated cholesterol concentrations. The proportional reduction in risk was similar to that among participants who did not have diagnosed diabetes. Allocation to atorvastatin prevented approximately 9 diabetic participants from suffering a first major cardiovascular event or procedure for every 1,000 treated for 1 year.
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