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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Jonsdottir Ingibjörg H. > Göteborgs universitet

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  • Arvidson, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • The level of leisure time physical activity is associated with work ability-a cross sectional and prospective study of health care workers
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Bmc Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 13:855
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: With increasing age, physical capacity decreases, while the need and time for recovery increases. At the same time, the demands of work usually do not change with age. In the near future, an aging and physically changing workforce risks reduced work ability. Therefore, the impact of different factors, such as physical activity, on work ability is of interest. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and work ability using both cross sectional and prospective analyses.METHODS: This study was based on an extensive questionnaire survey. The number of participants included in the analysis at baseline in 2004 was 2.783, of whom 2.597 were also included in the follow-up in 2006. The primary outcome measure was the Work Ability Index (WAI), and the level of physical activity was measured using a single-item question. In the cross-sectional analysis we calculated the level of physical activity and the prevalence of poor or moderate work ability as reported by the participants. In the prospective analysis we calculated different levels of physical activity and the prevalence of positive changes in WAI-category from baseline to follow-up. In both the cross sectional and the prospective analyses the prevalence ratio was calculated using Generalized Linear Models.RESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis showed that with an increased level of physical activity, the reporting of poor or moderate work ability decreased. In the prospective analysis, participants reporting a higher level of physical activity were more likely to have made an improvement in WAI from 2004 to 2006.CONCLUSIONS: The level of physical activity seems to be related to work ability. Assessment of physical activity may also be useful as a predictive tool, potentially making it possible to prevent poor work ability and improve future work ability. For employers, the main implications of this study are the importance of promoting and facilitating the employees' engagement in physical activity, and the importance of the employees' maintaining a physically active lifestyle.
  • Carlsson, S, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for an adrenergic innervation of the adrenal cortical blood vessels in rats.
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta physiologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6772. ; 149:1, s. 23-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate the blood flow in the adrenal cortex of the rat. Relative changes in the adrenal cortical blood flow were continuously measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry in 33 chloralose-anaesthetized artificially ventilated rats during electrical stimulation (1 ms, 5 V) of the left great splanchnic nerve (LGSN), which conveys both pre- and post-ganglionic nerve fibres to the adrenal gland. Laser Doppler flux (LDF) was decreased and regional resistance (RR) was increased by augmenting nerve stimulation at increasingly higher frequencies (2, 4, 8, 20 and 40 Hz). The decrease in LDF, when compared to pre-drug stimulations at 4 Hz was partially or totally inhibited by the adrenergic blocking agents trimethaphan (TRIM), guanethidine (GUA) and alpha 1-blockade with prazosin (PRAZ). Furthermore, both the decrease in LDF and the increase in RR were either completely or partially blocked by stimulation at 40 Hz after TRIM-treatment and GUA-treatment. It is concluded that the adrenal cortex in the rat is innervated by post-ganglionic adrenergic nerve fibres, which are involved in the regulation of blood flow in the adrenal cortex.
  • Gerber, M, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiorespiratory fitness protects against stress-related symptoms of burnout and depression
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Patient Education and Counceling. ; 93:1, s. 146-152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To examine how cardiorespiratory fitness and self-perceived stress are associated with burnout and depression. To determine if any relationship between stress and burnout/depression is mitigated among participants with high fitness levels.METHODS: 197 participants (51% men, mean age=39.2 years) took part in the study. The Åstrand bicycle test was used to assess cardorespiratory fitness. Burnout was measured with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), depressive symptoms with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD-D). A gender-matched stratified sample was used to ensure that participants with varying stress levels were equally represented.RESULTS: Participants with moderate and high fitness reported fewer symptoms of burnout and depression than participants with low fitness. Individuals with high stress who also had moderate or high fitness levels reported lower scores on the SMBQ Tension subscale and the HAD-D than individuals with high stress, but low fitness levels.CONCLUSION: Better cardiovascular fitness seems to be associated with decreased symptoms of burnout and a better capacity to cope with stress.PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Promoting and measuring cardiorespiratory fitness can motivate employees to adopt a more physically active lifestyle and thus strengthen their ability to cope with stress exposure and stress-related disorders.
  • Gerber, M, et al. (författare)
  • Concerns regarding hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in exercise and sport science
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. - 1303-2968. ; 11, s. 571-581
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels.
  • Gerber, M., et al. (författare)
  • Objectively assessed physical activity is associated with increased hair cortisol content in young adults
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Stress-the International Journal on the Biology of Stress. - 1025-3890. ; 16:6, s. 593-599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Assessing long-term cortisol secretion presents difficulties when cortisol measurement is carried out by saliva, plasma and urine analyses. Hair cortisol has gained increased interest as an alternative biological marker. So far, one study has been published studying hair cortisol in endurance athletes, showing higher levels compared to controls. Using accelerometer data in the present study, we cross-sectionally explored the relationship between moderate physical activity (MPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) levels and hair cortisol concentrations after taking into account age, gender, and perceived stress. Hair specimens were collected from 46 university students (20 males, 26 females, M-age +/- SD = 21.2 +/- 1.87 years). Participants provided information about their socio-demographic background and levels of perceived stress. Accelerometer data were collected to assess physical activity. Cortisol concentrations were measured in the first 3-cm hair segment nearest to the scalp. MPA was not correlated with hair cortisol content (r = -0.08). A significant correlation was found between VPA and hair cortisol (r = 0.34, p < 0.05). A regression analysis revealed that participants with higher VPA had elevated hair cortisol concentrations even after taking into account age, gender and perceived stress (beta = 0.33, p < 0.05, Delta R-2 = 0.106). This is the first study showing that objectively assessed VPA is associated with increased hair cortisol levels in young adults. As VPA can be regarded as a physical stressor, it seems imperative that researchers consider participants' levels of VPA if they examine the relationship between stress exposure, hair cortisol and health.
  • Gerber, M, et al. (författare)
  • Physical Activity in Employees with Differing Occupational Stress and Mental Health Profiles: A Latent Profile Analysis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise. - 1469-0292. ; 15:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To examine whether employees with differing occupational stress and mental health profiles differ in their self-reported levels of physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional survey data. Method: The sample consisted of 2660 Swedish health care workers and social insurance officers (85% women, M = 46.3 years). Latent profile analysis was performed to identify classes. Between-class-differences in physical activity were tested via c2-tests and multinominal logistic regression analyses using sex, age, BMI, marital status, children at home, caregiving, and smoking as covariates. Results: Latent profile analysis resulted in a six-profile solution. Two pairs of classes had equal stress levels, one pair with high stress, one pair with moderate stress. Within each pair, one group showed some resilience (i.e. only moderate mental health problems despite high stress or good mental health despite moderate stress), whereas the other did not. The other two classes were characterized by either low stress and good mental health or moderate-tohigh stress and elevated mental health problems. Participants who were resilient to high or moderate stress were more active than participants of the corresponding non-resilient classes. Participants with low stress and good mental health reported the highest physical activity levels, participants with high stress and high mental health problems reported the lowest physical activity levels. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical activity is associated with resilience to occupational stress, and that beyond primary prevention efforts to make work less stressful regular physical activity should be a target variable for health professionals working in the occupational setting.
  • Glise, Kristina, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Course of mental symptoms in patients with stress-related exhaustion: Does sex or age make a difference?
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - 1471-244X. - x1011861471-244X-12-18 ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background Long-term sick leave due to mental health problems, especially among women, is a substantial problem in many countries, and a major reason for this is thought to be psychosocial stress. The recovery period of different patient groups with stress-related mental health problems can differ considerably. We have studied the course of mental health symptoms during 18 months of multimodal treatment in relation to sex and age in a group of patients with stress-related exhaustion. Methods The study group includes 232 patients (68% women) referred to a stress clinic and who fulfilled the criteria for Exhaustion Disorder (ED). The majority also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for depression and/or anxiety; this was similar among women and men. Symptoms were assessed at baseline, three, six, 12 and 18 months by the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). A total SMBQ mean score of ≥ 4 was used to indicate clinical burnout, which correlates well with the clinical diagnosis of ED. Results There were no statistically significant differences between women and men or between young and old patients in the self-reported symptoms at baseline. The proportion that had high burnout scores decreased over time, but one-third still had symptoms of clinical burnout after 18 months. Symptoms indicating probable depression or anxiety (present in 34% and 65% of the patients at baseline, respectively) declined more rapidly, in most cases within the first three months, and were present only in one out of 10 after 18 months. The course of illness was not related to sex or age. The duration of symptoms before seeking health care, but not the level of education or co-morbid depression, was a predictor of recovery from symptoms of burnout after 18 months. Conclusions The course of mental illness in patients seeking specialist care for stress-related exhaustion was not related to sex or age. The burden of mental symptoms is high and similar for men and women, and at the 18 month follow-up, one-third of the study group still showed symptoms of burnout. A long duration of symptoms before consultation was associated with a prolonged time of recovery, which underlines the importance of early detection of stress-related symptoms.
  • Glise, Kristina, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and course of somatic symptoms in patients with stress-related exhaustion: does sex or age matter
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - 1471-244X. ; 14:118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background Both mental and somatic symptoms are commonly reported in patients with stress-related problems. We have explored the prevalence of somatic symptoms in patients seeking medical care for stress-related mental health problems and followed the course of illnes alongside with that the patients receive multimodal treatment. Method This study comprises data from 228 patients (69% women, mean age 43&#160;years) who fulfilled the criteria for Exhaustion Disorder (ED). Somatic symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3, 6, 12 and 18&#160;months using the one-page questionnaire Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Prevalence of different symptoms was compared between men and women and patients, over and below 40&#160;years of age, and possible predictors of recovery were explored. Results Tiredness and low energy are the core symptom reported by the patients. Almost all (98%) reported at least one somatic symptom and 45% reported six symptoms or more, which was similar for men and women. Nausea, gas or indigestion are the most common symptoms (67%) followed by headaches (65%) and dizziness (57%). The number of symptoms reported was significantly related to the severity of mental health problems. The only difference between the sexes was that &#8220;chest pain&#8221; and &#8220;pain or problems during sexual intercourse&#8221; were more common among males. Patients over forty more often reported &#8220;pain in arms, legs or joints, knees, hips&#8221; and this was also the only symptom that did not significantly decline during treatment. Neither sex, age, symptom duration before seeking medical care, education or any other predictor tested was shown to predict recovery in patients reporting six symptoms or more. Conclusion A heavy burden of somatic symptoms was generally seen in most patients with stress-related exhaustion. Somatic symptoms are equally common in males and females and in younger and older patients. The somatic symptoms seem to be mostly stress-related since all symptoms, except musculoskeletal pain, reduce with individualised treatment designed for stress-related mental problems. This study brings to attention the complicated burden of both somatic and mental symptoms in patients with stress-related exhaustion, raising several clinical implications of interest to discuss.
  • Glise, Kristina, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Self-reported exhaustion: a possible indicator of reduced work ability and increased risk of sickness absence among human service workers.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International archives of occupational and environmental health. - 1432-1246. ; 83:5, s. 511-520
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the construct and predictive validity of a new instrument for self-rating of stress-related Exhaustion Disorder (s-ED). METHODS: Public healthcare workers and social insurance officers, 85% females, were included (N = 2,683) in a longitudinal study. The s-ED instrument, based on clinical criteria for Exhaustion Disorder, was used at baseline to classify participants into three categories: non-s-ED, light/moderate s-ED and pronounced s-ED. Other assessments include burnout, anxiety, depression and work ability. Sick leave at follow-up after 2 years was defined as 14 days of ongoing sick leave (SA14) or a period of 60 days of sick leave during the last 12 months (SA60). Associations at baseline were expressed as prevalence ratios, and adjusted relative risks (RR) were calculated using Cox regression. RESULTS: At baseline, 16% reported s-ED. Scores of depression, anxiety and burnout and the rate of poor work ability increased with increasing severity of s-ED. Self-reported exhaustion at baseline increased the risk of reporting sickness absence at follow-up; pronounced s-ED RR 2.7; CI 1.8-4.0 for SA14 and RR 3.4; CI 2.3-5.2 for SA60. CONCLUSIONS: Self-rated ED corresponded well to established scales for mental health, indicating sufficient construct validity. Individuals reporting s-ED at baseline were more likely to report sickness absence at follow-up, confirming its predictive properties. The s-ED instrument may be a useful tool for occupational health services in identifying human service workers at risk of having or developing a potentially disabling stress-related mental illness.
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