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1.
  • Ahmad, Tashfeen, et al. (författare)
  • Peripheral quantitative computed tomography for the detection of diabetic osteopathy: a study in the Goto-Kakizaki rat.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Investigative radiology. - 0020-9996. ; 38:3, s. 171-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in detecting trabecular and cortical bone changes in diabetes as a model of osteopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tibia from 10 type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and 10 control Wistar rats were analyzed by DEXA, pQCT, and ash weight determination. RESULTS: DEXA of GK rats showed a significant reduction in mineral content (32%) and density (24%) of the metaphysis, but not of the diaphysis. PQCT disclosed that the reduction of density predominantly pertained to the trabecular bone (reduced by 62%). Periosteal and endosteal circumferences of the diaphyses were increased and cortical thickness was unchanged leading to increased moment of inertia. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that in osteopathic conditions, cortical and trabecular bone should be separately examined within specific subregions to obtain relevant information. Loss of metaphyseal trabecular bone seems to be a predominant feature in diabetic rats. Moreover, there is increased moment of inertia in the diaphysis implying increased strength. These diagnostic features of diabetic osteopathy can only be assessed by pQCT. It may prove that similar changes occur in human type-2 diabetes, which could explain the susceptibility to periarticular fracture and Charcot arthropathy.
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2.
  • Ahmad, T, et al. (författare)
  • Skeletal changes in type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: The Journal of endocrinology. - 0022-0795. ; 178:1, s. 111-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We characterized appendicular and axial bones in rats with type-2 diabetes in five female Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a strain developed from the Wistar rat showing spontaneous type-2 diabetes, and five age- and sex-matched non-diabetic Wistar rats. The humerus, tibia, metatarsals and vertebral bodies were analysed by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). In diabetic rats, the height of the vertebral bodies and length of the humerus were decreased while the length of the metatarsals was increased. A decreased cross-sectional area was found in the vertebral end-plate region and the tibial metaphysis. Notably, the diaphysis in all long bones showed expansion of periosteal and endosteal circumference. In tibia this resulted in increased cortical thickness, whereas in humerus and metatarsal it was unchanged. Areal moment of inertia was increased in all diaphyses suggesting greater bending strength. The most conspicuous finding in diabetic rats pertained to trabecular osteopenia. Thus, trabecular bone mineral density was significantly reduced in all bones examined, by 33-53%. Our pQCT study of axial and appendicular bones suggests that the typical feature of diabetic osteopathy in the GK rat is loss of trabecular bone and expansion of the diaphysis. The loss of metaphyseal trabecular bone if also present in diabetic patients may prove to underlie the susceptibility to periarticular fracture and Charcot arthropathy. The findings suggest that the risk of fracture in diabetes varies according to the specific sub-regions of a bone. The approach described may prove to be useful in the early detection of osteopathy in diabetic patients who may be amenable to preventive treatment.
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3.
  • Almehed, Katarina, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis in female SLE patients-extended report
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Rheumatology (Oxford). - 1462-0324. ; 46:7, s. 1185-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of osteoporosis and possible risk factors of low bone mineral density (BMD) in women with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) in western Sweden. In addition, to evaluate if adequate anti-osteoporotic treatment was provided. METHODS: BMD was measured at radius, lumbar spine and hip by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). An 'expected' control BMD was calculated for each patient. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between BMD and demographic and disease-related variables. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-three women were included. Median age was 47 (20-82) yrs, 89 (55%) were post-menopausal and 85 (52%) were taking glucocorticosteroids. BMD was significantly reduced in all measured sites compared with expected BMD. Thirty-seven (23%), 18 (11%) and 6 (4%) of the patients were osteoporotic in at least one, two and three or more measured locations. Bisphosphonates were used by 23 (27%) of patients taking glucocorticosteroids and 13 (35%) with osteoporosis. High age and low weight or BMI were associated with low BMD in all measured sites. In total hip, high SLICC/American Collage of Rheumatology (ACR), ESR and 'combinations of DMARD' were additional markers of low BMD. High S-creatinine was associated with low BMD in lumbal spine whereas high S-creatinine and CRP were markers in radius. CONCLUSION: Women with SLE are at greater risk of osteoporosis compared with controls and few are treated adequately. Factors associated with low BMD in SLE are high age and low weight but also markers of inflammation, impaired kidney function and disease damage, however glucocorticosteroids were not associated.
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4.
  • Almehed, Katarina, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and risk factors of vertebral compression fractures in female SLE patients.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Arthritis research & therapy. - 1478-6362. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine the frequency of and factors associated with prevalent vertebral compression fractures in female SLE patients attending rheumatologists in Western Sweden. METHODS: In this cross sectional study 150 women were included. They were examined with x-ray of thoracic and lumbar spine (Th4-L4). A reduction of at least 20% of any vertebral height, assessed by Genant's semiquantitative method, was defined as a fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: Median patient age was 47 years (20-82) and disease duration 11 years (1-41). Only 6 (4%) women had a history of clinical compressions whereas 43 (29%) had at least one radiological fracture each. The patients with at least one fracture at any site were characterized by higher age (p<0.001), being postmenopausal (p<0.01), higher Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics Damage Index (p<0.05), lower BMD total hip and femoral neck (p<0.05), more peripheral fractures (p< 0.01), medication with bisphosphonates (p<0.05) and calcium and vitamin D3 (p<0.05). There were no significant differences regarding current or cumulative glucocorticosteroid dose between the groups. In logistic regression analyses high age remained as risk factor of at least one vertebral fracture at any site whereas low BMD in total hip was associated with vertebral fracture in lumbar spine. CONCLUSION: Radiological compression fractures are common but seldom diagnosed in SLE patients. High age and low BMD in total hip, but not in spine, was associated with vertebral fractures.
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5.
  • Andersson, Niklas, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • A gene expression fingerprint of mouse stomach ECL cells.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Biochemical and biophysical research communications. - 0006-291X. ; 332:2, s. 404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many of the endocrine cells in the stomach are poorly characterized with respect to physiological significance. In some cases, the anticipated hormone has not yet been identified. Global gene expression analysis of mouse stomach was performed in all attempt to identify the ECL-cell peptide/protein. Specific functional activation (omeprazole-induced hypergastrinaemia) was used as a tool to generate a gene expression fingerprint of the ECL cells. The proposed fingerprint includes 14 genes, among them six are known to be expressed by ECL cells (=positive controls), and some novel ones, which are likely to be ECL-cell-related. The known ECL-cell-related genes are those encoding histidine decarboxylase, chromogranin A and B, vesicular monoamine transporter 2, synaptophysin, and the cholecystokinin-B receptor. In addition, the fingerprint included five genes, which might be involved in the process of secretion and three ESTs with unknown function. Interestingly, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) was identified as a candidate ECL-cell peptide hormone.
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6.
  • Andersson, Niklas, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • A variant near the interleukin-6 gene is associated with fat mass in Caucasian men
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 0307-0565. ; 34:6, s. 1011-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context:Regulation of fat mass appears to be associated with immune functions. Studies of knockout mice show that endogenous interleukin (IL)-6 can suppress mature-onset obesity.Objective:To systematically investigate associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the IL-6 (IL6) and IL-6 receptor (IL6R) genes with body fat mass, in support for our hypothesis that variants of these genes can be associated with obesity.Design and Study Subjects:The Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) study is a population-based cross-sectional study of 18- to 20-year-old men (n=1049), from the Gothenburg area (Sweden). Major findings were confirmed in two additional cohorts consisting of elderly men from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden (n=2851) and MrOS US (n=5611) multicenter population-based studies.Main Outcome:The genotype distributions and their association with fat mass in different compartments, measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.Results:Out of 18 evaluated tag SNPs near the IL6 and IL6R genes, a recently identified SNP rs10242595 G/A (minor allele frequency=29%) 3' of the IL6 gene was negatively associated with the primary outcome total body fat mass (effect size -0.11 standard deviation (s.d.) units per A allele, P=0.02). This negative association with fat mass was also confirmed in the combined MrOS Sweden and MrOS US cohorts (effect size -0.05 s.d. units per A allele, P=0.002). When all three cohorts were combined (n=8927, Caucasian subjects), rs10242595(*)A showed a negative association with total body fat mass (effect size -0.05 s.d. units per A allele, P&lt;0.0002). Furthermore, the rs10242595(*)A was associated with low body mass index (effect size -0.03, P&lt;0.001) and smaller regional fat masses. None of the other SNPs investigated in the GOOD study were reproducibly associated with body fat.Conclusions:The IL6 gene polymorphism rs10242595(*)A is associated with decreased fat mass in three combined cohorts of 8927 Caucasian men.
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7.
  • Andersson, Niklas, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of central versus peripheral effects of estradiol in ovariectomized mice
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Endocrinol. - 0022-0795. ; 187:2, s. 303-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is generally believed that estrogens exert their bone sparing effects directly on the cells within the bone compartment. The aim of the present study was to investigate if central mechanisms might be involved in the bone sparing effect of estrogens. The dose-response of central (i.c.v) 17beta-estradiol (E2) administration was compared with that of peripheral (s.c.) administration in ovariectomized (ovx) mice. The dose-response curves for central and peripheral E2 administration did not differ for any of the studied estrogen-responsive tissues, indicating that these effects were mainly peripheral. In addition, ovx mice were treated with E2 and/or the peripheral estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. ICI 182,780 attenuated most of the estrogenic response regarding uterus weight, retroperitoneal fat weight, cortical BMC and trabecular bone mineral content (P<0.05). These findings support the notion that the primary target tissue that mediates the effect of E2 on bone is peripheral and not central.
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8.
  • Andersson, Niklas, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Repeated in vivo determinations of bone mineral density during parathyroid hormone treatment in ovariectomized mice.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: The Journal of endocrinology. - 0022-0795. ; 170:3, s. 529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The recent development of different genetically modified mice with potentially interesting bone phenotypes has increased the demand for effective non-invasive methods to evaluate effects on bone of mice during growth and development, and for drug evaluation. In the present study, the skeleton was analyzed by repeated in vivo scans using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Ovariectomized (ovx) mice treated with parathyroid hormone (PTH) were used as an animal model to evaluate these two techniques at different times after the onset of treatment. Female mice (6 weeks of age) were allocated randomly to four groups: (1) sham-operated+vehicle; (2) ovx+vehicle; (3) sham-operated+PTH(1-84) 150 microg/kg per day; (4) ovx+PTH. Six weeks after ovariectomy the drug treatment began and was continued for 8 weeks. The total body bone mineral content (BMC) and total body areal bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by DXA. Ovariectomy reduced total body BMC and total body areal BMD by 6.2+/-1.7% and 2.6+/-0.9% respectively. No effect of PTH on total body BMC was seen during the treatment period. The trabecular volumetric BMD was measured by pQCT. Ovariectomy reduced the trabecular volumetric BMD by 52+/-6.7%. The pQCT technique detected a clear effect on trabecular volumetric BMD after 2 weeks of PTH treatment (ovx 94+/-29% and sham-operated 46+/-10% more than vehicle-treated). The cortical bone was measured in a mid-diaphyseal pQCT scan of the tibia. Ovariectomy reduced the cortical BMC by 9+/-2%. PTH treatment for 8 weeks increased cortical BMC in ovx mice. In conclusion, the pQCT technique is more sensitive than the DXA technique in the detection of bone loss after ovariectomy and increased bone mass after PTH treatment in mice. Notably, the pQCT, but not the DXA, technique detected a dramatic effect as early as after 2 weeks of PTH treatment. Dynamic pQCT measurements will be useful for monitoring skeletal changes during growth and development, and for drug evaluation in mice.
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9.
  • Antonson, P., et al. (författare)
  • aP2-Cre-Mediated Inactivation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Causes Hydrometra
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study we describe the reproductive phenotypes of a novel mouse model in which Cre-mediated deletion of ER alpha is regulated by the aP2 (fatty acid binding protein 4) promoter. ER alpha-floxed mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the control of the aP2 promoter to generate aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) mice. As expected, ER alpha mRNA levels were reduced in adipose tissue, but in addition we also detected an 80% reduction of ER alpha levels in the hypothalamus of aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) mice. Phenotypic analysis revealed that aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) female mice were infertile. In line with this, aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) female mice did not cycle and presented 3.8-fold elevated estrogen levels. That elevated estrogen levels were associated with increased estrogen signaling was evidenced by increased mRNA levels of the estrogen-regulated genes lactoferrin and aquaporin 5 in the uterus. Furthermore, aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) female mice showed an accumulation of intra-uterine fluid, hydrometra, without overt indications for causative anatomical anomalies. However, the vagina and cervix displayed advanced keratosis with abnormal quantities of accumulating squamous epithelial cells suggesting functional obstruction by keratin plugs. Importantly, treatment of aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) mice with the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole caused regression of the hydrometra phenotype linking increased estrogen levels to the observed phenotype. We propose that in aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) mice, increased serum estrogen levels cause over-stimulation in the uterus and genital tracts resulting in hydrometra and vaginal obstruction.
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10.
  • Astrand, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Mice lacking melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 demonstrate increased heart rate associated with altered autonomic activity.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology. - 0363-6119. ; 287:4, s. 749
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) plays an important role in energy balance. The current studies were carried out on a new line of mice lacking the rodent MCH receptor (MCHR1(-/-) mice). These mice confirmed the previously reported lean phenotype characterized by increased energy expenditure and modestly increased caloric intake. Because MCH is expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area, which also has an important role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, heart rate and blood pressure were measured by a telemetric method to investigate whether the increased energy expenditure in these mice might be due to altered autonomic nervous system activity. Male MCHR1(-/-) mice demonstrated a significantly increased heart rate [24-h period: wild type 495 +/- 4 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 561 +/- 8 beats/min (P < 0.001); dark phase: wild type 506 +/- 8 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 582 +/- 9 beats/min (P < 0.001); light phase: wild type 484 +/- 13 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 539 +/- 9 beats/min (P < 0.005)] with no significant difference in mean arterial pressure [wild type 110 +/- 0.3 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 113 +/- 0.4 mmHg (P > 0.05)]. Locomotor activity and core body temperature were higher in the MCHR1(-/-) mice during the dark phase only and thus temporally dissociated from heart rate differences. On fasting, wild-type animals rapidly downregulated body temperature and heart rate. MCHR1(-/-) mice displayed a distinct delay in the onset of this downregulation. To investigate the mechanism underlying these differences, autonomic blockade experiments were carried out. Administration of the adrenergic antagonist metoprolol completely reversed the tachycardia seen in MCHR1(-/-) mice, suggesting an increased sympathetic tone.
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