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Sökning: LAR1:gu > Skoog Ingmar 1954 > Östling Svante 1953 > Tidskriftsartikel

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1.
  • andersson, mats, et al. (författare)
  • A population-based study on dementia and stroke in 97 year olds
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Age and Ageing. - 0002-0729. ; 41:4, s. 529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:the number of nonagenarians increases dramatically worldwide. OBJECTIVES: to examine the prevalence of stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and dementia, their inter-relationship and their relation to 2-year mortality and institutionalisation in 97 year olds. METHODS: a population-based sample of 97 year olds (n=591) was examined. Information on stroke/TIA was obtained from self-reports, key informants and hospital discharge registers. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria. RESULTS: the response rate was 65%. The prevalence of dementia was 32.7% in men and 59.3% in women (P<0.001). The prevalence of stroke/TIA was 21.5% (17.8% in men, 22.3% in women). Stroke/TIA was related to dementia in women (odds ratio=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0), but not in men. Dementia, but not stroke/TIA, was related to 2-year mortality and institutionalisation in logistic regression models. CONCLUSION: dementia was very common in this age group, and related to mortality and institutionalisation. Stroke/TIA in 97 year olds showed less association with dementia, mortality and institutionalisation than reported in studies of younger elderly populations. The finding that stroke was not associated with dementia in men needs to be taken cautiously due to the small number of men. The findings also emphasise that more studies are needed to scrutinise the aetiology of dementia in nonagenarians.
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  • Billstedt, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • A 37-year prospective study of neuroticism and extraversion in women followed from mid-life to late life.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 1600-0447. ; 129:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Personality traits are presumed to endure over time, but the literature regarding older age is sparse. Furthermore, interpretation may be hampered by the presence of dementia-related personality changes. The aim was to study stability in neuroticism and extraversion in a population sample of women who were followed from mid-life to late life.Method: A population-based sample of women born in 1918, 1922 or 1930 was examined with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) in 1968-1969. EPI was assessed after 37years in 2005-2006 (n=153). Data from an interim examination after 24years were analysed for the subsample born in 1918 and 1922 (n=75). Women who developed dementia at follow-up examinations were excluded from the analyses.Results: Mean levels of neuroticism and extraversion were stable at both follow-ups. Rank-order and linear correlations between baseline and 37-year follow-up were moderate ranging between 0.49 and 0.69. Individual changes were observed, and only 25% of the variance in personality traits in 2005-2006 could be explained by traits in 1968-1969.Conclusion: Personality is stable at the population level, but there is significant individual variability. These changes could not be attributed to dementia. Research is needed to examine determinants of these changes, as well as their clinical implications.
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  • Billstedt, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Secular changes in personality: study on 75-year-olds examined in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. - 0885-6230. ; 28:3, s. 298-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In order to study secular changes in personality factors neuroticism and extroversion, representative population samples of non-demented 75-year-olds underwent psychiatric examinations in 1976-1977 (total n = 223, 138 women, 85 men) and 2005-2006 (total n = 556, 322 women and 234 men). METHODS: Eysenck Personality Inventory was used at both occasions. Demographic factors (educational level, marital status, having children) were registered. RESULTS: Seventy-five-year-olds examined in 2005-2006 had higher values on extroversion and lower values on the Lie scale compared with those examined in 1976-1977. Neuroticism did not differ between the two birth cohorts. Neuroticism scores were higher in women than in men both in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006, and Lie score was higher in women than in men in 2005-2006. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that present cohorts of 75-year-olds are more extroverted and less prone to respond in a socially desirable manner than those born three decades earlier. Neuroticism levels remained unchanged, suggesting this trait may be less influenced by environmental factors than the other traits studied.
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  • Falk, Hanna, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Functional disability and ability 75-year-olds: a comparison of two Swedish cohorts born 30 years apart
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Age and Ageing. - 0002-0729.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To compare the level of functional disability and involvement in leisure activities between two birth cohorts of Swedish 75-year-olds examined in 1976-77 and 2005-06. Design :Cohort comparison. Setting and Participants: Representative data from the general population in Gothenburg, Sweden, examined at age 75 in 1976–77 (N= 744), and in 2005–06 (N= 731) with comprehensive somatic and psychiatric examinations. Measurements: Activities of daily living (ADL); Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL); a battery of self-report measures, including involvement in leisure activities, satisfaction with home environment, social networks, and self-rated health. Results: Functional disability in ADL decreased between the cohorts (13.9% vs. 5.6%, p<.001). Functional disability in IADL also decreased between the cohorts (33.4% vs. 13.0%, p<.001). Combining ADL and IADL resulted in an overall decreased dependency, with the largest decrease seen in women (42.3% vs. 15.1%, p<.001). Involvement in leisure activities increased between the cohorts. For example, the proportion going on international and domestic holiday travels increased (44.6% vs. 72.8%, p<.001), and the proportion who independently drove their own car also increased (10.0% vs. 53.0%, p<.001). Conclusion: Later born cohorts of 75-year-olds are less dependent in activities of daily living and more engaged in leisure activities compared to earlier cohorts. Later born cohorts of 75-year-olds are thus better equipped to maintain a non-age related identity compared to earlier cohorts. Our findings might serve as a reason to adopt a more positive view to aging in a world with an increasing number of older people.
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7.
  • Fredén Klenfeldt, Isak, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder in Relation to Depression and Cognition in an Elderly Population
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry. - 1064-7481. ; 22:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives We examined the 1-month prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) not fulfilling OCD criteria in relation to sex, age, social and mental function, comorbid depression, and cognitive functioning in an elderly nondemented population. Settings and Participants Population-based sample (N = 900), stratified into two age groups: 70-year-olds (335 women and 224 men) and those aged 78 and above (341 women). Measurements Semi-structured interviews. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, mental and social function with the GAF-scale, memory function with the Word Recall Task and general cognition with MMSE. OCD and Depression were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Results The one-month prevalence of OCD was 2.9%; a further 21% had OCS. Among 70-year-olds, the prevalence of OCD was 1.3% in men and 4.5% in women. Depression was more common among those with OCD (34.6%) than among those with (12.7%) and without (8.0%) OCS. GAF-score was lower among those with OCD (74.8) and OCS (82.9) compared with individuals without obsessions and compulsions (88.2). The association between OCD and GAF-score remained after adjustment for age, sex, and depression. The OCD subgroup with checking behavior had more memory and concentration problems and did worse on Word Recall Task than other groups in our sample. Conclusions We found that OCD and OCS are common among the elderly. Both conditions are related to depression and poorer mental and social functioning. Physicians who meet elderly patients need to be aware of OCD as it is potentially treatable.
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  • Gudmundsson, Pia, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • White Matter Lesions and Temporal Lobe Atrophy Related to incidence of both Dementia and Major Depression in 70-year-olds followed over 10 years
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - 1351-5101.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background: A number of studies have suggested associations between dementia and depression in older adults. One reason could be that these disorders share structural correlates, such as white matter lesions (WMLs) and cortical atrophy. No study has examined whether these lesions precede both dementia and depression independently of each other in the general population. Methods: We investigated whether WMLs and cortical atrophy on computed tomography (CT) predict dementia and depression in a population-based sample of 70-year-olds (n=380) followed over 10 years. Exclusion criteria were dementia, major depression, history of stroke and a Mini-Mental State Examination score below 26 at baseline in 2000-01. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R and depression according to DSM-5. Primary outcomes included dementia and major depression at 10-year follow-up. Results: Adjusted logistic regression models, including both WMLs and temporal lobe atrophy, showed that moderate-to-severe WMLs (OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.23-12.76) and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.13-7.60) predicted dementia during 10-year follow-up independently of major depression. Similarly, both moderate-to-severe WMLs (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.25-11.76) and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.06-5.96) predicted depression even after controlling for incident dementia. Conclusion: WMLs and temporal lobe atrophy preceded 10-year incidence of both dementia and depression in 70-year-olds. Shared structural correlates could explain the reported associations between dementia and depression. These brain changes may represent independent and complementary pathways to dementia and depression. Strategies to slow progression of vascular pathology and neurodegeneration could indirectly prevent both dementia and depression in older adults.
10.
  • Guo, Xinxin, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Midlife respiratory function and Incidence of Alzheimer's disease: a 29-year longitudinal study in women
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. ; 28, s. 343-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, SE 413 45 Göteborg, Sweden. xinxin.guo@neuro.gu.se <xinxin.guo@neuro.gu.se> Normal cognitive function depends on sufficient supply and efficient utilization of oxygen in the brain. Prospective studies on respiratory function and dementia are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between midlife respiratory function and incidence of dementia in a population-based sample of 1291 women followed from 1974 to 2003. Respiratory function was measured by peak expiratory flow in 1974, and forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1980. Dementia diagnoses were based on information from neuropsychiatric examinations, informant interviews, hospital records and registry data. Better respiratory function in midlife was associated with a lower late-life risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Per 1 standard deviation increase in peak expiratory flow, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for dementia were 0.77 (0.65-0.91), 0.72 (0.57-0.92) and 0.75 (0.59-0.95), respectively, and for AD 0.76 (0.62-0.94), 0.71 (0.54-0.95) and 0.74 (0.56-0.98), respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders. These data reinforce the advantages of maintaining good respiratory function in midlife, even though causation cannot be established. PMID: 16513221 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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