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Träfflista för sökning "LAR1:gu ;srt2:(2007);conttype:(refereed);pers:(Swedberg Karl 1944)"

Sökning: LAR1:gu > (2007) > Refereegranskat > Swedberg Karl 1944

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1.
  • De Luca, L., et al. (författare)
  • Acute heart failure syndromes: clinical scenarios and pathophysiologic targets for therapy
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Heart Fail Rev. - 1382-4147. ; 12:2, s. 97
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) represent the most common discharge diagnosis in patients over age 65 years, with an exceptionally high mortality and readmission rates at 60-90 days. Recent surveys and registries have generated important information concerning the clinical characteristics of patients with AHFS and their prognosis. Most patients with AHFS present either with normal systolic blood pressure or elevated blood pressure. Patients who present with elevated systolic blood pressure usually have pulmonary congestion, a relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), are often elderly women, and their symptoms develop typically and abruptly. Patients with normal systolic blood pressure present with systemic congestion, reduced LVEF, are usually younger with a history of chronic HF, and have symptoms that develop gradually over days or weeks. In addition to the abnormal hemodynamics (increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and/or decrease in cardiac output) that characterize patients with AHFS, myocardial injury, which may be related to a decrease in coronary perfusion and/or further activation of neurohormones and renal dysfunction, probably contributes to short-term and post-discharge cardiac events. Patients with AHFS also have significant cardiac and noncardiac underlying conditions that contribute to the pathogenesis of AHFS, including coronary artery disease (ischemia, hibernating myocardium, and endothelial dysfunction), hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the targets of therapy for AHFS should be not only to improve symptoms and hemodynamics but also to preserve or improve renal function, prevent myocardial damage, modulate neurohumoral and inflammatory activation, and to manage other comorbidities that may cause and/or contribute to the progression of this syndrome.
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2.
  • De Luca, L., et al. (författare)
  • Early pharmacological treatment of acute heart failure syndromes: A systematic review of clinical trials
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Acute cardiac care. - 1748-2941. ; 9:1, s. 10-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Acute Heart Failure Syndromes (AHFS) is a common admission diagnosis associated with high mortality and hospital readmissions. Given the mixed results of recent clinical trials, the early management of AHFS remains controversial. Objective: To review the recent evidence regarding current and investigational therapies for the early management of AHFS. Data Sources: A systematic search of peer-reviewed publications was performed on MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1990 to August 2006. The results of unpublished or ongoing trials were obtained from presentations at national and international meetings and pharmaceutical industry releases. Bibliographies from these references were also reviewed, as were additional articles identified by content experts. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Criteria used for study selection were controlled study design, relevance to clinicians and validity based on venue of publication and power analysis. Data Synthesis: Although all current intravenous therapies for the early management of AHFS appear to improve hemodynamics, this may not always translate into short-term clinical benefit. Conclusion: The results of the trials conducted to date in AHFS have generally been disappointing. There is, therefore, an unmet need for new therapeutic approaches for the early management of AHFS that may improve the short-term and long-term outcomes.
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3.
  • Desai, A. S., et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and predictors of hyperkalemia in patients with heart failure: an analysis of the CHARM Program
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: J Am Coll Cardiol. - 1558-3597. ; 50:20, s. 1959-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We explored the incidence and predictors of hyperkalemia in a broad population of heart failure patients. BACKGROUND: When used in optimal doses to treat patients with heart failure, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors improve clinical outcomes but can cause hyperkalemia. METHODS: Participants in the CHARM (Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity) (n = 7,599) Program were randomized to standard heart failure therapy plus candesartan or placebo, titrated as tolerated to a target of 32 mg once daily with recommended monitoring of serum potassium and creatinine. We assessed the incidence and predictors of hyperkalemia associated with dose reduction, study drug discontinuation, hospitalization, or death over the median 3.2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Independent of treatment assignment, the risk of hyperkalemia increased with age > or =75 years, male gender, diabetes, creatinine > or =2.0 mg/dl, K+ > or =5.0 mmol/l, and background use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or spironolactone. Candesartan increased the rate of aggregate hyperkalemia from 1.8% to 5.2% (difference 3.4%, p < 0.0001) and serious hyperkalemia (associated with death or hospitalization) from 1.1% to 1.8% (difference 0.7%, p < 0.001), with hyperkalemia associated with death reported in 2 (0.05%) candesartan patients and 1 (0.03%) placebo patient. The benefit of candesartan in reducing cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization (relative risk reduction 16%, p < 0.0001) was uniform in these subgroups, as was the incremental risk of hyperkalemia. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of hyperkalemia is increased in symptomatic heart failure patients with advanced age, male gender, baseline hyperkalemia, renal failure, diabetes, or combined RAAS blockade. Although these groups derive incremental clinical benefit from candesartan, careful surveillance of serum potassium and creatinine is particularly important.
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5.
  • Ekman, Inger, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Standard medication information is not enough: poor concordance of patient and nurse perceptions
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: J Adv Nurs. - 0309-2402. ; 60:2, s. 181-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim. This paper is a report of a study to describe patient and nurse perceptions of patient satisfaction with information about the medicines at two heart failure clinics after medication up-titration and information-giving. Background. Chronic heart failure is a major cause of hospitalization. Poor adherence to medications increases mortality and heart failure-related hospitalizations. To achieve mutual goal-setting (concordance) regarding medication-taking behaviours, health providers need to understand patient information needs regarding the prescribed medicines. Methods. A convenience sample of 56 patients with chronic heart failure referred for an up-titration of medicines and information-giving about the condition and treatment completed the Satisfaction about Information about Medicines Scale at their first and last visits. Nurses completed the same questionnaire after each patient's final visit, assessing the patient's need for further information. The data were collected between 2002 and 2004. Results. Patient scores indicated statistically significantly more satisfaction with their information at the final visit compared with the first visit (P = 0.005). However, at the programme conclusion, nurses (n = 7) rated patients to be appropriately informed while patients reported a persistent need for further information (P = 0.011). Conclusion. Further research should evaluate more advanced pedagogical strategies such as how to address patients' expectations about the effect of medicines when actual effects of the treatment are related to mortality and morbidity at the population level and may not result directly in symptom relief at an individual level.
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6.
  • Falk, Kristin, 1949-, et al. (författare)
  • Breaking the vicious circle of fatigue in patients with chronic heart failure
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Qualitative health research. - 1049-7323. ; 17:8, s. 1020-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fatigue is a common symptom in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Characteristics of the experience and consequences of fatigue might be unique in these patients. The authors interviewed 15 patients with CHF and analyzed focused online observations of the content discussed in an Internet patient discussion group concerning CHF using grounded theory. The results suggest that fatigue is a circular process in which the consequences of fatigue further exaggerate the experience. However, fatigue could be alleviated by restorative activities. The bodily experience of fatigue was defined as lacking strength and energy and feeling sleepy. Patients reported the mental aspects of fatigue as demoralizing and that they frequently experienced intellectual deficiency. Fatigue leads to sacrificing, which was manifested as refraining, denying oneself, and being isolated. The restoring activities included the categories involuntarily attentive, socially interactive, and mentally absorbed. Interventions aimed to relieve fatigue should focus on restorative activities.
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7.
  • Falk, Kristin, 1949-, et al. (författare)
  • Fatigue is a prevalent and severe symptom associated with uncertainty and sense of coherence in patients with chronic heart failure
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. - 1474-5151. ; 6:2, s. 99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a common symptom in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and has a major impact on their daily life activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and severity of fatigue, conceptualized as a multiple dimensional symptom, and to determine the influence of sense of coherence and uncertainty on the fatigue experience in patients with CHF. METHODS: Ninety-three consecutive patients, hospitalized with a diagnosis of CHF, completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory Scale (MFI-20), Cardiovascular Population Scale (CPS), and Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and were classified according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification criteria. Associations between selected variables were explored with multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: The patients reported high prevalence and severity in the physical dimensions of fatigue. Uncertainty was associated positively with tiredness and reduced functional status. High age predicted reduced motivation and the ability to concentrate were affected by low SOC. CONCLUSION: Fatigue is a prevalent and distressing experience in patients with CHF, where a variety of factors influence different dimensions of the fatigue experience. Recognising this, symptom management must be directed towards comprehensive assessment and a broad approach in interventions aimed at alleviating fatigue.
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8.
  • Felker, G. M., et al. (författare)
  • Red cell distribution width as a novel prognostic marker in heart failure: data from the CHARM Program and the Duke Databank
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: J Am Coll Cardiol. - 1558-3597. ; 50:1, s. 40-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to identify potentially novel laboratory markers of risk in chronic heart failure patients. BACKGROUND: Although a variety of prognostic markers have been described in heart failure, a systematic assessment of routine laboratory values has not been reported. METHODS: All 2,679 symptomatic chronic heart failure patients from the North American CHARM (Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity) program had a wide range of laboratory measures performed at a core facility, enabling us to assess the relationship between routine blood tests and outcomes using a Cox proportional hazards model. We then replicated our findings in a cohort of 2,140 heart failure patients from the Duke Databank. RESULTS: Among 36 laboratory values considered in the CHARM program, higher red cell distribution width (RDW) showed the greatest association with morbidity and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.17 per 1-SD increase, p < 0.001). Higher RDW was among the most powerful overall predictors, with only age and cardiomegaly showing a better independent association with outcome. This finding was replicated in the Duke Databank, in which higher RDW was strongly associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.29 per 1 SD, p < 0.001), second only to age as a predictor of outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In 2 large contemporary heart failure populations, RDW was found to be a very strong independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Understanding how and why this marker is associated with outcome may provide novel insights into heart failure pathophysiology.
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9.
  • Gheorghiade, M., et al. (författare)
  • Short-term clinical effects of tolvaptan, an oral vasopressin antagonist, in patients hospitalized for heart failure: the EVEREST Clinical Status Trials
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: JAMA. - 1538-3598. ; 297:12, s. 1332-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Heart failure causes more than 1 million US hospitalizations yearly, mostly related to congestion. Tolvaptan, an oral, nonpeptide, selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, shows promise in this condition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short-term effects of tolvaptan when added to standard therapy in patients hospitalized with heart failure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Two identical prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials at 359 sites in North America, South America, and Europe were conducted during the inpatient period of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study With Tolvaptan (EVEREST) between October 7, 2003, and February 3, 2006. A total of 2048 (trial A) and 2085 (trial B) patients hospitalized with heart failure and congestion were studied. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to receive either tolvaptan (30 mg/d) or matching placebo, within 48 hours of admission. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary end point was a composite of changes in global clinical status based on a visual analog scale and body weight at day 7 or discharge if earlier. Secondary end points included dyspnea (day 1), global clinical status (day 7 or discharge), body weight (days 1 and 7 or discharge), and peripheral edema (day 7 or discharge). RESULTS: Rank sum analysis of the composite primary end point showed greater improvement with tolvaptan vs placebo (trial A, mean [SD], 1.06 [0.43] vs 0.99 [0.44]; and trial B, 1.07 [0.42] vs 0.97 [0.43]; both trials P<.001). Mean (SD) body weight reduction was greater with tolvaptan on day 1 (trial A, 1.71 [1.80] vs 0.99 [1.83] kg; P<.001; and trial B, 1.82 [2.01] vs 0.95 [1.85] kg; P<.001) and day 7 or discharge (trial A, 3.35 [3.27] vs 2.73 [3.34] kg; P<.001; and trial B, 3.77 [3.59] vs 2.79 [3.46] kg; P<.001), whereas improvements in global clinical status were not different between groups. More patients receiving tolvaptan (684 [76.7%] and 678 [72.1%] for trial A and trial B, respectively) vs patients receiving placebo (646 [70.6%] and 597 [65.3%], respectively) reported improvement in dyspnea at day 1 (both trials P<.001). Edema at day 7 or discharge improved significantly with tolvaptan in trial B (P = .02) but did not reach significance in trial A (P = .07). Serious adverse event frequencies were similar between groups, without excess renal failure or hypotension. CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized with heart failure, oral tolvaptan in addition to standard therapy including diuretics improved many, though not all, heart failure signs and symptoms, without serious adverse events. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00071331
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10.
  • Hawkins, N. M., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and prognostic impact of bundle branch block in patients with heart failure: Evidence from the CHARM programme
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European journal of heart failure. - 1388-9842. ; 9:5, s. 510-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Bundle branch block (BBB) is a powerful independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The prognostic implications in HF with preserved systolic function (HF-PSF) are less well understood. METHODS: The Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) programme randomised 7599 patients with symptomatic HF to receive candesartan or placebo. The primary outcome comprised cardiovascular death or HF hospitalisation. The relative risk conveyed by BBB relative to a normal electrocardiogram was examined. RESULTS: The prevalence of BBB was significantly lower in patients with preserved compared with reduced systolic function (CHARM-Preserved 14.4%, Alternative 29.6%, Added 30.5%), p<0.0001. Overall, the adjusted hazard ratio for the primary outcome was 1.48 (95% confidence interval 1.22-1.78), p<0.0001, reflecting increased risk in patients with reduced LVEF (1.72 [1.28-2.31], p=0.0003). The apparently more modest risk among patients with HF-PSF was significant in unadjusted (1.80 [1.37-2.37], p<0.0001) but not adjusted analysis (1.16 [0.88-1.54], p=0.2897). However, no formal statistical difference was observed between the two cohorts, and interpretation is limited by the unknown prevalence of left and right BBB morphologies in each. Comparing BBB presence with absence yielded qualitatively similar results. CONCLUSION: The simple clinical finding of BBB is a powerful independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes in patients with HF and reduced LVEF. It is less frequent, with a more modest predictive effect, in patients with preserved systolic function.
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