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Sökning: LAR1:gu > (2010) > Högskolan i Jönköping

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  • Algurén, Beatrix, et al. (författare)
  • Functioning of stroke survivors--A validation of the ICF core set for stroke in Sweden.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Disability and rehabilitation. - 0963-8288. ; 32:7, s. 551-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. To validate the body functions and activities and participation part of the extended International Classification ofFunctioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) core set for stroke with a Swedish population in the first 3 months post-stroke.Method. At 6 weeks and at 3 months post-stroke, stroke survivors were evaluated by 59 ICF categories of body functions, 59 categories of activities and participation from the stroke ICF core set (extended version).Results. The study sample included 99 stroke survivors (54% women) with an average age of 72 years. Statistical significantproblems were identified in 28 ICF categories of body functions and in 41 ICF categories of activities and participation atboth time points, at 6 weeks and at 3 months. About 17 ICF categories were reported as problems in independent (i.e. modified Rankin Scale (mRS)<img src="http://www.diva-portal.org/cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi?%5Cleq" />2) and about 34 categories in dependent (i.e. mRS42) stroke survivors.Conclusions. The results suggest a possible reduction of the stroke ICF core set from 59 to 28 categories of body functionsand from 59 to 41 categories of activities and participation. Hence, feasibility of the core set for multiprofessional assessment increases and the core set might find more integration in clinical practice. The number of problems in mobility and self-care mainly distinguished between independent and dependent stroke survivors.
  • Axelsson, Åsa B, et al. (författare)
  • European cardiovascular nurses' experiences of and attitudes towards having family members present in the resuscitation room.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European journal of cardiovascular nursing : journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology. - 1873-1953. ; 9:1, s. 15-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To investigate cardiovascular nurses experiences of and attitudes towards the presence of family members during resuscitation of adult patients. Methods: A 36-item questionnaire exploring the experiences of and attitudes towards family members being present in the resuscitation room was distributed to a convenience sample of nurses attending three national and one international cardiovascular nursing conferences held in Europe during 2007. Results: Of 820 questionnaires distributed, 411(50%) completed ones were returned. Of these 411 respondents, 178 (44%) had experienced at least one situation of families being present. Positive (23%) and negative (21%) experiences of family presence were equally distributed. Only 28 (7%) respondents stated that their unit had a protocol covering family presence. Nurses in Ireland (n=30; 59%) and the UK (n=18; 55%) were most likely to have experienced family presence and protocols relating to this were most commonly found in the UK (n=4; 14%). Conclusion: Less than half of the included European cardiovascular nurses had experienced a situation of families being present during resuscitation and protocols pertaining to this were rare. There was no clear attitude towards family presence, though experience in nursing made nurses more favourable towards it.
  • Björk, Mathilda, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational therapists perceptions of gender - A focus group study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. - Blackwell Publishing. - 0045-0766. ; 57:5, s. 331-338
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/aim: Women and men are shaped over the courses of their lives by culture, society and human interaction according to the gender system. Cultural influences on individuals social roles and environment are described in occupational therapy literature, but not specifically from a gender perspective. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how a sample of occupational therapists perceives the gender concept. Method: Four focus group interviews with 17 occupational therapists were conducted. The opening question was: How do you reflect on the encounter with a client depending on whether it is a man or a woman? The transcribed interviews were analysed and two main themes emerged: the concept of gender is tacit in occupational therapy and client encounters. Results: The occupational therapists expressed limited theoretical knowledge of gender. Furthermore, the occupational therapists seemed to be doing gender in their encounters with the clients. For example, in their assessment of the client, they focussed their questions on different spheres: with female clients, on the household and family; with male clients, on their paid work. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that occupational therapists were unaware of the possibility that they were doing gender in their encounters with clients. There is a need to increase occupational therapists awareness of their own behaviour of doing gender. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate whether gendered perceptions will shorten or lengthen a rehabilitation period and affect the chosen interventions, and in the end, the outcome for the clients.
  • Browall, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Health care staff's opinions about existential issues among patients with cancer.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Palliative & supportive care. - 1478-9523. ; 8:1, s. 59-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The objective of this study was to explore health care staff's opinions about what existential issues are important to patients with cancer and staff's responsibility when existential issues are raised by patients. Method: Four focus group interviews were conducted with health care staff (N = 23) at an in-patient hospice, on an oncology ward, on a surgical ward, and with a palliative home health care team. The focus group interviews focused on two questions, first, about health care staff's opinions about patients' important existential questions and, second, about health care staff's responsibility when existential issues are raised by the patient. The interviews were taperecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by qualitative content analysis into subcategories and categories. Results: Four categories and 11 subcategories emerged from the first question. The first category, "life and death," was based on joy of living and thoughts of dying. The second category "meaning," consisted of acceptance, reevaluation, hope, and faith. The third category, "freedom of choice," consisted of responsibility and integrity, and the fourth and last category, "relationships and solitude," consisted of alleviation, dependency, and loss. One category emerged from the second question about the health care staff's responsibility, "to achieve an encounter," which was based on the subcategories time and space, attitudes, and invitation and confirmation. Significance of results: One strength of this study was that the findings were fairly congruent in different settings and in different geographical areas. Health care staff were aware of the importance of existential issues to patients. The existential issues, mentioned by health care staff, are similar to findings from studies conducted among patients, which is another strength of the present study. Health care staff are also confident about how to act when these issues are raised by the patients. The challenge for the future is to implement the findings from this study among health care staff in different settings.
  • Burman, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Fictitious domain finite element methods using cut elements: I. A stabilized Lagrange multiplier method
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering. - 0045-7825. ; 199:41-44, s. 2680-2686
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We propose a fictitious domain method where the mesh is cut by the boundary. The primal solution is computed only up to the boundary; the solution itself is defined also by nodes outside the domain, but the weak finite element form only involves those parts of the elements that are located inside the domain. The multipliers are defined as being element-wise constant on the whole (including the extension) of the cut elements in the mesh defining the primal variable. Inf-sup stability is obtained by penalizing the jump of the multiplier over element faces. We consider the case of a polygonal domain with possibly curved boundaries. The method has optimal convergence properties.
  • Burman, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Interior-penalty-stabilized Lagrange multiplier methods for the finite-element solution of elliptic interface problems
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis. - 0272-4979. ; 30:3, s. 870-885
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we propose a class of jump-stabilized Lagrange multiplier methods for the finite-element solution of multidomain elliptic partial differential equations using piecewise-constant or continuous piecewise-linear approximations of the multipliers. For the purpose of stabilization we use the jumps in derivatives of the multipliers or, for piecewise constants, the jump in the multipliers themselves, across element borders. The ideas are illustrated using Poisson's equation as a model, and the proposed method is shown to be stable and optimally convergent. Numerical experiments demonstrating the theoretical results are also presented.
  • Cassel, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Deflections of an implant-supported cantilever beam subjected to vertically directed loads : In vitro measurements in three dimensions using an optoelectronic method. II Analysis of methodological errors.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research. - 0905-7161. ; 22:6, s. 645-650
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, i.e. trueness (validity) and precision (repeatability) for load-dependent deflections in three dimensions of an implant-supported cantilever beam obtained with an optoelectronic motion analysis system compared with a well-known reference method.Materials and methods: A cantilever beam with a length of 22 mm (roughly corresponding to the width of two premolars) was screw-connected to an implant–abutment unit stiffly anchored in a steel plate. The positional changes of beam-end were measured when the beam-end step by step was subjected to four loads, 15.5–40.1 N. This measurement procedure was repeated to comprise six consecutive measurements. The trueness of the method was estimated by comparing the data obtained for vertical deflections with those from a reference method where a hydraulic test system was used to measure the load-deflection ratios of the same beam when subjected to the four mentioned vertical loads.Results: All applied transducer-mediated loads had accuracies (truenesses and repeatabilities below 0.05%). Also, the trueness and precision of the reference method, regarding both movements (deflections) of tested objects and magnitude of applied loads, were tested and found to be high, not exceeding 0.5%.The optoelectronic method however underestimated the smallest vertical deflections for the cantilever beam when compared with the data obtained from the reference method. The underestimation was 26.4%, 15.5% and 8.6% for loads 15.5, 26.6 and 32.6 N, respectively, while there was a slight overestimation of 1.2% for 40.1 N. The precision for the optoelectronic method was found to be for z-axis 1.8 μm, y-axis 3.8 μm and x-axis 1.9 μm.Conclusion: It can be concluded that the trueness (validity) for the optoelectronic method is very high for deflections above 143 μm. The precision (repeatability) of the optoelectronic method was found to be very high.
  • Dahl, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Agreement between self-reported and measured height, weight and body mass index in old age : a longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Age and Ageing. - 0002-0729. ; 39:4, s. 445-451
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: self-reported body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight is a widely used measure of adiposity in epidemiological research. Knowledge about the accuracy of these measures in late life is scarce. OBJECTIVE: the study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and changes in accuracy of self-reported height, weight and BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight in late life. DESIGN: a longitudinal population-based study with five times of follow-up was conducted. Participants: seven hundred seventy-four community-living men and women, aged 40-88 at baseline (mean age 63.9), included in The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. METHODS: participants self-reported their height and weight in a questionnaire, and height and weight were measured by experienced research nurses at an in-person testing five times during a 20-year period. BMI was calculated as weight (kilogramme)/height (metre)(2). RESULTS: latent growth curve modelling showed an increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured values over time for height (0.038 cm/year) and BMI (0.016 kg/m(2)/year), but not for weight. CONCLUSIONS: there is a very small increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI with ageing, which probably would not affect the results when self-reported BMI is used as a continuous variable in longitudinal studies.
  • Dahl, Anna, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Being overweight in midlife is associated with lower cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in late life.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. - 1758-535X. ; 65:1, s. 57-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Although an increasing body of evidence links being overweight in midlife with an increased risk for dementia in late life, no studies have examined the association between being overweight in midlife and cognitive ability in late life. Our aim was to examine the association between being overweight in midlife as measured by body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability assessed over time. METHODS: Participants in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study Aging were derived from a population-based sample. The participants completed baseline surveys in 1963 or 1973 (mean age 41.6 years, range 25-63 years). The surveys included questions about height, weight, diseases, and lifestyle factors. Beginning in 1986, the same individuals were assessed on neuropsychological tests every 3 years (except in 1995) until 2002. During the study period, 781 individuals who were 50 years and older (60% women) had at least one complete neuropsychological assessment. A composite score of general cognitive ability was derived from the cognitive test battery for each measurement occasion. RESULTS: Latent growth curve models adjusted for twinness showed that persons with higher midlife BMI scores had significantly lower general cognitive ability and significantly steeper longitudinal decline than their thinner counterparts. The association did not change substantially when persons who developed dementia during the study period were excluded from the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher midlife BMI scores precede lower general cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in both men and women. The association does not seem to be mediated by an increased risk for dementia
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