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Sökning: LAR1:gu > (2010) > Tidskriftsartikel > Fritt online > Engelska > Umeå universitet

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  • Alstermark, Bror, et al. (författare)
  • Anders Lundberg (1920-2009).
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - 0014-4819. ; 200:3-4, s. 193-195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Anders Lundberg was one of the founding editorial board members for EBR when it began its life in 1976 under the editorship of John Eccles. He was also one of the most prolific contributors to the journal with a total of 49 papers, including a series of 16 on the topic of “integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat”. He continued as an editor of the journal until volume 16 when he persuaded his younger colleague Hans Hultborn to take his place. Hans is one of the authors of the obituary. –John Rothwell
  • Bäcklund, Catharina, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Validity of an armband measuring energy expenditure in overweight and obese children
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - The American College of Sports Medicine. - 0195-9131. ; 42:6, s. 1154-1161
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To examine the ability of the SenseWear Pro2 Armband (SWA) to accurately assess energy expenditure in free-living overweight or obese children during a two-week period, by comparison with energy expenditure measured using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. A second aim was to examine which software version, Innerview Professional 5.1 or Sensewear Professional 6.0, are the most appropriate for use together with SWA in overweight and obese children. Method: A random sample of 22 healthy, overweight or obese children (11 girls and 11 boys) aged 8-11 years was recruited from an ongoing intervention study. Energy expenditure in free-living conditions was simultaneously assessed with the SWA and DLW methods during a 14-day period. All data from the SWA were analyzed using InnerView Professional software versions 5.1 (SWA 5.1) and 6.1 (SWA 6.1). Results: An accurate estimation in energy expenditure was obtained when SWA 5.1 was used, showing a non-statistically significant difference corresponding to 17 (1200) kJ[middle dot]d-1 compared with the energy expenditure measured using the DLW method. However, when SWA 6.1 was used a statistically significant (18%) underestimation of energy expenditure was obtained, corresponding to 1962 (1034) kJ[middle dot]d-1 compared with the DLW method. Conclusion: The SWA together with software version 5.1, but not 6.1, is a valid method for accurately measuring energy expenditure at group level of free-living overweight and obese children.
  • Egecioglu, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Ghrelin increases intake of rewarding food in rodents.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Addiction biology. - 1369-1600. ; 15:3, s. 304-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated whether ghrelin action at the level of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key node in the mesolimbic reward system, is important for the rewarding and motivational aspects of the consumption of rewarding/palatable food. Mice with a disrupted gene encoding the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) and rats treated peripherally with a GHS-R1A antagonist both show suppressed intake of rewarding food in a free choice (chow/rewarding food) paradigm. Moreover, accumbal dopamine release induced by rewarding food was absent in GHS-R1A knockout mice. Acute bilateral intra-VTA administration of ghrelin increased 1-hour consumption of rewarding food but not standard chow. In comparison with sham rats, VTA-lesioned rats had normal intracerebroventricular ghrelin-induced chow intake, although both intake of and time spent exploring rewarding food was decreased. Finally, the ability of rewarding food to condition a place preference was suppressed by the GHS-R1A antagonist in rats. Our data support the hypothesis that central ghrelin signaling at the level of the VTA is important for the incentive value of rewarding food.
  • Gómez-Consarnau, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Proteorhodopsin phototrophy promotes survival of marine bacteria during starvation
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS biology. - 1544-9173. ; 8:4, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Proteorhodopsins are globally abundant photoproteins found in bacteria in the photic zone of the ocean. Although their function as proton pumps with energy-yielding potential has been demonstrated, the ecological role of proteorhodopsins remains largely unexplored. Here, we report the presence and function of proteorhodopsin in a member of the widespread genus Vibrio, uncovered through whole-genome analysis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Vibrio strain AND4 obtained proteorhodopsin through lateral gene transfer, which could have modified the ecology of this marine bacterium. We demonstrate an increased long-term survival of AND4 when starved in seawater exposed to light rather than held in darkness. Furthermore, mutational analysis provides the first direct evidence, to our knowledge, linking the proteorhodopsin gene and its biological function in marine bacteria. Thus, proteorhodopsin phototrophy confers a fitness advantage to marine bacteria, representing a novel mechanism for bacterioplankton to endure frequent periods of resource deprivation at the ocean’s surface.
  • Graner, S, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal health care professionals' perspectives on the provision and use of antenatal and delivery care a qualitative descriptive study in rural Vietnam
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 10:1, s. 608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: High quality maternal health care is an important tool to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Services offered should be evidence based and adapted to the local setting. This qualitative descriptive study explored the perspectives and experiences of midwives, assistant physicians and medical doctors on the content and quality of maternal health care in rural Vietnam. METHOD: The study was performed in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Four focus group discussions with health care professionals at primary health care level were conducted. The data was analysed using qualitative manifest and latent content analysis. Result Two main themes emerged: "Contextual conditions for maternal health care" and "Balancing between possibilities and constraints". Contextual conditions influenced both pregnant women's use of maternal health care and health care professionals' performance. The study participants stated that women's uses of maternal health care were influenced by economical constraints and cultural norms that impeded their autonomy in relation to childbearing. Structural constraints within the health care system included inadequate financing of the primary health care, resulting in lack of human resources, professional re-training and adequate equipment. CONCLUSION: Contextual conditions strongly influenced the performance and interaction between pregnant women and health care professionals within antenatal care and delivery care in a rural district of Vietnam. Although Vietnam is performing comparatively well in terms of low maternal and child mortality figures, this study revealed midwives' and other health care professionals' perceived difficulties in their daily work. It seemed maternal health care was under-resourced in terms of staff, equipment and continuing education activities. The cultural setting in Vietnam constituting a strong patriarchal society and prevailing Confucian norms limits women's autonomy and reduce their possibility to make independent decisions about their own reproductive health. This issue should be further addressed by policy-makers. Strategies to reduce inequities in maternal health care for pregnant women are needed. The quality of client-provider interaction and management of pregnancy may be strengthened by education, human resources, re-training and provision of essential equipment.
  • Hedner, Margareta, et al. (författare)
  • Age-Related Olfactory Decline is Associated with the BDNF Val66met Polymorphism Evidence from a Population-Based Study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - 1663-4365. ; 2:7, s. 24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study investigates the effect of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism on change in olfactory function in a large scale, longitudinal population-based sample (n = 836). The subjects were tested on a 13 item force-choice odor identification test on two test occasions over a 5-year-interval. Sex, education, health-related factors, and semantic ability were controlled for in the statistical analyses. Results showed an interaction effect of age and BDNF val66met on olfactory change, such that the magnitude of olfactory decline in the older age cohort (70–90<img src="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/pmc/pmcents/x2009.gif" />years old at baseline) was larger for the val homozygote carriers than for the met carriers. The older met carriers did not display larger age-related decline in olfactory function compared to the younger group. The BDNF val66met polymorphism did not affect the rate of decline in the younger age cohort (45–65<img src="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/pmc/pmcents/x2009.gif" />years). The findings are discussed in the light of the proposed roles of BDNF in neural development and maintenance.
  • Lindvall, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Weight maintenance as a tight rope walk a grounded theory study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 10:51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are considerable public health problems internationally as well as in Sweden. The long-term results of obesity treatment are modest as reported by other studies. The importance of extending the focus to not only comprise obesity treatment but also prevention of weight gain is therefore being emphasized. However, despite the suggested change in focus there is still no consensus on how to prevent obesity or maintain weight. This study reports findings from a qualitative study focusing on attitudes, behaviors and strategies important for primary weight maintenance in a middle-aged population.METHODS: In depth interviews were conducted with 23 maintainers and four slight gainers in Sweden. The interviews were transcribed and an analysis of weight maintenance was performed using Grounded Theory.RESULTS: Based on the informants' stories, describing attitudes, behaviors and strategies of importance for primary weight maintenance, a model illustrating the main findings, was constructed. Weight maintenance was seen as "a tightrope walk" and four strategies of significance for this "tightrope walk" were described as "to rely on heritage", "to find the joy", "to find the routine" and "to be in control". Eleven "ideal types" were included in the model to illustrate different ways of relating to the main strategies. These "ideal types" described more specific attitudes and behaviors such as; eating food that is both tasteful and nutritious, and choosing exercise that provides joy. However, other somewhat contradictory behaviors were also found such as; only eating nutritious food regardless of taste, and being physically active to control stress and emotions.CONCLUSION: This study show great variety with regards to attitudes, strategies and behaviors important for weight maintenance, and considerations need to be taken before putting the model into practice. However, the results from this study can be used within primary health care by enhancing the understanding of how people differ in their relation to food and physical activity. It informs health personnel about the need to differentiate advices related to body weight, not only to different sub-groups of individuals aiming at losing weight but also to sub-groups of primary weight maintainers aiming at maintaining weight.
  • Möllsten, Anna, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative risk, age at onset, and sex-specific differences for developing end-stage renal disease in young patients with type 1 diabetes: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 1939-327X. ; 59:7, s. 1803-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE—This study aimed to estimate the current cumulativerisk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to diabeticnephropathy in a large, nationwide, population-based prospectivetype 1 diabetes cohort and specifically study the effects ofsex and age at onset.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In Sweden, all incidentcases of type 1 diabetes aged 0–14 years and 15–34 years arerecorded in validated research registers since 1977 and 1983,respectively. These registers were linked to the Swedish RenalRegistry, which, since 1991, collects data on patients who receiveactive uremia treatment. Patients with 13 years duration of type1 diabetes were included (n 11,681).RESULTS—During a median time of follow-up of 20 years, 127patients had developed ESRD due to diabetic nephropathy. Thecumulative incidence at 30 years of type 1 diabetes duration waslow, with a male predominance (4.1% [95% CI 3.1–5.3] vs. 2.5%[1.7–3.5]). In both male and female subjects, onset of type 1diabetes before 10 years of age was associated with the lowestrisk of developing ESRD. The highest risk of ESRD was found inmale subjects diagnosed at age 20–34 years (hazard ratio 3.0 [95%CI 1.5–5.7]). In female subjects with onset at age 20–34 years, therisk was similar to patients’ diagnosed before age 10 years.CONCLUSIONS—The cumulative incidence of ESRD is exceptionallylow in young type 1 diabetic patients in Sweden. There isa striking difference in risk for male compared with femalepatients. The different patterns of risk by age at onset and sexsuggest a role for puberty and sex hormones.
  • Rosén, Helena I., et al. (författare)
  • Patients' experiences and perceived causes of persisting discomfort following day surgery
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Nursing. - BioMed Central. - 1472-6955. ; 9, s. artikelnummer 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of this study was to describe patients’ experiences and perceived causes of persisting discomfort following day surgery. Earlier research has mainly covered symptoms and signs during a recovery period of up to one month, and not dealt with patients’ perceptions of what causes persisting, longer-term discomfort. Methods: This study is a part from a study carried out during the period May 2006 to May 2007 with a total of 298 day surgery patients. Answers were completed by 118 patients at 48 hours, 110 at seven days and 46 at three months to one open-ended question related to discomfort after day surgery constructed as follows: If you are stillexperiencing discomfort related to the surgery, what is the reason, in your opinion? Data was processed, quantitatively and qualitatively. Descriptive, inferential, correlation and content analyses were performed. Results: The results suggest that patients suffer from remaining discomfort e.g. pain and wound problem, with effects on daily life following day surgery up to three months. Among patients’ perceptions of factors leading to discomfort may be wrongful or suboptimal treatment, type of surgery or insufficient access to provider/information. Conclusions: The results have important implications for preventing and managing discomfort at home followingday surgery, and for nursing interventions to help patients handle the recovery period better.
  • Swanberg, M, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene and bone loss in postmenopausal women.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Bone. - Elsevier. - 1873-2763. ; 47, s. 424-429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Osteoporosis is a severe condition in postmenopausal women and a common cause of fracture. Osteoporosis is a complex disease with a strong genetic impact, but susceptibility is determined by many genes with modest effects and environmental factors. Only a handful of genes consistently associated with osteoporosis have been identified so far. Inflammation affects bone metabolism by interfering with the interplay between bone resorption and formation, and many inflammatory mediators are involved in natural bone remodeling. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to affect bone density in rodents, and polymorphisms in the human MIF promoter are associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the MIF gene with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in 1002 elderly women using MIF promoter polymorphisms MIF-CATT(5)(-)(8) and rs755622(G/C) located -794 and -173bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Bone loss was estimated both by the change in BMD over 5years and by the levels of bone resorption markers in serum measured at four occasions during a 5-year period. The MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) haplotype was associated with increased rate of bone loss during 5years at the femoral neck (p<0.05) and total hip (p<0.05). In addition, the MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) haplotype carriers had higher levels of the bone turnover marker serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (S-CTX-I, p<0.01) during the 5year follow-up period. There was no association between MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) and baseline BMD at femoral neck, total hip or lumbar spine. We conclude that MIF promoter polymorphisms have modest effects on bone remodeling and are associated with the rate of bone loss in elderly women.
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