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Sökning: LAR1:gu > (2010) > Tidskriftsartikel > Fritt online > Engelska > Umeå universitet

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1.
  • Bäcklund, Catharina, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Validity of an armband measuring energy expenditure in overweight and obese children
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - The American College of Sports Medicine. - 0195-9131. ; 42:6, s. 1154-1161
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To examine the ability of the SenseWear Pro2 Armband (SWA) to accurately assess energy expenditure in free-living overweight or obese children during a two-week period, by comparison with energy expenditure measured using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. A second aim was to examine which software version, Innerview Professional 5.1 or Sensewear Professional 6.0, are the most appropriate for use together with SWA in overweight and obese children.Method: A random sample of 22 healthy, overweight or obese children (11 girls and 11 boys) aged 8-11 years was recruited from an ongoing intervention study. Energy expenditure in free-living conditions was simultaneously assessed with the SWA and DLW methods during a 14-day period. All data from the SWA were analyzed using InnerView Professional software versions 5.1 (SWA 5.1) and 6.1 (SWA 6.1).Results: An accurate estimation in energy expenditure was obtained when SWA 5.1 was used, showing a non-statistically significant difference corresponding to 17 (1200) kJ[middle dot]d-1 compared with the energy expenditure measured using the DLW method. However, when SWA 6.1 was used a statistically significant (18%) underestimation of energy expenditure was obtained, corresponding to 1962 (1034) kJ[middle dot]d-1 compared with the DLW method.Conclusion: The SWA together with software version 5.1, but not 6.1, is a valid method for accurately measuring energy expenditure at group level of free-living overweight and obese children.
2.
  • Gómez-Consarnau, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Proteorhodopsin phototrophy promotes survival of marine bacteria during starvation
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS biology. - 1544-9173. ; 8:4, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Proteorhodopsins are globally abundant photoproteins found in bacteria in the photic zone of the ocean. Although their function as proton pumps with energy-yielding potential has been demonstrated, the ecological role of proteorhodopsins remains largely unexplored. Here, we report the presence and function of proteorhodopsin in a member of the widespread genus Vibrio, uncovered through whole-genome analysis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Vibrio strain AND4 obtained proteorhodopsin through lateral gene transfer, which could have modified the ecology of this marine bacterium. We demonstrate an increased long-term survival of AND4 when starved in seawater exposed to light rather than held in darkness. Furthermore, mutational analysis provides the first direct evidence, to our knowledge, linking the proteorhodopsin gene and its biological function in marine bacteria. Thus, proteorhodopsin phototrophy confers a fitness advantage to marine bacteria, representing a novel mechanism for bacterioplankton to endure frequent periods of resource deprivation at the ocean’s surface.
3.
  • Hedner, Margareta, et al. (författare)
  • Age-Related Olfactory Decline is Associated with the BDNF Val66met Polymorphism
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - 1663-4365. ; 2:7, s. 24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study investigates the effect of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism on change in olfactory function in a large scale, longitudinal population-based sample (n = 836). The subjects were tested on a 13 item force-choice odor identification test on two test occasions over a 5-year-interval. Sex, education, health-related factors, and semantic ability were controlled for in the statistical analyses. Results showed an interaction effect of age and BDNF val66met on olfactory change, such that the magnitude of olfactory decline in the older age cohort (70–90<img src="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/pmc/pmcents/x2009.gif" />years old at baseline) was larger for the val homozygote carriers than for the met carriers. The older met carriers did not display larger age-related decline in olfactory function compared to the younger group. The BDNF val66met polymorphism did not affect the rate of decline in the younger age cohort (45–65<img src="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/corehtml/pmc/pmcents/x2009.gif" />years). The findings are discussed in the light of the proposed roles of BDNF in neural development and maintenance.
4.
  • Hogberg, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Sequential adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in endometrial cancer--results from two randomised studies.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). - 1879-0852. ; 46:13, s. 2422-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Endometrial cancer patients with high grade tumours, deep myometrial invasion or advanced stage disease have a poor prognosis. Randomised studies have demonstrated the prevention of loco-regional relapses with radiotherapy (RT) with no effect on overall survival (OS). The possible additive effect of chemotherapy (CT) remains unclear. Two randomised clinical trials (NSGO-EC-9501/EORTC-55991 and MaNGO ILIADE-III) were undertaken to clarify if sequential combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy improves progression-free survival (PFS) in high-risk endometrial cancer. The two studies were pooled. Methods: Patients (n = 540; 534 evaluable) with operated endometrial cancer International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO) stage I-III with no residual tumour andprognostic factors implying high-risk were randomly allocated to adjuvant radiotherapy with or without sequential chemotherapy. Results: In the NSGO/EORTC study, the combined modality treatment was associated with 36% reduction in the risk for relapse or death (hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.99; P = 0.04); two-sided tests were used. The result from the Gynaecologic Oncology group at the Mario Negri Institute (MaNGO)-study pointed in the same direction (HR 0.61), but was not significant. In the combined analysis, the estimate of risk for relapse or death was similar but with narrower confidence limits (HR 0.63, CI 0.44 0.89; P = 0.009). Neither study showed significant differences in the overall survival. In the combined analysis, overall survival approached statistical significance (HR 0.69, CI 0.46-1.03; P = 0.07) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was significant (HR 0.55, CI 0.35-0.88; P = 0.01). Conclusion: Addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to radiation improves progression-free survival in operated endometrial cancer patients with no residual tumour and a high-risk profile. A remaining question for future studies is if addition of radiotherapy to chemotherapy improves the results.
5.
  • Klingberg Allvin, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal health care professionals' perspectives on the provision and use of antenatal and delivery care
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 10:1, s. 608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: High quality maternal health care is an important tool to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Services offered should be evidence based and adapted to the local setting. This qualitative descriptive study explored the perspectives and experiences of midwives, assistant physicians and medical doctors on the content and quality of maternal health care in rural Vietnam. METHOD: The study was performed in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Four focus group discussions with health care professionals at primary health care level were conducted. The data was analysed using qualitative manifest and latent content analysis. Result Two main themes emerged: "Contextual conditions for maternal health care" and "Balancing between possibilities and constraints". Contextual conditions influenced both pregnant women's use of maternal health care and health care professionals' performance. The study participants stated that women's uses of maternal health care were influenced by economical constraints and cultural norms that impeded their autonomy in relation to childbearing. Structural constraints within the health care system included inadequate financing of the primary health care, resulting in lack of human resources, professional re-training and adequate equipment. CONCLUSION: Contextual conditions strongly influenced the performance and interaction between pregnant women and health care professionals within antenatal care and delivery care in a rural district of Vietnam. Although Vietnam is performing comparatively well in terms of low maternal and child mortality figures, this study revealed midwives' and other health care professionals' perceived difficulties in their daily work. It seemed maternal health care was under-resourced in terms of staff, equipment and continuing education activities. The cultural setting in Vietnam constituting a strong patriarchal society and prevailing Confucian norms limits women's autonomy and reduce their possibility to make independent decisions about their own reproductive health. This issue should be further addressed by policy-makers. Strategies to reduce inequities in maternal health care for pregnant women are needed. The quality of client-provider interaction and management of pregnancy may be strengthened by education, human resources, re-training and provision of essential equipment.
6.
  • Lindvall, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Weight maintenance as a tight rope walk
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 10:51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are considerable public health problems internationally as well as in Sweden. The long-term results of obesity treatment are modest as reported by other studies. The importance of extending the focus to not only comprise obesity treatment but also prevention of weight gain is therefore being emphasized. However, despite the suggested change in focus there is still no consensus on how to prevent obesity or maintain weight. This study reports findings from a qualitative study focusing on attitudes, behaviors and strategies important for primary weight maintenance in a middle-aged population.METHODS: In depth interviews were conducted with 23 maintainers and four slight gainers in Sweden. The interviews were transcribed and an analysis of weight maintenance was performed using Grounded Theory.RESULTS: Based on the informants' stories, describing attitudes, behaviors and strategies of importance for primary weight maintenance, a model illustrating the main findings, was constructed. Weight maintenance was seen as "a tightrope walk" and four strategies of significance for this "tightrope walk" were described as "to rely on heritage", "to find the joy", "to find the routine" and "to be in control". Eleven "ideal types" were included in the model to illustrate different ways of relating to the main strategies. These "ideal types" described more specific attitudes and behaviors such as; eating food that is both tasteful and nutritious, and choosing exercise that provides joy. However, other somewhat contradictory behaviors were also found such as; only eating nutritious food regardless of taste, and being physically active to control stress and emotions.CONCLUSION: This study show great variety with regards to attitudes, strategies and behaviors important for weight maintenance, and considerations need to be taken before putting the model into practice. However, the results from this study can be used within primary health care by enhancing the understanding of how people differ in their relation to food and physical activity. It informs health personnel about the need to differentiate advices related to body weight, not only to different sub-groups of individuals aiming at losing weight but also to sub-groups of primary weight maintainers aiming at maintaining weight.
7.
  • Mogren, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Trust and ambivalence in midwives' views towards women developing pelvic pain during pregnancy:
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC public health. - 1471-2458. ; 10:600
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Swedish midwife plays a significant role in the antenatal care (ANC) system, and a majority of pregnant women are satisfied with their ANC. Pelvic pain during pregnancy (PP) is prevalent. The study investigated the views, perceptions and attitudes of midwives currently working in ANC regarding PP during pregnancy.METHODS: The informants were ten midwives between the ages of 35 to 64 years, with a combined experience of 250 years of midwifery. In-depth interviews (n = 4) and one focus group discussion (n = 6) were conducted. The data were interpreted using a qualitative content analysis design.RESULTS: PP was considered a common, clinical problem that had most likely increased in prevalence in recent decades and could feature prominently in a woman's experience of pregnancy. The informants had developed a strategy for supporting pregnant women affected by PP. The pregnant woman's fear of not being believed concerning her symptoms and the risk of being regarded as a malingerer were acknowledged. Mistrust between a midwife and a woman might occur when the patient's symptoms were vague and ill defined. PP was not considered as something that complicated delivery, and women experiencing it were advised to await 'the natural course of the pregnancy'.CONCLUSIONS: PP was considered a common, clinical problem and the informants had developed a strategy for supporting pregnant women affected by PP. However, the woman's fear of not being believed concerning her symptoms of PP was acknowledged and mistrust might occur between a midwife and a woman if vague symptoms were reported.
8.
  • Möllsten, Anna, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative risk, age at onset, and sex-specific differences for developing end-stage renal disease in young patients with type 1 diabetes:
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 1939-327X. ; 59:7, s. 1803-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE—This study aimed to estimate the current cumulativerisk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to diabeticnephropathy in a large, nationwide, population-based prospectivetype 1 diabetes cohort and specifically study the effects ofsex and age at onset.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In Sweden, all incidentcases of type 1 diabetes aged 0–14 years and 15–34 years arerecorded in validated research registers since 1977 and 1983,respectively. These registers were linked to the Swedish RenalRegistry, which, since 1991, collects data on patients who receiveactive uremia treatment. Patients with 13 years duration of type1 diabetes were included (n 11,681).RESULTS—During a median time of follow-up of 20 years, 127patients had developed ESRD due to diabetic nephropathy. Thecumulative incidence at 30 years of type 1 diabetes duration waslow, with a male predominance (4.1% [95% CI 3.1–5.3] vs. 2.5%[1.7–3.5]). In both male and female subjects, onset of type 1diabetes before 10 years of age was associated with the lowestrisk of developing ESRD. The highest risk of ESRD was found inmale subjects diagnosed at age 20–34 years (hazard ratio 3.0 [95%CI 1.5–5.7]). In female subjects with onset at age 20–34 years, therisk was similar to patients’ diagnosed before age 10 years.CONCLUSIONS—The cumulative incidence of ESRD is exceptionallylow in young type 1 diabetic patients in Sweden. There isa striking difference in risk for male compared with femalepatients. The different patterns of risk by age at onset and sexsuggest a role for puberty and sex hormones.
9.
  • Rosén, Helena I., et al. (författare)
  • Patients' experiences and perceived causes of persisting discomfort following day surgery
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Nursing. - BioMed Central. - 1472-6955. ; 9, s. artikelnummer 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of this study was to describe patients’ experiences and perceived causes of persisting discomfort following day surgery. Earlier research has mainly covered symptoms and signs during a recovery period of up to one month, and not dealt with patients’ perceptions of what causes persisting, longer-term discomfort. Methods: This study is a part from a study carried out during the period May 2006 to May 2007 with a total of 298 day surgery patients. Answers were completed by 118 patients at 48 hours, 110 at seven days and 46 at three months to one open-ended question related to discomfort after day surgery constructed as follows: If you are stillexperiencing discomfort related to the surgery, what is the reason, in your opinion? Data was processed, quantitatively and qualitatively. Descriptive, inferential, correlation and content analyses were performed. Results: The results suggest that patients suffer from remaining discomfort e.g. pain and wound problem, with effects on daily life following day surgery up to three months. Among patients’ perceptions of factors leading to discomfort may be wrongful or suboptimal treatment, type of surgery or insufficient access to provider/information. Conclusions: The results have important implications for preventing and managing discomfort at home followingday surgery, and for nursing interventions to help patients handle the recovery period better.
10.
  • Swanberg, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene and bone loss in postmenopausal women.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Bone. - 1873-2763. ; 47:2, s. 424-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Osteoporosis is a severe condition in postmenopausal women and a common cause of fracture. Osteoporosis is a complex disease with a strong genetic impact, but susceptibility is determined by many genes with modest effects and environmental factors. Only a handful of genes consistently associated with osteoporosis have been identified so far. Inflammation affects bone metabolism by interfering with the interplay between bone resorption and formation, and many inflammatory mediators are involved in natural bone remodeling. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to affect bone density in rodents, and polymorphisms in the human MIF promoter are associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the MIF gene with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in 1002 elderly women using MIF promoter polymorphisms MIF-CATT(5)(-)(8) and rs755622(G/C) located -794 and -173bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Bone loss was estimated both by the change in BMD over 5years and by the levels of bone resorption markers in serum measured at four occasions during a 5-year period. The MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) haplotype was associated with increased rate of bone loss during 5years at the femoral neck (p&lt;0.05) and total hip (p&lt;0.05). In addition, the MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) haplotype carriers had higher levels of the bone turnover marker serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (S-CTX-I, p&lt;0.01) during the 5year follow-up period. There was no association between MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) and baseline BMD at femoral neck, total hip or lumbar spine. We conclude that MIF promoter polymorphisms have modest effects on bone remodeling and are associated with the rate of bone loss in elderly women.
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