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Sökning: LAR1:gu > (2010) > Tidskriftsartikel > Båth Magnus 1974

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  • [1]23Nästa
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  • Berner, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Dose optimisation of double-contrast barium enema examinations.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation protection dosimetry. - 1742-3406. ; 139:1-3, s. 388-392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the present work was to optimise the filtration and dose setting for double-contrast barium enema examinations using a Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD system. A phantom study was performed prior to a patient study. A CDRAD phantom was used in a study where copper and aluminium filtration, different detector doses and tube potentials were examined. The image quality was evaluated using the software CDRAD Analyser and the phantom dose was determined using the Monte Carlo-based software PCXMC. The original setting [100 % detector dose (660 nGy air kerma) and a total filtration of 3.5 mm Al, at 81 kVp] and two other settings identified by the phantom study (100 % detector dose and additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu as well as 80 % detector dose and added filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu) were included in the patient study. The patient study included 60 patients and up to 8 images from each patient. Six radiologists performed a visual grading characteristics study to evaluate the image quality. A four-step scale was used to judge the fulfillment of three image quality criteria. No overall statistical significant difference in image quality was found between the three settings (P > 0.05). The decrease in the effective dose for the settings in the patient study was 15 % when filtration was added and 34 % when both filtrations was added and detector dose was reduced. The study indicates that additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu and a decrease in detector dose by 20 % from the original setting can be used in colon examinations with Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD to reduce the patient dose by 30 % without significantly affecting the image quality. For 20 exposures, this corresponds to a decrease in the effective dose from 1.6 to 1.1 mSv.
  • Båth, Magnus, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Effective dose to patients from chest examinations with tomosynthesis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation protection dosimetry. - 1742-3406. ; 139:1-3, s. 153-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chest tomosynthesis, which refers to the principle of collecting low-dose projections of the chest at different angles and using these projections to reconstruct section images of the chest, is an imaging technique recently introduced to health care. The main purpose of the present work was to determine the average effective dose to patients from clinical use of chest tomosynthesis. Exposure data for two chest radiography laboratories with tomosynthesis option (Definium 8000 with VolumeRAD option, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) were registered for 20 patients with a weight between 60 and 80 kg (average weight of 70.2 kg). The recorded data were used in the Monte Carlo program PCXMC 2.0 (STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland) to determine the average effective dose for each projection. The effective dose for the chest tomosynthesis examination, including a scout view and the tomosynthesis acquisition, was finally obtained by adding the effective doses from all projections. Using the weighting factors given in ICRP 103, the average effective dose for the examination was found to be 0.13 mSv, whereas the average effective dose for the conventional two-view chest radiography examination was 0.05 mSv. A conversion factor of 0.26 mSv Gy(-1) cm(-2) was found suitable for determining the effective dose from a VolumeRAD chest tomosynthesis examination from the total registered kerma-area product. In conclusion, the effective dose to a standard-sized patient (170 cm/70 kg) from a VolumeRAD chest tomosynthesis examination is ~2 % of an average chest CT and only two to three times the effective dose from the conventional two-view chest radiography examination.
  • Båth, Magnus, 1974- (författare)
  • Evaluating imaging systems: practical applications
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation protection dosimetry. - 1742-3406. ; 139:1-3, s. 26-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are many ways in which imaging systems can be evaluated. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of a number of selected approaches to evaluating imaging systems, often encountered by the medical physicist, and discuss their validity and reliability. Specifically, it will cover (i) characterisation of an imaging system in terms of its detective quantum efficiency using linear-systems analysis; (ii) attempts to calculate relevant measures directly in images using the Rose model and the pixel signal-to-noise ratio; (iii) task-based methods incorporating human observers such as receiver-operating characteristics and (iv) visual grading-based methods using experienced radiologists as observers.
  • Carlander, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of radiation dose reduction on clinical image quality in chest radiography of premature neonates using a dual-side readout technique computed radiography system
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation protection dosimetry. - 1742-3406. ; 139:1-3, s. 275-280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the present study was to investigate if the exposure could be reduced from the clinical setting (resulting in an effective dose of 8 microSv for a neonate of weight 0.7 kg and height 25 cm at a tube voltage of 90 kV) without negatively influencing the image quality for a dual-side readout technique computed radiography (CR) system in chest radiography of premature neonates. Chest radiographs of premature neonates were acquired with the double-side readout technique CR system. The images underwent simulated dose reduction in steps of 20 % to represent five different radiation dose levels. Four image quality criteria, related to the visibility of important anatomical structures, were used in a visual grading study where five experienced radiologists rated how well the criteria were fulfilled for all images. When reducing the radiation dose, a decrease in image quality could be observed already at the 80 % dose level for all the structures. The results indicate that a decrease in exposure from the clinically used setting affects the image quality negatively for the CR system.
  • Eriksson, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • Determination of the detective quantum efficiency of gamma camera systems: a Monte Carlo study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation protection dosimetry. - 1742-3406. ; 139:1-3, s. 219-227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the present work was to investigate the validity of using the Monte Carlo technique for determining the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a gamma camera system and to use this technique in investigating the DQE behaviour of a gamma camera system and its dependency on a number of relevant parameters. The Monte Carlo-based software SIMIND, simulating a complete gamma camera system, was used in the present study. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system was determined from simulated images of a point source of (99m)Tc, positioned at different depths in a water phantom. Simulations were performed using different collimators and energy windows. The MTF of the system was combined with the photon yield and the sensitivity, obtained from the simulations, to form the frequency-dependent DQE of the system. As figure-of-merit (FOM), the integral of the 2D DQE was used. The simulated DQE curves agreed well with published data. As expected, there was a strong dependency of the shape and magnitude of the DQE curve on the collimator, energy window and imaging position. The highest FOM was obtained for a lower energy threshold of 127 keV for objects close to the detector and 131 keV for objects deeper in the phantom, supporting an asymmetric window setting to reduce scatter. The Monte Carlo software SIMIND can be used to determine the DQE of a gamma camera system from a simulated point source alone. The optimal DQE results in the present study were obtained for parameter settings close to the clinically used settings.
  • Fisichella, Valeria A, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of image quality and lesion perception by human readers on 3D CT colonography: comparison of standard and low radiation dose
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Radiology. - 1432-1084. ; 20:3, s. 630-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: We compared the prevalence of noise-related artefacts and lesion perception on three-dimensional (3D) CT colonography (CTC) at standard and low radiation doses. METHODS: Forty-eight patients underwent CTC (64 x 0.625 mm collimation; tube rotation time 0.5 s; automatic tube current modulation: standard dose 40-160 mA, low dose 10-50 mA). Low- and standard-dose acquisitions were performed in the supine position, one after the other. The presence of artefacts (cobblestone and snow artefacts, irregularly delineated folds) and the presence of polyps were evaluated by five radiologists on 3D images at standard dose, the original low dose and a modified low dose, i.e. after manipulation of opacity on 3D. RESULTS: The mean effective dose was 3.9 +/- 1.3 mSv at standard dose and 1.03 +/- 0.4 mSv at low dose. The number of images showing cobblestone artefacts and irregularly delineated folds at original and modified low doses was significantly higher than at standard dose (P < 0.0001). Most of the artefacts on modified low-dose images were mild. No significant difference in sensitivity between the dose levels was found for polyps >/=6 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of the effective dose to 1 mSv significantly affects image quality on 3D CTC, but the perception of >/=6 mm lesions is not significantly impaired.
  • Hansson, Jonny, et al. (författare)
  • A practical approach to prioritise among optimisation tasks in X-ray imaging: introducing the 4-bit concept
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation protection dosimetry. - 1742-3406. ; 139:1-3, s. 393-399
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to European and national legislation, as well as international recommendations, X-ray examinations shall be optimised. However, with limited resources and hundreds of different types of X-ray examinations, it may be difficult to prioritise among the optimisation tasks at a radiology department. This work is focused on describing a method that can be used to determine the order of which the examinations should be optimised. In the Medical Exposure Directive from 1997, the European Commission prescribes the content of an optimisation process in relation to medical exposure. A reasonable interpretation of the directive is that the assurance of medical purpose for a justified examination is superior to the need of decreased radiation dose. This was used as a basis for developing a method for prioritisation among optimisation tasks. For each examination type, the following four yes/no questions are raised: (i) Is the present image quality unacceptable? (ii) Is the examination of particular importance? (iii) Is the radiation dose suspiciously high? (iv) Are there special dose level concerns, e.g. diagnostic reference levels? Arguing that a positive response to any of the four questions results in the examination being higher prioritised than otherwise and that the questions are labelled in order of decreasing relevance, it can be shown that the resulting flow chart, determining the order of which the examinations should be optimised, can be described by a 4-bit binary scale. In this way, each examination type is given a number from 0 to 15, a higher number corresponding to the examination being prioritised higher in the optimisation work. The method was applied to a general radiology department and resulted in a well-discriminated distribution of examinations prioritised for optimisation tasks. In conclusion, taking into account both medical outcome and potential risk, the proposed method can be used to determine the order in which examinations at a radiology department should be optimised.
  • Hansson, Jonny, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of three methods for determining CT dose profile: presenting the tritium method
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation protection dosimetry. - 1742-3406. ; 139:1-3, s. 434-438
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the present work was to describe a method of using an imaging plate from a computed radiography system to determine the computed tomography (CT) dose profile (the tritium method) and to compare this method with point-dose measurements using a solid-state detector (CT Dose Profiler; RTI Electronics, Mölndal, Sweden) and the indirect method of comparing the air kerma-length product (P(KL)) at different beam collimations. The three methods were used to determine the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the dose profile of a multi-slice CT at different nominal beam collimations. For all beam collimations, the obtained deviation between the tritium method and the CT Dose Profiler was smaller than 0.1 mm. The maximum relative error was 2 %. For the P(KL) method, the deviation from the CT Dose Profiler was between 0.2 and 0.4 mm, resulting in a relative error larger than 10 % for the smallest beam collimation even after normalisation to a known FWHM. In conclusion, the proposed method of using an imaging plate to determine the FWHM of the CT dose profile has a high accuracy and shows good agreement with the more advanced method of point-dose measurements using a solid-state detector.
  • Håkansson, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • ViewDEX: an efficient and easy-to-use software for observer performance studies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation protection dosimetry. - 1742-3406. ; 139:1-3, s. 42-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The development of investigation techniques, image processing, workstation monitors, analysing tools etc. within the field of radiology is vast, and the need for efficient tools in the evaluation and optimisation process of image and investigation quality is important. ViewDEX (Viewer for Digital Evaluation of X-ray images) is an image viewer and task manager suitable for research and optimisation tasks in medical imaging. ViewDEX is DICOM compatible and the features of the interface (tasks, image handling and functionality) are general and flexible. The configuration of a study and output (for example, answers given) can be edited in any text editor. ViewDEX is developed in Java and can run from any disc area connected to a computer. It is free to use for non-commercial purposes and can be downloaded from http://www.vgregion.se/sas/viewdex. In the present work, an evaluation of the efficiency of ViewDEX for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies, free-response ROC (FROC) studies and visual grading (VG) studies was conducted. For VG studies, the total scoring rate was dependent on the number of criteria per case. A scoring rate of approximately 150 cases h(-1) can be expected for a typical VG study using single images and five anatomical criteria. For ROC and FROC studies using clinical images, the scoring rate was approximately 100 cases h(-1) using single images and approximately 25 cases h(-1) using image stacks ( approximately 50 images case(-1)). In conclusion, ViewDEX is an efficient and easy-to-use software for observer performance studies.
  • Johnsson, Åse (Allansdotter), 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • A phantom study of nodule size evaluation with chest tomosynthesis and computed tomography.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation protection dosimetry. - 1742-3406. ; 139:1-3, s. 140-143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to investigate nodule size measurements with chest tomosynthesis (TS) and computed tomography (CT). A 26-mm thick phantom, composed of a Polylite block with embedded spheres of different materials and sizes (4-20 mm), was scanned by both CT and TS. Six observers without prior knowledge of the true diameters of the spheres independently measured the diameter of the spheres on the CT and TS images. Four observers were allowed to change the window settings and two of the observers used predetermined fixed viewing conditions. The mean relative errors for all observers and all measured spheres compared with the known diameter of the spheres were 1.4 % (standard deviation, SD: 5.4 %) on CT images and -1.1 % (SD: 5.0 %) on TS images. With regard to the four observers where the window settings were at the discretion of the observer, the mean relative errors were 1.4 % (SD: 6.4 %) on CT images and -1.7 % (SD: 5.7 %) on TS images. Regarding the two observers using identical viewing conditions the mean relative error was 1.5 % (SD: 2.8 %) on CT images and 0.2 % (SD: 2.6 %) on TS images. In conclusion, the study suggests that nodule size measurements on chest TS might be an alternative to measurements on CT.
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