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Sökning: LAR1:hb > Högskolan i Skövde > (2008)

  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
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1.
  • Hammarlund, Kina, et al. (författare)
  • In the heat of the night, it is difficult to get it right : teenagers' attitudes and values towards sexual risk-taking
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. - Informa Healthcare. - 1748-2623. ; 3:2, s. 103-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study, using a hermeneutic approach, is based on data from four focus group interviews with 25 Swedish teenagers participating, ranging from 18-19 years of age. The aim is to gain a deeper understanding of teenagers' values and attitudes towards sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sexual risk-taking. The teenagers seem to seek an excuse to fend off responsibility and deny their sexual risk-taking, an excuse provided by drunkenness. Under the influence of alcohol, teenagers are not too shy to have sex but remain embarrassed to talk about condom use. It seems as though the dialogue feels more intimate than the intercourse when it comes to protecting ones sexual health. To be able to act out in this sexual risk-taking the teenager often views the partner in a one-night-stand as an object, as opposed to a love relationship where they view their partner as subject, a person they care for. Engaging in sexual risk-taking often starts at a club where the teenagers go out to socialize and drink alcohol. They then play a game and a part of the game is to pretend that they do not play a game. In this game, certain rules are to be followed and the rules are set up by the girl, mainly to protect the romantic image of being carefully selected and thereby protected from being stigmatized as “sluts” or “whores”.
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2.
  • Johansson, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Chipper - A Novel Algorithm for Concept Description
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications. - IOS Press. - 978-1-58603-867-0 ; s. 133-140
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, several demands placed on concept description algorithms are identified and discussed. The most important criterion is the ability to produce compact rule sets that, in a natural and accurate way, describe the most important relationships in the underlying domain. An algorithm based on the identified criteria is presented and evaluated. The algorithm, named Chipper, produces decision lists, where each rule covers a maximum number of remaining instances while meeting requested accuracy requirements. In the experiments, Chipper is evaluated on nine UCI data sets. The main result is that Chipper produces compact and understandable rule sets, clearly fulfilling the overall goal of concept description. In the experiments, Chipper’s accuracy is similar to standard decision tree and rule induction algorithms, while rule sets have superior comprehensibility.
3.
  • Johansson, U., et al. (författare)
  • Extending Nearest Neighbor Classification with Spheres of Confidence
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Twenty-First International FLAIRS Conference (FLAIRS 2008). - AAAI Press. - 978-1-57735-365-2 ; s. 282-287
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The standard kNN algorithm suffers from two major drawbacks: sensitivity to the parameter value k, i.e., the number of neighbors, and the use of k as a global constant that is independent of the particular region in which theexample to be classified falls. Methods using weighted voting schemes only partly alleviate these problems, since they still involve choosing a fixed k. In this paper, a novel instance-based learner is introduced that does not require kas a parameter, but instead employs a flexible strategy for determining the number of neighbors to consider for the specific example to be classified, hence using a local instead of global k. A number of variants of the algorithm are evaluated on 18 datasets from the UCI repository. The novel algorithm in its basic form is shown to significantly outperform standard kNN with respect to accuracy, and an adapted version of the algorithm is shown to be clearlyahead with respect to the area under ROC curve. Similar to standard kNN, the novel algorithm still allows for various extensions, such as weighted voting and axes scaling.
4.
  • Johansson, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • The Problem with Ranking Ensembles Based on Training or Validation Performance
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks. - IEEE Press. - 978-1-4244-1821-3 ; s. 3221-3227
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    •  The main purpose of this study was to determine whether it is possible to somehow use results on training or validation data to estimate ensemble performance on novel data. With the specific setup evaluated; i.e. using ensembles built from a pool of independently trained neural networks and targeting diversity only implicitly, the answer is a resounding no. Experimentation, using 13 UCI datasets, shows that there is in general nothing to gain in performance on novel data by choosing an ensemble based on any of the training measures evaluated here. This is despite the fact that the measures evaluated include all the most frequently used; i.e. ensemble training and validation accuracy, base classifier training and validation accuracy, ensemble training and validation AUC and two diversity measures. The main reason is that all ensembles tend to have quite similar performance, unless we deliberately lower the accuracy of the base classifiers. The key consequence is, of course, that a data miner can do no better than picking an ensemble at random. In addition, the results indicate that it is futile to look for an algorithm aimed at optimizing ensemble performance by somehow selecting a subset of available base classifiers. 
5.
  • König, Rikard, et al. (författare)
  • G-REX : A Versatile Framework for Evolutionary Data Mining
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, ICDM Workshops 2008. - IEEE Computer Society. - 978-0-7695-3503-6 ; s. 971-974
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    •  This paper presents G-REX, a versatile data mining framework based on Genetic Programming. What differs G-REX from other GP frameworks is that it doesn’t strive to be a general purpose framework. This allows G-REX to include more functionality specific to data mining like preprocessing, evaluation- and optimization methods, but also a multitude of predefined classification and regression models. Examples of predefined models are decision trees, decision lists, k-NN with attribute weights, hybrid kNN-rules, fuzzy-rules and several different regression models. The main strength is, however, the flexibility, making it easy to modify, extend and combine all of the predefined functionality. G-REX is, in addition, available in a special Weka package adding useful evolutionary functionality to the standard data mining tool Weka.  
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6.
  • König, Rikard, et al. (författare)
  • Using Genetic Programming to Increase Rule Quality
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Twenty-First International FLAIRS Conference (FLAIRS 2008). - AAAI Press. - 978-1-57735-365-2 ; s. 288-293
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rule extraction is a technique aimed at transforming highly accurate opaque models like neural networks into comprehensible models without losing accuracy. G-REX is a rule extraction technique based on Genetic Programming that previously has performed well in several studies. This study has two objectives, to evaluate two new fitness functions for G-REX and to show how G-REX can be used as a rule inducer. The fitness functions are designed to optimize two alternative quality measures, area under ROC curves and a new comprehensibility measure called brevity. Rules with good brevity classifies typical instances with few and simple tests and use complex conditions only for atypical examples. Experiments using thirteen publicly available data sets show that the two novel fitness functions succeeded in increasing brevity and area under the ROC curve without sacrificing accuracy. When compared to a standard decision tree algorithm, G-REX achieved slightly higher accuracy, but also added additional quality to the rules by increasing their AUC or brevity significantly.
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7.
  • Löfström, Tuve, et al. (författare)
  • On the Use of Accuracy and Diversity Measures for Evaluating and Selecting Ensembles of Classifiers
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedindgs of the Seventh International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications. - IEEE Computer Society. - 978-0-7695-3495-4 ; s. 127-132
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    •  The test set accuracy for ensembles of classifiers selected based on single measures of accuracy and diversity as well as combinations of such measures is investigated. It is found that by combining measures, a higher test set accuracy may be obtained than by using any single accuracy or diversity measure. It is further investigated whether a multi-criteria search for an ensemble that maximizes both accuracy and diversity leads to more accurate ensembles than by optimizing a single criterion. The results indicate that it might be more beneficial to search for ensembles that are both accurate and diverse. Furthermore, the results show that diversity measures could compete with accuracy measures as selection criterion.  
8.
  • Orlenius, Kennert (författare)
  • Tolerance of intolerance : values and virtues at stake in education
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Moral Education. - Routledge. - 0305-7240. ; 37:4, s. 467-484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The article addresses the issue of the tolerance of intolerance in an educational context. It concerns a real case in a Swedish upper secondary school some years ago, when a student was suspended from school owing to his sympathies with Nazi ideas. One hundred and twenty student teachers’ responses to this decision were analysed in respect of the idea of toleration as a crucial value and tolerance as a virtue in a liberal democratic society. The main findings show that the suspended student is seen as a democratic risk factor by a majority of the student teachers. On the other hand, those who disagree, maintain that the school’s handling of the situation and the attitude towards Sven, the suspended student, could be a democratic risk factor. The findings are discussed in the light of different views of democracy and humans rights, and of ‘the ethos of the teacher’. The article considers the idea of zero tolerance and maintains that the findings are in line with the related tendency to consider youth as a risk, instead of being at risk.
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