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  • Abalo, Ernesto, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Digitalisering och social exklusion : Om medborgares användning av och attityder till Arbetsförmedlingens digitala tjänster
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Denna rapport studerar användarna av den digitala förvaltningen ur ett samhällsvetenskapligt perspektiv. Målet är att undersöka hur olika grupper av inskrivna vid den svenska Arbetsförmedlingen – formerade utifrån olika socialt strukturerande faktorer – använder och förhåller sig till såväl internet som den aktuella myndigheten och dess webbplats (www.ams.se).</p><p>Forskningen kring myndigheternas digitalisering domineras av studier som undersöker hur ny teknik implementeras i organisationer och vilka implikationer den har för dessa, medan användarstudier är sällsynta. Vår studie, som undersöker hur medborgare förhåller sig till internet i allmänhet och myndigheternas digitalisering i synnerhet, fyller därför ett tomrum på forskningsfältet.</p><p>Studiens material samlades in genom en enkät som skickades till 2000 slumpmässigt utvalda personer inskrivna vid Arbetsförmedlingen. Totalt erhölls 762 svar, vilket ger en svarsfrekvens på 40 procent. I huvudsak rörde enkätfrågorna de arbetssökandes användning av och attityder till såväl internet som Arbetsförmedlingens webbplats, men även frågor om gruppens attityder till myndigheten i allmänhet ställdes.</p><p>Resultaten visar att sociala faktorer, inte minst utbildning, är av stor betydelse för medborgarnas förmåga att använda Arbetsförmedlingens webbaserade tjänster. Lågutbildade använder myndighetens webbplats mer sällan än högutbildade, samtidigt som de även upplever den som svårare att använda. Vidare fann vi ett tydligt samband mellan de arbetssökande medborgarnas användning av och attityder till internet och Arbetsförmedlingens sajt. Grupper med en gynnsam relation till internet (i termer av tillgång, användning, erfarenhet och attityder) – framför allt högutbildade, tjänstemän och storstadsbor – använder också myndighetens webbplats flitigare, samtidigt som de tenderar att ha en mer positiv attityd till densamma (och vice versa). Följaktligen är det nödvändigt att tala om digitalt resursstarka och resurssvaga grupper.</p><p>De ojämlika relationerna till internet i allmänhet och Arbetsförmedlingens webbplats i synnerhet indikerar inte bara att digitaliseringen av förvaltningen är mer gynnsam för digitalt resursstarka grupper, utan också att den stänger ute digitalt resurssvaga grupper. Detta nya slags exklusion får implikationer för de arbetssökandes möjligheter att både ta sig in på arbetsmarknaden och agera som medborgare. Om myndigheternas digitalisering dessutom medför en omformering av medborgarskapet, i termer av ökat individuellt ansvar gentemot förvaltningen, kommer den digitala klyftan, såvida inget görs, befästa de digitalt resurssvaga gruppernas redan existerande utanförskap.</p>
  • Abalo, Ernesto, et al. (författare)
  • Emerging Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion in the Era of E-government : A Study of Users of ‘Swedish Public Employment Service’ on the Internet
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Media and Global Divides : abstracts: IAMCR World Congress, Stockholm 20-25 July 2008. - Stockholm : Organizing Committee for the IAMCR Congress 2008. - 91-88354-30-X ; s. 44-45
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In the area of governmental information for and services to citizens digitalization has certainly become a buzzword. Framed within the discourses on e-government or e-governance – or differ­ent mixtures of the two – various analyses have tried to point out, or even anticipate possible consequences of the appropriation of digital technologies, mainly the internet, in governmental services.</p><p>On the one hand, these analyses have pointed out a great deal of opportunities connected to the incorporation of the internet into governmental information and services. Policy makers have been quick to point to the increased accessibility as a great opportunity for the citizens; in Sweden this vision of accessibility has even been referred to as ‘24:7-governmental agencies’. Academics, among others, have also suggested that the digitalization of information and services opens up new possibilities for citizen control of governments.</p><p>On the other hand, a number of problems have also been identified. For instance, the digitalization of public registers holding personal information has been interpreted as a threat to the citizens’ integrity: Will digitalization bring a new surveillance society? The most frequently debated prob­lem, however, at least within research, has been the fear of digital divides. Will the internet create digital cleavages between different groups of citizens?</p><p>So far, however, neither the hopeful nor the dystopian analyses have made enough efforts to critically evaluate their claims. Such evaluations can start from different points of departure, and in this paper the starting point is the citizens as users of governmental information and services through the internet: What patterns of inclusion and exclusion emerge as a governmental agency digitalizes its information and services by making them increasingly internet based?</p><p>The paper presents statistical data from a survey of 762 unemployed citizens using the Swedish Public Employment Service, a governmental agency that has come to rely specifically heavy on internet based information and service. The initial analysis of data reveals interesting differences between social groups in terms of both perception and use of the internet – in general – and the resources offered by SPES in particular. For instance, the users’ various degrees of education is a strong, determining factor when it comes to use of internet SPES’ services.</p><p>The paper starts from a conceptual elaboration of various notions of e-government and e-gov­ernance. Thereafter, the survey data is described and elaborated on before moving into a discus­sion of the wider significance of the findings: What does data suggest in terms of patterns of in­clusion in and exclusion from a society in which governmental agencies, to an increasing extent, use the internet for their information and services?</p>
  • Abrahamsson, Kajsa H., et al. (författare)
  • Patients' Views on Periodontal Disease; Attitudes to Oral Health and Expectancy of Periodontal Treatment : A Qualitative Interview Study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry. - New Malden, Surry : Quintessence Publishing Co. Ltd.. - 1602-1622 .- 1757-9996. ; 6:3, s. 209-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Purpose:</strong></p><p>The aim of the study was to explore and gain an understanding of patients' views on their periodontal conditions, their perceived impact of periodontitis on daily life, as well as their attitudes to oral health and expectations of treatment.</p><p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong></p><p>The study subjects were patients with chronic periodontitis, who had been referred to a specialist clinic. The constant comparative method for grounded theory was used to collect and analyse the data. Audiotaped, open-ended interviews were conducted after periodontal examination, but before treatment. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in hierarchical coding processes and continued until saturation was reached (n = 17). In the analysis, a conceptual model that outlined the steps involved in the diagnosis of periodontitis was generated. The core concept of the model, keeping up appearance and self-esteem, was related to the following four additional categories and their dimensions; doing what you have to do trying to live up to the norm, suddenly having a shameful and disabling disease, feeling deserted and in the hands of an authority, and investing all in a treatment with an unpredictable outcome.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong></p><p>The results illustrated that subjects diagnosed with chronic periodontitis felt ashamed and were willing to invest all they had in terms of time, effort and financial resources to become healthy and to maintain their self-esteem. However, they perceived a low degree of control over treatment decisions and treatment outcome.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong></p><p>The results demonstrate the vulnerability of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and emphasise the importance of communication in dentistry.</p>
  • Aceto, Luca, et al. (författare)
  • A Rule Format for Unit Elements
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Equational Logic of Parallel Processes. - Eindhoven : Eindhoven University of Technology.
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This paper offers a meta-theorem for languages with a Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) in the style of Plotkin. Namely, it proposes a generic rule format for SOS guaranteeing that certain constants act as left- or right-unit elements for a set of binary operators. We show the generality of our format by applying it to a wide range of operators from the literature on process calculi.</p>
  • Aceto, Luca, et al. (författare)
  • Algebraic properties for free!
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science. - European Association for Theoretical Computer Science. - 0252-9742. ; 99, s. 81-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Algebraic properties specify some natural properties of programming and specification constructs. This paper provides an overview of techniques to guarantee or generate algebraic properties of language constructs by investigating the syntactic shape of the deduction rules defining their operational semantics.</p>
  • Aceto, Luca, et al. (författare)
  • Impossibility results for the equational theory of timed CCS
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Algebra and Coalgebra in Computer Science : Second International Conference, CALCO 2007, Bergen, Norway, August 20-24, 2007. Proceedings. - Berlin : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 978-3-540-73857-2 - 978-3-540-73859-6 ; s. 80-95
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We study the equational theory of Timed CCS as proposed by Wang Yi in CONCUR'90. Common to Wang Yi's paper, we particularly focus on a class of linearly-ordered time domains exemplified by the positive real or rational numbers. We show that, even when the set of basic actions is a singleton, there are parallel Timed CCS processes that do not have any sequential equivalent and thus improve on the Gap Theorem for Timed CCS presented by Godskesen and Larsen in FSTTCS'92. Furthermore, we show that timed bisimilarity is not finitely based both for single-sorted and two-sorted presentations of Timed CCS. We further strengthen this result by showing that, unlike in some other process algebras, adding the untimed or the timed left-merge operator to the syntax and semantics of Timed CCS does not solve the axiomatizability problem.</p>
  • Aceto, Luca, et al. (författare)
  • Lifting non-finite axiomatizability results to extensions of process algebras
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Fifth Ifip International Conference On Theoretical Computer Science – Tcs 2008. - New York : Springer-Verlag New York. - 978-0-387-09679-7 - 978-0-387-09680-3 ; s. 301-316
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper presents a general technique for obtaining new results pertaining to the non-finite axiomatizability of behavioral semantics over process algebras from old ones. The proposed technique is based on a variation on the classic idea of reduction mappings. In this setting, such reductions are translations between languages that preserve sound (in)equations and (in)equational proofs over the source language, and reflect families of (in)equations responsible for the non-finite axiomatizability of the target language. The proposed technique is applied to obtain a number of new non-finite axiomatizability theorems in process algebra via reduction to Moller’s celebrated non-finite axiomatizability result for CCS. The limitations of the reduction technique are also studied.</p>
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