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Sökning: LAR1:hig > Umeå universitet > Engelska

  • Resultat 1-10 av 214
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1.
  • Aasa, Ulrika (författare)
  • Ambulance Work Relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Although musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and other health complaints are an occupational problem for ambulance personnel, there is a lack of knowledge regarding work-related factors associated with MSDs and other health complaints. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes among ambulance personnel.A random sample of 234 female and 953 male ambulance personnel participated in a national questionnaire survey on work-related factors, and musculoskeletal and other health complaints. Physical demands was associated with activity limitation due to neck-shoulder and low-back complaints among the female personnel. Among the male personnel, physical demands was associated with low-back complaints and activity limitation due to low-back complaints. Psychological demands was significantly associated with neck-shoulder complaints, sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms among both female and male ambulance personnel. Worry about work conditions was associated with musculoskeletal disorders and sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms.A local sample of 26 ambulance personnel was followed during a 24-hour work shift and for the next two work-free days. Subjective stress- and energy levels, and cortisol levels were measured at regular intervals, and heart rate was registered continuously by electrocardiogram (ECG). Autonomic reactivity to standardized tests before (pre-work) and at the end of the work shift (post-work) was also investigated. For the whole group, baseline values of heart rate were higher pre-work than post-work, but autonomic reactivity did not differ. Increased reactivity to the mental test, modest deviation in heart rate variability (HRV) pattern during the late night hours at work and higher morning cortisol values during work than during leisure time were observed in personnel with many health complaints, but not among their co-workers without or with few complaints. Ambulance personnel with many health complaints also reported higher psychological demands and tended to be more worried about work conditions.Heart rate (HR), lactate level (LL) and perceived exertion (RPE) were investigated in 17 female and 48 male ambulance personnel during a simulated standardized work task “carry a loaded stretcher”. The ambulance personnel had to carry the loaded stretcher (920 N) up and down three flights of stairs twice. The high physiological strain (HR, LL, RPE) for the male, and near or at maximal strain for the female ambulance personnel, implied the importance to identify what kind of physical capacity is most important for ambulance personnel. Therefore, the explained variance of developed fatigue by tests of cardiorespiratory capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and coordination was investigated. The results showed that VO2max and isometric back endurance were important predictors for development of fatigue when carrying a loaded stretcher.The influence of body size on the relationships between maximal strength and functional performance was investigated in a methodological study. The results confirm that the assessment of physical performance could be confounded by the body weight. Therefore, the models for explaining development of fatigue when carrying the loaded stretcher were adjusted for height and weight. Including height in the models significantly increased the explained variance of accumulated lactate among female, but not among male personnel. Lactate levels were higher among short compared to tall female personnel. Weight had no effect on any of the models.In conclusion, the national survey showed that self-reported physical demands was a risk factor of having MSDs, and that self-reported psychological demands and worry about work were important risk factors of having MSDs and other health complaints. Stress monitoring of ambulance personnel during work and leisure time showed that physiological and subjective stress markers did not show any differences between the 24-hour ambulance work shift and leisure time afterwards. However, ambulance personnel with many health complaints had certain physiological changes during the work shift in comparison with the next two work-free days. The physiological and subjective responses during carrying a loaded stretcher, especially among the female ambulance personnel, showed that female and male ambulance personnel could be exposed to internal exposures at different levels when performing the same work task. A better understanding of the relationships between occupational demands and health-related outcomes require further studies on age- and gender matched groups in long-term perspective studies.
2.
  • Aasa, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Relationships between work-related factors and disorders in the neck-shoulder and low-back region among female and male ambulance personnel.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health. - 1341-9145. ; 47:6, s. 481-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This cross-sectional study on a random sample of 1,500 ambulance personnel investigated the relationships between self-reported work-related physical and psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions, and musculoskeletal disorders among female and male ambulance personnel. Three different outcomes, complaints, activity limitation, and sick leave, for the neck-shoulder and low-back region, respectively, were chosen. Among the female personnel, physical demands was significantly associated with activity limitation in the neck-shoulder (OR 4.13) and low-back region (OR 2.17), and psychological demands with neck-shoulder (OR 2.37) and low-back (OR 2.28) complaints. Among the male personnel, physical demands was significantly associated with low-back complaints (OR 1.41) and activity limitation (OR 1.62). Psychological demands and lack of social support were significantly associated with neck-shoulder complaints (OR 1.86 and OR 1.58, respectively) and activity limitation (OR 3.46 and OR 1.71) as well as activity limitation due to low-back complaints (OR 2.22 and OR 1.63). Worry about work conditions was independently associated with activity limitation due to low-back complaints among the female (OR 5.28), and to both neck-shoulder and low-back complaints (OR 1.79 and OR 2.04, respectively) and activity limitation (OR 2.32 and OR 1.95) among the male personnel. In conclusion, the association patterns between physical and psychological demands and MSDs suggest opportunities for intervention.
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3.
  • Aasa, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Stress monitoring of ambulance personnel during work and leisure time
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - 0340-0131. ; 80:1, s. 51-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess physiological and subjective stress markers during a 24-h ambulance work shift and during the next two work-free days, and relate these parameters to self-reported health complaints. Methods: Twenty-six ambulance personnel were followed during a 24-h work shift and during the next two work-free days with electrocardiogram, cortisol assessments and diary notes. The ambulance personnel also performed tests of autonomic reactivity before and at the end of the work shift. The subjects were categorized into two groups according to their number of health complaints. Results: In general, stress markers did not show differences between the work shift and leisure time. However, a modest deviation in heart rate variability pattern and higher morning cortisol values during work in comparison with work-free days were observed in personnel with many health complaints. Conclusions: Subjective and physiological characteristics of ambulance personnel did not indicate distinctive stress during the 24-h work shift. Relationships between frequent health complaints and specific work-related factors require further prospective studies.
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4.
  • Aasa, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of a 1-year physical exercise programme on development of fatigue during a simulated ambulance work task.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Ergonomics. - 0014-0139. ; 51:8, s. 1179-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes on development of fatigue during the carrying of a loaded stretcher up and down the stairs. Nineteen ambulance personnel performed the training for 1 year. Testing occurred before and after 1 year of the training. Both the training group (n = 19) and the control group (n = 15) were assessed for physical capacity and lactate concentration in blood and ratings of perceived exertion during carrying a stretcher on the stairs. When comparisons were made between those who had been training three times/week for 1 year and the control group, lactate concentration was significantly decreased. In conclusion, markers of fatigue during stretcher carrying can be reduced by the use of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes.
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5.
  • Aasa, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of object size and precision demands on fatigue during computer mouse use
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Advances in Physiotherapy. - 1403-8196. ; 13:3, s. 118-127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prolonged computer use, especially if fatigue ensues, is associated with visual and musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim was to determine the time-course of perceived fatigue in the wrist, forearm, shoulder and eyes during a 60-min mouse task (painting rectangles), and whether object size and/or mouse use demands were of influence. Also, we investigated performance (number of rectangles painted), and whether perceived fatigue was paralleled by local muscle fatigue or tissue oxygenation. Ten women performed the task for three conditions (crossover design). At condition 1, rectangles were 45 × 25 mm, square paint cursor size 1.3 × 1.3 mm, and mousepointer movement ratio 1:26. At condition 2, the same cursor size and mousepointer movement ratio was used, but rectangles were smaller. At condition 3, the smaller rectangles were used, but the cursor size was also smaller and mousepointer movement ratio was 1:8. The results showed increased self-reported fatigue over time, with the observed increase greater for the eyes, but no change in physiological responses. Condition 2 resulted in higher performance and increased eye fatigue. Perceived fatigue in the muscles or physiological responses did not differ between conditions. In conclusion, computer work tasks imposing high visual and motor demands, and with high performance, seemed to have an influence on eye fatigue. 
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6.
  • Aasa, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Work-related psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions and health complaints among female and male ambulance personnel.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 19:3, s. 251-258
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed at investigating the relationships between work-related psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions and health complaints (sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms) among female and male ambulance personnel. Out of 4000 ambulance personnel in Sweden, 1500 (300 female and 1200 male personnel) were randomly selected. They answered a questionnaire including items on self-reported health complaints, individual characteristics, work-related psychological demands, decision latitude, social support and worry about work conditions. Twenty-five per cent of the female and 20% of the male ambulance personnel reported two or more health complaints sometimes or often. According to the demand-control-support questionnaire, ambulance personnel reported a generally positive psychosocial work environment, although psychological demands were associated with sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms among both female and male ambulance personnel. Another factor that was significantly associated with health complaints among both genders was worry about work conditions. When worry about work conditions was added to the regression models, this variable took over the role from psychological demands as a predictor for health complaints among the female ambulance personnel. The prevalence of sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms were significantly associated with psychological demands among both female and male ambulance personnel. Notably, worry about work conditions seems to be an important risk factor for health complaints. This suggests that worry about work conditions should not be neglected when considering risk factors among ambulance personnel.
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7.
  • Adams, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • What is the word for 'Engineering' in Swedish : Swedish students conceptions of their discipline
  • 2007
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Engineering education in Sweden – as in the rest of the world – is experiencing a decline in student interest. There are concerns about the ways in which students think about engineering education, why they join an academic programme in engineering, and why they persist in their studies. In this context the aims of the Nationellt ämnesdidaktiskt Centrum för Teknikutbildning i Studenternas Sammanhang project (CeTUSS) is to investigate the student experience and to identify and support a continuing network of interested researchers, as well as in building capacity for disciplinary pedagogic investigation.The Stepping Stones project brings together these interests in a multi-researcher, multi-institutional study that investigates how tudents and academic staff perceive engineering in Sweden and in Swedish education. The first results of that project are reported here. As this study is situated uniquely in Swedish education, it allows for exploration of “a Swedish perspective” on conceptions of engineering. The Stepping Stones project was based on a model of research capacity-building previously instantiated in the USA and Australia (Fincher & Tenenberg, 2006).
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8.
9.
  • Andersson, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - Springer. - 0340-0131. ; 89:1, s. 79-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.Methods: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorantn-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which then-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m3.Results: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.Conclusions: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.
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10.
  • Andersson, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Highlighting the large variation in perceived properties of odors over time
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Chemical Senses. - 0379-864X. ; 42:2, s. E26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individuals differ considerably when rating the perceived properties of odors, especially over time. A second glance at previously published data-sets from our laboratory revealed that the same invariant exposure often produced both floor and roof effects. An odor that at the end of the exposure ses-sion was regarded as non-existent by one participant, could border the “absoulte maximum” rating category in another. We provide re-analyses from four exposure studies where we illustrate the perceptual variability over time, and outcomes associated with such ratings. We note that high, compared with low ratings of odor intensity over time is associated with ratings of unpleasantness and symptoms, but also with everyday distress, cognitive performance, autonomous nerv-ous system activity and deviating responses in the so-called pain or saliency matrix of the brain. We bring an open ques-tion to ECRO regarding how this considerable variability should be interpreted, and what the consequenced are for research and for setting exposure limits.
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