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Sökning: LAR1:liu > Linnéuniversitetet > (1990-1994)

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  • Bergbäck, Bo (författare)
  • Industrial metabolism : The emerging landscape of heavy metal immission in Sweden
  • 1992
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Since the turn of this century, technological development has drastically increased the industrial consumption of toxic metals. Once dispersed in the environment, the metals cannot be degraded but will be accumulated in soil or sediment sinks. Thus, environmental effects of heavy metal pollution tend to be permanent. In this study, methods to reconstruct the flows of heavy metals and estimate the emissions over time are presented. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in the technosphere. This last part in the chain will form the "consumption emissions". Using the concept of industrial metabolism, the total load in soil and sediment has been calculated, i.e. the development of a new "irmnission landscape" could be described/assessed. Here industrial metabolism will be illustrated by the total flow in Sweden of chromium (1920-1980), lead (1880-1980) and cadmium (1940-1990). Even though the production emissions have decreased during the last decades, the accumulation of cadmium, chromium and lead in soils and sediments will continue due to dissipative consumption losses of various products. Obviously, the anthropogenic contribution is significant, i.e. the "societal weathering rate" exceeds the natural rate. For lead the emissions from various products have been dominant and contributed with much higher release to the environment than weathering processes.For cadmium and chromium the consumption emissions have become dominant in the latest decades. Total amounts used are only 5000 tonnes for cadmium, but two millions of tonnes for both chromium and lead. However, consumption emissions from various uses of chromium and lead are less than 10% of the total amount used (15% for cadmium). The rest of these metals remain in the anthroposphere and constitute a future potential problem. Urban areas can be regarded as ecological "hot spots" for toxic metals and in some regions e.g. Stockhohn the calculated amount of chromium in soils may be as high as they are in the most polluted industrial regions today, within only a few decades. Thus, the pollution load in soils and sediments has altered from being a "defined pollution problem" within certain industrial regions to a situation where the end-use of products together with the mobility pattern of goods define the pollution problem.
  • Närvänen, Anna-Liisa, 1960- (författare)
  • Temporalitet och social ordning
  • 1994
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The primary aim of the thesis is to develop a theoretical frame of reference concerning the significance of temporality for social order, how it is created, maintained and how it can be changed in interaction. The theoretical frame of reference is developed gradually and is considered as heuristic. Emphasis is placed on temporal orientation, i.e. the dimension of meaning, while temporal order is analyzed only as aspects of it appear in the interviews, which constitute the empirical basis for the discussion. The interactionist stance in this thesis implies that the emphasis is placed on the subjects interpretation of the temporal aspects. The data consists of semistructured interviews with totally 87 employees at two hospital wards in Sweden. The qualitative analyses in the thesis is inspired by 'grounded theory' approach. The dissertation consists of three parts. Part I consists of an introduction and a discussion of temporality which is then conceptualized in terms of temporal order and temporal orientation. In part II the emphasis is placed on biographical time. The concepts biographical scheme andcareer, which are related to socialization, are chosen for analytical purposes. In part III the theoretical frame of reference is developed through a discussion of temporal aspects in the definition of situation. The biography, an individuals experiences in past, present and expectations of future, is thus put in relation to reference groups and social worlds, which point out for example the significance of social memory for the definition of reality. The results show the significance of temporal orientation and temporal order for individual and group interpretation of the social reality at their place of work. Biographical schemes, careers and social norms connected to them are important elements in the interpretation of the social order and of the possibilities to change it. Different experiences of educational and occupational socialization implied conflicting definitions of occupational roles and core activities within and between the occupational groups, which were important for changes in the social order. Work routines and social status as a senior in an occupational group were important for reproducing the social order.
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