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3.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Floods and Flood Protection in Mesopotamia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 10:4, s. 155-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mesopotamia is a land where floods have occurred very frequently. Many destructive floods had been registered by historians, who noted also the food control schemes used in those times. Over history, many structures were built and managed, but this work was taken up again by the General Directorate of Irrigation which was formed in 1917 to manage floods and reduce as much as possible losses, in addition to the development of irrigation works. Plans were made to build a sophisticated flood control and protection system. Several projects were proposed, and since the 1950s they were successfully implemented. Many multipurpose dams were built to mitigate flood conditions in addition to their other functions, such as Mosul Dam, Dokan Dam, Derbendikhan Dam and Haditha Dam. Other projects which were solely planned for flood protection include developing and using natural depressions such as Habbaniyah Lake on the Euphrates River and Tharthar Lake on the Tigris River, to protect Mesopotamia from floods. Moreover, the southern marshes in lower Mesopotamia may be utilized for flood protection. This paper deals only with these natural depressions leaving the dams at the time being.
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4.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Irrigation Major Systems on Euphrates River within Mesopotamia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 10:4, s. 199-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Euphrates River is one of the two rivers where the civilization and irrigation had started, many major irrigation systems are still operating for centuries. The most important advancement of irrigation within this area happened after 1920s, where new structures were constructed, new canals excavated, new pumps installed, and salt affected lands were reclaimed. The major irrigation projects in along the reach of Euphrates within Mesopotamia are, Great Abu Ghraib, Great Musayab, Hilla Branch projects, Kifl-Shiniafiyah, in addition to many other medium and small size projects. Besides, some important Barrages have been built for controlling water levels of the Euphrates for proper operation, such as Fallujah and Hindiya Barrages. There is a great need for more reclamation in the lower parts of this territory, as well alternatives are needed to avoid discharging saline drainage water to the Euphrates in some projects.
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5.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Major Irrigation Systems on Tigris River within Mesopotamia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 10:4, s. 175-198
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several irrigation systems have been built at Tigris River basin within Mesopotamia plain. The upper part of Tigris at Mesopotamia is extensively exploited, and several major projects were constructed since the 1970s. These are Ishaqi, Khalis, Diyala Combined Reach, Nahrawan, Dujailya and Dalmaj. Other projects were partially developed, which are Middle-Tigris, Gharraf projects, Great Amarah and KutButaira. The important barrages in this part are Kut Barrage, as well, as the barrages in Amarah area which are of vital importance for irrigation and navigation. Shaat Al-Arab is one of the most important waterways in Iraq. This river has been suffered from water scarcity and riparian countries actions. Solutions for adaptation to adapt the situation were studied and planned carefully, but still there is need for more work to cope with the situation in Basra area.
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6.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Soil Salinity of Mesopotamia and the Main Drains
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 10:4, s. 221-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since early civilization and the farmers in Mesopotamia are suffering from the soil salinity. This problem had caused the transfer of power from the Sumerians to the Babylonians in ancient history. Great efforts and research have been made since the beginning of the 20th century to overcome this salinity problem. Experts have concluded that the main reason for salinity is the salt content of irrigation water and the shallow saline groundwater derived from the irrigation activities. General schemes were planned, which involve building a new system of drains in parallel to the irrigation network. The backbone of the drainage system in Mesopotamia is the Main Outfall Drain (MOD). Large works such as Musayab Main Drain, Main Outfall Drain, Great Gharraf Drain, East Euphrates Drain were implemented, but there are still large needs for much more work to be done.
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7.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Water Harvesting in Iraq Status and Opportunities
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040. ; 10:1, s. 199-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Water harvesting in Iraq is an old application with limited extent. Western Desert, Jazeera Desert and Eastern Valleys, are the zones were the water harvesting must be employed. Several water harvesting dams in Western Desert had built since 1970s, these dams are intended to provide habitat and recharge of groundwater resources. There is limited opportunity to recharge groundwater in Jazeera area due to existence of gypsum layers. Regarding Eastern Valleys, the experience of building water harvesting dams on the valleys manifested that sediments accumulation is the main obstacle to adapt this solution. Hemrin Hills considered as one of the most intensively eroded areas in Iraq, so, soil conservation and water harvesting development is important. Many small dams were built in mountainous zone in the last two decades, some are important for agriculture expansion, but there is need to evaluate the effects on large dams feeding. North-Eastern parts of Jordan, which has similar natural conditions of Northern Desert, had present a successful example of water harvesting development.  
8.
  • Abdullah, Twana, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development. - Elsevier. - 2352-801X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.
9.
  • Abdullah, Twana O., et al. (författare)
  • Magnitude and Direction of Groundwater Seepage Velocity in Different Soil and Rock Materials
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Engineering. - USA : Scientific Research Publishing. - 1947-3931 .- 1947-394X. ; 12:4, s. 242-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To understand and anticipate flow in various groundwater media, the magnitude and direction of groundwater flow velocity must be deemed. The studied area which is called Halabja-Sadiq Basin is in the northeastern part of Iraq and covers an area of approximately 128,000 square hectometers. There are several groundwater aquifers in this region that supply nearly over 90% of all water needs. Subsequently, it is of highly requirement to identify various groundwater behaviors in the area. The objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude and direction of the groundwater seepage velocity with the aid of groundwater tool in Geographic Information System technology. Refer to the results of this analysis, the magnitude value of groundwater flow velocity ranged from 0 to 51 m/d, whilst the general flow movement is from the eastern part to the western part of the study area. The factor governing the direction of flow and velocity magnitude indicates the direction of dipping of the geological formation strata, the high head of groundwater in the eastern part, and the low transmissivity properties of aquifer materials in the western part.
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10.
  • Abed, Salwan Ali, et al. (författare)
  • Bioaccumulation and health risk assessment of severe metal pollution of street dust from various urban regions in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: E3S Web of Conferences. - France : EDP Sciences. - 2267-1242. ; 158:1, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study sought to define the metals bioaccumulation from street dust in Baghdad, Iraq for the first time. The samples were collected that research the levels, sources, and health hazard model Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu. The geo accumulation Index (Igeo) found that the contamination level for Cd was moderately to strongly polluted in Karada, Jihad and Kinidi streets. Hence, it is important to measure the level of cadmium in the local environment. The relative bioaccumulation of chromium was high in Jadriyah Street (87.2%). The PCA showed two major sources of these minerals in Baghdad road dust that Cd, Zn are likely to originate from tire wear, brake wear and vehicular emissions as well as the fact that Cr and Cu originate from metal-processing industries. Assessing hazard to human health utilized measure population show suggested both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic hazards minerals Baghdad road dust harmless to human environment.
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