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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Engelska > Dillner Joakim > (2009)

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  • Arbyn, Marc, et al. (författare)
  • Triage of women with equivocal or low-grade cervical cytology results: a meta-analysis of the HPV test positivity rate
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal Of Cellular And Molecular Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc. - 1582-1838. ; 13:4, s. 648-659
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusion Consistent evidence underlines the utility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in the management of women with equivocal cervical cytological abnormalities, but not in case of low-grade lesions. We performed a meta-analysis including studies where the high-risk probe of the Hybrid Capture-II is used to triage these two cytological categories. The triage test-positivity rate reflects the colposcopy referral workload.Data were pooled on the HPV test positivity rate in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS/ASC-US) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), derived from different cytological classification systems. The meta-analysis was restricted to studies, published between 1991 and 2007. A random-effect model was applied for meta-analytical pooling and the influence of covariates on the HPV positivity rate was analyzed by meta-regression. The variation by age was assessed within individual studies since age strata were not defined uniformly. On an average, 43% (95% CI: 40-46%) of women with ASCUS/ASC-US were high-risk HPV positive (range 23-74%). In women with LSIL, the pooled positivity rate was 76% (95% CI: 71-81%; range 55-89%). In spite of considerable inter-study heterogeneity, the difference in HPV positivity between the two triage groups was large and highly significant: 32% (95% CI: 27-38%). HPV rates dropped tremendously as age and cutoffs of test positivity increased. Other factors (cytological classification system, country, continent, collection method and year of publication) had no statistically significant impact, except in LSIL triage where HPV positivity was significantly lower in European compared to American studies. Women with LSIL, especially younger women, have high HPV positivity rates suggesting limited utility of reflex HPV triaging these cases. Research is needed to identify more specific methods to triage women with low-grade squamous cervical lesions.
  • Bleeker, M. C. G., et al. (författare)
  • Penile cancer: epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: World Journal Of Urology. - Springer. - 0724-4983. ; 27:2, s. 141-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Penile cancer is a disease with a high morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence is relatively rare, but the highest in some developing countries. Insight into its precursor lesions, pathogenesis and risk factors offers options to prevent this potentially mutilating disease. This review presents an overview of the different histologically and clinically identified precursor lesions of penile cancer and discusses the molecular pathogenesis, including the role of HPV in penile cancer development. A systematic review of the literature evaluating penile carcinogenesis, risk factors and molecular mechanisms involved. Careful monitoring of men with lichen sclerosis, genital Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat and bowenoid papulosis seems useful, thereby offering early recognition of penile cancer and, subsequently, conservative therapeutic options. Special attention is given to flat penile lesions, which contain high numbers of HPV. Their role in HPV transmission to sexual partners is highlighted, but their potential to transform as a precursor lesion into penile cancer has been unsatisfactorily explored. Further research should not only focus on HPV mediated pathogenic pathways but also on the non-HPV related molecular and genetic factors that play a role in penile cancer development. Options for prevention of penile cancer include (neonatal) circumcision, limitation of penile HPV infections (either by prophylactic vaccination or condom use), prevention of phimosis, treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions, limiting PUVA treatment, smoking cessation and hygienic measures.
  • Brown, Darron R., et al. (författare)
  • The Impact of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV; Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 Virus-Like Particle Vaccine on Infection and Disease Due to Oncogenic Nonvaccine HPV Types in Generally HPV-Naive Women Aged 16-26 Years
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal Of Infectious Diseases. - Univ Chicago Press. - 0022-1899. ; 199:7, s. 926-935
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine reduces the risk of HPV-6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1-3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). Here, its impact on CIN1-3/AIS associated with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types was evaluated. Methods. We enrolled 17,622 women aged 16-26 years. All underwent cervicovaginal sampling and Pap testing at regular intervals for up to 4 years. HPV genotying was performed for biopsy samples, and histological diagnoses were determined by a pathology panel. Analyses were conducted among subjects who were negative for 14 HPV types on day 1. Prespecified analyses included infection of >= 6 months' duration and CIN1-3/AIS due to the 2 and 5 most common HPV types in cervical cancer after HPV types 16 and 18, as well as all tested nonvaccine types. Results. Vaccination reduced the incidence of HPV-31/45 infection by 40.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.9% to 59.0%) and of CIN1-3/AIS by 43.6% (95% CI, 12.9% to 64.1%), respectively. The reduction in HPV-31/33/45/52/58 infection and CIN1-3/AIS was 25.0% (95% CI, 5.0% to 40.9%) and 29.2% (95% CI, 8.3% to 45.5%), respectively. Efficacy for CIN2-3/AIS associated with the 10 nonvaccine HPV types was 32.5% (95% CI, 6.0% to 51.9%). Reductions were most notable for HPV-31. Conclusions. HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine reduced the risk of CIN2-3/AIS associated with nonvaccine types responsible for similar to 20% of cervical cancers. The clinical benefit of cross-protection is not expected to be fully additive to the efficacy already observed against HPV-6/11/16/18-related disease, because women may have >1 CIN lesion, each associated with a different HPV type.
  • Dickson, Nigel P., et al. (författare)
  • Male Circumcision and Serologically Determined Human Papillomavirus Infection in a Birth Cohort
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 18:1, s. 177-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Circumcision has been reported to protect against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in men, but results have been inconsistent. We followed males in a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972 and 1973 from age 3 to 32 years. Seropositivity at age 32 years for the oncogenic types HPV-16 and 18, and the nononcogenic types 6 and 11, was studied in relation to maternal reports of circumcision status at age 3 for 450 men. Seropositivity to any of these types was associated with lifetime number of sexual partners (P = 0.03), and lower moral-religious emphasis of the family of origin (P < 0.001). Circumcision was not found to be protective, with the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for HPV6/11/16/18 seropositivity among the circumcised compared with the uncircumcised being 1.4 (0.89-2.2).
  • Franceschi, Silvia, et al. (författare)
  • EUROGIN 2008 roadmap on cervical cancer prevention
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Liss. - 0020-7136. ; 125:10, s. 2246-2255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The EUROGIN 2008 Roadmap represents a continuing effort to provide updated information on primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. The report addresses several areas including the progress made toward global implementation of currently licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, the possibilities and value of future-generation HPV vaccines. endpoints under consideration for evaluation of candidate HPV vaccines, and monitoring impact of HPV vaccination programmes that can be implemented within developed and less-developed countries. For the sake of completeness, a short update on the evolution of HPV testing in primary screening programmes at present and after HPV vaccine introduction has also been included. The report is available on the EUROGIN website (www.eurogin.com). (C) 2009 UICC
  • Holl, Katsiaryna, et al. (författare)
  • Endogenous steroid hormone levels in early pregnancy and risk of testicular cancer in the offspring : A nested case-referent study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 124:12, s. 2923-2928
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to the leading hypothesis on testicular cancer (TC) etiology exposure to a specific pattern of steroid hormones in utero, in particular, to high levels of estrogens and low levels of androgens is the major determinant of TC risk in the offspring. We performed a case-referent study nested within Finnish, Swedish and Icelandic maternity cohorts exploiting early pregnancy serum samples to evaluate the role of maternal endogenous steroid hormones with regard to the risk of TC. TC cases and referents were aged between 0 and 25 years. For each case-index mother pair, three or four matched referent-referent mother pairs were identified using national population registries. First trimester or early second trimester sera were retrieved from the index mothers of 73 TC cases and 286 matched referent mothers, and were tested for dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Offspring of mothers with high DHEAS levels had a significantly decreased risk of TC (OR for highest vs. lowest DHEAS quartile, 0.18 (95% CI 0.06-0.58). In contrast, offspring of mothers with high androstenedione levels had an increased risk of TC (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.2-12.0). High maternal total estradiol level also tended to be associated with an increased risk of TC in the offspring (OR 32; 95% CI 0.98-1,090). We report the first direct evidence that interplay of maternal steroid hormones in the early pregnancy is important in the etiology of TC in the offspring. (c) 2009 UICC.
  • Kapeu, Aline Simen, et al. (författare)
  • Is Smoking an Independent Risk Factor for Invasive Cervical Cancer? A Nested Case-Control Study Within Nordic Biobanks
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal Of Epidemiology. - Oxford Univ Press Inc. - 0002-9262. ; 169:4, s. 480-488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The strong correlation between smoking and exposure to oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has made it difficult to verify the independent role of smoking in cervical carcinogenesis. Thus, the authors evaluated this role. Five large Nordic serum banks containing samples from more than 1,000,000 subjects were linked with nationwide cancer registries (1973-2003). Serum samples were retrieved from 588 women who developed invasive cervical cancer and 2,861 matched controls. The samples were analyzed for cotinine (a biomarker of tobacco exposure) and antibodies to HPV types 16 and 18, herpes simplex virus type 2, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Smoking was associated with the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among HPV16- and/or HPV18-seropositive heavy smokers (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 4.3). A similar risk of SCC (odds ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 2.6, 4.0) was found in heavy smokers after adjustment for HPV16/18 antibodies. The point estimates increased with increasing age at diagnosis and increasing cotinine level. This study confirms that smoking is an independent risk factor for cervical cancer/SCC in women infected with oncogenic HPVs. These findings emphasize the importance of cervical cancer prevention among women exposed to tobacco smoke.
  • Naucler, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy of HPV DNA testing with cytology triage and/or repeat HPV DNA testing in primary cervical cancer screening.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 101:2, s. 88-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Primary cervical screening with both human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing and cytological examination of cervical cells with a Pap test (cytology) has been evaluated in randomized clinical trials. Because the vast majority of women with positive cytology are also HPV DNA positive, screening strategies that use HPV DNA testing as the primary screening test may be more effective. METHODS: We used the database from the intervention arm (n = 6,257 women) of a population-based randomized trial of double screening with cytology and HPV DNA testing to evaluate the efficacy of 11 possible cervical screening strategies that are based on HPV DNA testing alone, cytology alone, and HPV DNA testing combined with cytology among women aged 32-38 years. The main outcome measures were sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) within 6 months of enrollment or at colposcopy for women with a persistent type-specific HPV infection and the number of screening tests and positive predictive value (PPV) for each screening strategy. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Compared with screening by cytology alone, double testing with cytology and for type-specific HPV persistence resulted in a 35% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15% to 60%) increase in sensitivity to detect CIN3+, without a statistically significant reduction in the PPV (relative PPV = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.10), but with more than twice as many screening tests needed. Several strategies that incorporated screening for high-risk HPV subtypes were explored, but they resulted in reduced PPV compared with cytology. Compared with cytology, primary screening with HPV DNA testing followed by cytological triage and repeat HPV DNA testing of HPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology increased the CIN3+ sensitivity by 30% (95% CI = 9% to 54%), maintained a high PPV (relative PPV = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.26), and resulted in a mere 12% increase in the number of screening tests (from 6,257 to 7,019 tests). CONCLUSIONS: Primary HPV DNA-based screening with cytology triage and repeat HPV DNA testing of cytology-negative women appears to be the most feasible cervical screening strategy.
  • Olsson, Sven-Eric, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Vaccines. - Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8619. ; 5:10, s. 696-704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL (R)/SILGARD (R)) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naive to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical disease. Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external anogenital disease related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed. Results: Subjects were followed for an average of 40 months. Seven subjects in the placebo group developed cervical disease, and eight subjects developed external genital disease related to a vaccine HPV type they had previously encountered. No subject receiving HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine developed disease to a vaccine HPV type to which they were seropositive and DNA negative at enrollment. Methods: 18,174 women were enrolled into three clinical studies. The data presented comprise a subset of these subjects (n = 2,617) who were HPV seropositive and DNA negative at enrollment (for >= 1 vaccine type). In each study, subjects were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine or placebo at day 1, month 2 and month 6 (without knowledge of baseline HPV status). Procedures performed for efficacy data evaluation included detailed genital examination, Pap testing and collection of cervicovaginal and external genital specimens. Analyses of efficacy were carried out in a population stratified by HPV serology and HPV DNA status at enrollment. Conclusions: These results suggest that natural HPV infection-elicited antibodies may not provide complete protection over time, however the immune response to the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine appears to prevent reinfection or reactivation of disease with vaccine HPV types. Vaccine-related adverse experiences were higher among subjects receiving vaccine, mostly due to increased injection site adverse experiences.
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