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Sökning: LAR1:lu > (2005-2009) > Tidskriftsartikel > Engelska > (2005)

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  • Aanen, M C, et al. (författare)
  • A detailed analysis of sodium removal by peritoneal dialysis: comparison with predictions from the three-pore model of membrane function
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2385. ; 20:6, s. 1192-1200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The development of fluid and salt retention is a potential problem for all peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Sodium removal by the peritoneum is predominantly determined by convective fluid loss but influenced by diffusion and sieving due to free water transport as predicted by the three-pore model (TPM). The aim of the study was to establish the effect of transport status, dwell length and glucose concentration on observed ultrafiltration (UF), dialysate sodium concentration ([Na+](D)) and removal, and compare this with that predicted by a computer program based on the principles of the TPM. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of UF and [Na+](D) collected prospectively from dwells classified by length, glucose concentration and membrane transport characteristics. Solute transport, converted to area parameter and UF capacity, was measured on each occasion by the peritoneal equilibration test. These parameters, along with plasma [Na+], were entered into the computer model. Fixed values for other parameters, e.g. hydraulic conductance and lymphatic absorption and sump volume, were used. Results. A total of 1853 dwells from 182 patients [10% were on automated PD (APD)] were analysed. There was a high degree of correlation (r=0.83-95, P<0.001) between the observed and predicted values for UF, [Na+](D) and sodium removal across the full range of dwell categories. The model overpredicted UF as the net volume increased with increasing glucose concentration, independently of solute transport. This bias was not fully explained by the preferential use of hypertonic dialysate by patients with reduced UF capacity. The prediction of [Na+](D) described sodium sieving, which was overestimated in a small number of patients with UF failure. There were no discrepancies between continous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and APD patients. Conclusion. This analysis endorses the TPM as a description of membrane function, particularly in relation to sodium sieving and removal. The relationship between dialysate glucose concentration and achieved UF appears to be more complex; even accounting for extended time on treatment and reduction in the osmotic conductance in patients preferentially using hypertonic exchanges, further adjustments may be needed to account for the tendency to overestimate UF.
  • Aarnio, Harri, et al. (författare)
  • Recombination studies in a polyfluorene copolymer for photovoltaic applications
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Synthetic Metals. - Elsevier. - 0379-6779. ; 155:2, s. 299-302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present detailed continuous wave (cw) and transient photoinduced absorption (PA) measurements in thin films of a novel alternating polyfluorene copolymer, poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3-benzo-thiadiazole)] (DiO-PFDTBT), and its blends with the soluble fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in weight ratios of 1:0, 4:1 and 1:4. We measure the frequency, intensity and temperature dependence of the PA signal in the frequency domain, and compare with the results obtained from the transient PA decay measurements in the time domain. In all blends, the PA spectrum shows a broad high energy PA band ranging from 1 eV to 2 eV as well as a low energy band peaking at 0.35 eV. We attribute the low energy band to the P1 transition of polarons and part of the high energy band to the correlated P2 transition of polarons. Both frequency and time domain measurements show that the high energy band has two decay components, a faster component in the microsecond time regime and a slower component in the millisecond time regime. The slow component is strongly dispersive, whereas the fast component is practically non-dispersive.
  • Abbott, Jessica K., et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypic and genetic variation in emergence and development time of a trimorphic damselfly
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1420-9101. ; 18:6, s. 1464-1470
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although colour polymorphisms in adult organisms of many taxa are often adaptive in the context of sexual selection or predation, genetic correlations between colour and other phenotypic traits expressed early in ontogeny could also play an important role in polymorphic systems. We studied phenotypic and genetic variation in development time among female colour morphs in the polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans in the field and by raising larvae in a common laboratory environment. In the field, the three different female morphs emerged at different times. Among laboratory-raised families, we found evidence of a significant correlation between maternal morph and larval development time in both sexes. This suggests that the phenotypic correlation between morph and emergence time in the field has a parallel in a genetic correlation between maternal colour and offspring development time. Maternal colour morph frequencies could thus potentially change as correlated responses to selection on larval emergence dates. The similar genetic correlation in male offspring suggests that sex-limitation in this system is incomplete, which may lead to an ontogenetic sexual conflict between selection for early male emergence (protandry) and emergence times associated with maternal morph.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Bose-Einstein correlations in W+W- events at LEP2
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 44:2, s. 161-174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC) between final state particles in the reaction e(+)e(-) -> W+ W- -> q(1)(q(2)) over barq(3)(q(4)over bar>) over bar) have been studied. Data corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 550 pb(-1), recorded by the DELPHI detector at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 189 to 209 GeV, were analysed. An indication for inter-W BEC between like-sign particles has been found at the level of 2.4 standard deviations of the combined statistical and systematic uncertainties.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Charged particle multiplicity in three-jet events and two-gluon systems
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 44:3, s. 311-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The charged particle multiplicity in hadronic three-jet events from Z decays is investigated. The topology dependence of the event multiplicity is found to be well described by a modified leading logarithmic prediction. A parameter fit of the prediction to the data yields a measurement of the colour factor ratio C-A/C-F with the result C-A/C-F = 2.261 +/- 0.014(stat). +/- 0.036(exp). +/- 0-066(theo). in agreement with the SU(3) expectation of QCD. The quark-related contribution to the event multiplicity is subtracted from the three-jet event multiplicity resulting in a measurement of the multiplicity of two-gluon colour-singlet states over a wide energy range. The ratios r = N-gg(s)/Ng (g) over bar (s) of the gluon and quark multiplicities and r((1)) = N'(gg)(s)/N'g (g) over bar (s) of their derivatives are compared with perturbative calculations. While a good agreement between calculations and data is observed for r((1)), larger deviations are found for r indicating that non-perturbative effects are more important for r than for r((1)).
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Coherent soft particle production in Z decays into three jets
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 605:1-2, s. 37-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low-energy particle production perpendicular to the event plane in three-jet events produced in Z decays in e(+)e(-) annihilation is measured and compared to that perpendicular to the event axis in two-jet events. The topology dependence of the hadron production ratio is found to agree with a leading-order QCD prediction. This agreement and especially the need for the presence of a destructive interference term gives evidence for the coherent nature of gluon radiation. Hadron production in three-jet events is found to be directly proportional to a single topological scale function of the inter-jet angles. The slope of the dependence of the multiplicity with respect to the topological scale was measured to be 2.211 +/- 0.014(stat.) +/- 0.053(syst.) in good agreement with the expectation given by the colour-factor ratio C-A/C-F = 9/4. This result strongly supports the assumption of local parton-hadron duality, LPHD, at low hadron momentum.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Determination of A(FB)(b) at the Z pole using inclusive charge reconstruction and lifetime tagging
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 40:1, s. 1-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel high precision method measures the b-quark forward-backward asymmetry at the Z pole on a sample of 3,560,890 hadronic events collected with the DELPHI detector in 1992 to 2000. An enhanced impact parameter tag provides a high purity b sample. For event hemispheres with a reconstructed secondary vertex the charge of the corresponding quark or anti-quark is determined using a neural network which combines in an optimal way the full available charge information from the vertex charge, the jet charge and from identified leptons and hadrons. The probability of correctly identifying b-quarks and anti-quarks is measured on the data themselves comparing the rates of double hemisphere tagged like-sign and unlike-sign events. The b-quark forward-backward asymmetry is determined from the differential asymmetry, taking small corrections due to hemisphere correlations and background contributions into account. The results for different centre-of-mass energies are: A(FB)(b) ( 89.449 GeV) = 0.0637 +/- 0.0143( stat.) +/- 0.0017( syst.), A(FB)(b) ( 91.231 GeV) = 0.0958 +/- 0.0032( stat.) +/- 0.0014( syst.), A(FB)(b) ( 92.990 GeV) = 0.1041 +/- 0.0115( stat.) +/- 0.0024( syst.). Combining these results yields the b-quark pole asymmetry A(FB)(b0) = 0.0972 +/- 0.0030( stat.) +/- 0.0014( syst.).
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Flavour independent searchesfor hadronically decaying neutral Higgs bosons
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 44:2, s. 147-159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes flavour independent searches for hadronically decaying neutral Higgs bosons in the data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV. The collected data-set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of around 610 pb(-1). The e(+)e(-) -> hA and e(+)e(-) -> hZand processes are considered, with direct Higgs boson decays into hadrons. No evidence for Higgs boson production is found, and cross-section limits are set as a function of the Higgs boson masses. No explicit assumptions are made on the underlying physics beyond the Standard Model, allowing interpretation of the data in a large class of models.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the energy dependence of hadronic jet rates and the strong coupling alpha(s) from the four-jet rate with the DELPHI detector at LEP
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 38:4, s. 413-426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hadronic events from the data collected with the DELPHI detector at LEP within the energy range from 89 GeV to 209 GeV are selected, their jet rates are determined and compared to predictions of four different event generators. One of them is the recently developed APACIC++ generator which performs a massive matrix element calculation matched to a parton shower followed by string fragmentation. The four-jet rate is used to measure alpha(s) in the next-to-leading-order approximation yielding alpha(s)(M-Z(2)) = 0.1175 +/- 0.0030. The running of alpha(s) determined by using four-jet events has been tested. The logarithmic energy slope is measured to be dalpha(s)(-1)/d log E-cm = 1.14 +/- 0.36. Since the analysis is based on four-jet final states it represents an alternative approach to previous DELPHI alpha(s) measurements using event shape distributions.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Photon events with missing energy in e(+)e(-) collisions at root s=130 to 209 GeV
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 38:4, s. 395-411
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The production of single- and multi-photon events has been studied in the reaction e(+) e(-) --> gamma(gamma) + invisible particles. The data collected with the DELPHI detector during the years 1999 and 2000 at centre-of-mass energies between 191 GeV and 209 GeV was combined with earlier data to search for phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The measured number of light neutrino families was consistent with three and the absence of an excess of events beyond that predicted by the Standard Model processes was used to set limits on new physics. Both model-independent searches and searches for new processes predicted by supersymmetric and extra-dimensional models have been made. Limits on new non-standard model interactions between neutrinos and electrons were also determined.
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