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  • Akselsson, K. Roland, et al. (författare)
  • Computer Aided Participatory Planning
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Ergonomics of Hybrid Automated Systems II. - Elsevier. ; s. 69-76
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A computer aided action research method for design of work places is presented. A project group of researchers, managers, union representatives, supervisors, shop-floor workers and representatives from the health-and-safety department analyse different aspects of the physical and organizational work environment. Factory layouts and the flow of raw materials and goods, truck routes and overhead crane movements are shown on a computer screen by means of simulation and animation techniques. Field studies at four companies strongly suggest that the animation helps the members in the project group to develop a common language and to better comprehend what a future factory design and work organization would look like.
  • Akselsson, K Roland, et al. (författare)
  • Computer-Aided Planning of New Production Lines in Mechanical Industries and of Working Environments for Disabled Persons
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Production Research. - Elsevier. ; s. 85-86
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To optimize productivity and working-life quality, it is important to understand and utilise the connections between productivity and working environment. Culture and the state of the market may affect the strength of these connections. However, in order to ensure flexibility and quality in products and services, it may be useful to have motivated, skilled and responsible coworkers at all levels. For the same reasons, absenteeism and high turnover rates have to be avoided. In a time when new technology is rapidly disseminated throughout the world, the way in which human resources are managed may be of the outmost importance to success. A major obstacle to the gathering of experience and knowledge from all relevant parties – e g production engineers, managers, the workforce and external experts – in a planning process is the lack of a common, efficient language. Mistakes made when designing new working environments are often very costly to adjust once the plans are realized. The prize of a poorly-planned environment is high in economical terms, but also in terms of human suffering. This may be especially important for disabled persons. Some basic ideas behind the computer-aided planning methodology currently being developed at the Lund Institute of Technology, and at Lund University, are the following ones: -In a planning process, it is important to draw on the creativity, experience, knowledge and enthusiasm of as many persons as possible. It is particularly essential that the group which is going to manage and apply the planned system finds it acceptable, as this group’s willingness and competence to improve the solution during and after implementation is often crucial. -Time is a resource in short supply, and a planning group including persons with very dissimilar backgrounds in terms of experience and knowledge could be too time-consuming. -Pictures of planned systems may help a heterogeneous group to obtain a common language; they may also provide the members of the group with good mental models as a basis for an efficient dialogue. In this workshop paper we will briefly discuss the computer-aided planning tool and present some of our experiences of its application to the planning of new production lines in mechanical industries and of working environments for the disabled.
  • Bengtsson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Computer-Aided Planning of Production, Working and Residential Environments
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. - Elsevier. - 0169-8141. ; 17:1, s. 59-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper discusses a computer-aided planning methodology and its applicability for planning of industrial production and working environments as well as for planning of residential and working environments for the differently abled. The methodology has been developed and evaluated in six case studies in mechanical industries and in six case studies related to adaptations for the differently abled. The results from the case studies indicate that computer-supported modelling and visualisation may serve as a common and efficient language facilitating communication about multifaceted environmental planning issues. The methodology is a cost-effective way of demonstrating layout ideas and testing dynamic activities like manufacturing and transportation. Corporate groups comprising people involved in, or affected by, development work seem to be a fruitful approach for cooperation, one which enhances learning and creativity. Such groups may be a proper forum for the dissemination of information, exchange of opinions, utilisation of both expert and lay experiences, and for public testing of current reality or future plans in such a way that mutual understanding between different professional categories is increased, hence promoting internal commitment.
  • Bengtsson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Planning Working Environment and Production by Using Paper Drawings and Computer Animation
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Ergonomics. - Taylor & Francis. - 0014-0139. ; 40:3, s. 334-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is assumed that pictorial visualization can be used to facilitate communication between industrial professionals when planning working environments and production. This article analyses how managers, supervisors, machine operators, and occupational health and safety officials, accustomed to using both paper drawings and computer animation of both shop floor and workplace view, evaluate these four types of visualization in relation to a set of planning issues. Twenty-four subjects participated in a controlled two-day planning workshop. They designed a new production layout by means of computer graphics, and responded to a questionnaire. From the analysis it may be concluded that the four types of visualization are unique enough to be evaluated differently with regard to some of the planning issues. Hence, great care should be devoted to analysing what features a visualization of a production layout or a working environment aims at illustrating. Furthermore, it can be concluded that each of the four types of visualization seems to be significant for planning activities in ways that can be anticipated. Shop floor view and workplace view is valuable for planning issues related to survey of a plant and specific machines, respectively. Computer animation is in general preferable to a paper drawing concerning dynamic planning issues. Computer animation of workplace view is valuable for planning issues related to working environment considerations. All of the four types of visualization are less significant for illustrating or describing physical factors of the working environment.
  • Ahlberg, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Proton-Induced X-Ray Analysis of Steel Surfaces for Microprobe Purposes
  • 1975
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 123:2, s. 385-393
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A study of the detection limits for the elements with Z = 15-92 in thick target steel surfaces using proton-induced X-ray technique has been performed. Samples were irradiated with a broad proton beam of 2 mm diameter and the X-rays were detected by a Si(Li) detector. Detection limits at levels down to the order of 10 ppm were achieved with simultaneous measurement of several elements. Mylar and chromium absorbers were introduced in front of the semiconductor detector and irradiations at two different proton energies (1.0 and 2.5 MeV) were carried out in order to elucidate their effects on detection limits. The results are valid for microbeam analysis.
  • Ahlberg, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission in the Trace Analysis of Human Tooth Enamel and Dentine
  • 1976
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes. - Pergamon. ; 27:5-6, s. 279-290
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study the feasibility of applying proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) to the trace element analysis of human tooth enamel and dentine is investigated. Detection limits on the order of 1–10 ppm are obtained. Depth yields for different elements and proton energies are discussed. Enhancement calculations show that the effect for PIXE analysis is less important than for X-ray induced X-ray analysis. However, for elements with an absorption edge just below an intense X-ray line from a major element the enhancement effect is significant, and, due to the 40% calcium in the enamel matrix, it is estimated to be 15% for potassium. The importance of a smooth sample surface is discussed.
  • Akselsson, Roland, et al. (författare)
  • A Beam Mapping Method
  • 1971
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 91:4, s. 663-664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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