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1.
  • Adner, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Contractile endothelin-B (ETB) receptors in human small bronchi
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - ERS Journals Ltd. - 0903-1936. ; 9:2, s. 351-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endothelins (ETs) are a family of novel regulatory peptides and various lines of evidence suggest an important role for ETs in regulating pulmonary function. Two receptors for endothelin, ETA and ETB, have been found in the human lung, and according to recent studies a non-ETA receptor seems to mediate the contraction of large sized human bronchi. Several studies have emphasized the importance of small bronchi in the pathogenesis of airway disease. In the present paper, improved methodology was used which enables in vitro studies of small human bronchi down to a diameter of 0.5-1.0 mm. Using the new methodology we have tried to further characterize this receptor. Small bronchi from the distal parts of the bronchial tree were obtained from pulmonary tissue removed from 15 patients with lung cancer. They were dissected and cut into ring segments, in which isometric tension was recorded. ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3 elicited strong concentration-dependent contractions of the human small bronchus. Basically, the three peptides were equipotent with about the same maximal response. Upon reapplication, they all showed the same tachyphylaxis pattern, reaching half the initial contraction. Comparative analysis of IRL 1620, a selective ETB receptor agonist, revealed that the effect of the ETB agonist was, in all respects, similar to the responses induced by the ETs. PD 145065, a combined ETA/ETB receptor antagonist competitively inhibited the contractions induced by IRL 1620, whereas FR139317, a selective ETA receptor antagonist, was without effect. In conclusion, the present study shows that accurate measurements can be made in vitro on small human bronchi and all present data are in favour of an ETB receptor mediating endothelin-induced contraction of human bronchi smaller than 1.0 mm.
2.
  • Adner, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Human endothelin ETA receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit endothelin-1 evoked vasoconstriction
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: European journal of pharmacology. - Elsevier. - 0014-2999. ; 261:3, s. 281-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to endothelin ETA receptor mRNA were used to characterize vascular smooth muscle receptors. The concentration-response curve showed a significant attenuation of endothelin-1-induced contraction in circular segments of the human superficial temporal artery. Endothelin ETB receptor antisense or mismatch oligodeoxynucleotides showed no alteration of the endothelin-1-induced contraction. Complementary experiments with the selective endothelin ETA receptor antagonist FR139317 demonstrated a shift of the concentration-response curve to the right in a competitive manner (pA2 = 6.93). The specific method of using the receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotides approach revealed the presence of endothelin ETA receptors mediating contraction in the human superficial temporal artery.
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3.
  • Adner, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Regional variation in appearance of vascular contractile endothelin-B receptors following organ culture
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular research. - Oxford University Press. - 0008-6363. ; 37:1, s. 254-262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the appearance of contractile endothelin (ET)-B receptors following organ culture in different vascular regions. METHOD: The contractile responses of vascular smooth muscle induced by ET-1 and the selective ETB receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) were investigated in circular segments representing eight vascular regions in the rat (aorta, femoral artery, mesenteric artery, branch of the mesenteric artery, proximal and distal parts of the caudal artery, femoral and mesenteric veins). To allow the ETB receptor to be expressed, the segments were placed in organ culture for 1 to 5 days. Pharmacological characterisation of the ET receptors was performed in mesenteric arterial segments. All contractile responses were measured in percentage of K(+)-induced contraction. RESULTS: ET-1 induced strong concentration-dependent contractions of all fresh (not cultured) segments. S6c had negligible effects on all fresh vessels with the exception of the mesenteric vein, where a small contraction was seen. After 1 day of organ culture all tested segments, with the exception of aorta and the proximal part of the caudal artery, showed concentration-dependent contractile responses to S6c which were further augmented after 5 days of culture. The ET-1-induced responses were only slightly affected by organ culture. Contractions induced by S6c were more enhanced in small arteries and veins than in larger arteries. Furthermore, the S6c-induced response was more pronounced in the mesenteric region as compared to the hindlimb. In fresh mesenteric arterial segments FR139317 (ETA receptor antagonist) and bosentan (ETA/ETB receptor antagonist) but not IRL 2500 (ETB receptor antagonist) shifted the ET-1-induced concentration-response curve in parallel to the right. In contrast, after organ culture the S6c-induced concentration-response curves were shifted parallel to the right in the following potency order: IRL 2500 > bosentan > FR139317. CONCLUSION: During normal conditions, the ETA receptor is the dominating mediator of endothelin-induced contraction in eight different vascular regions. Furthermore, this study indicates that most of the vessels have the ability to develop contractile ETB receptors and that this plasticity differs in vascular regions.
4.
  • Ahnstedt, Hilda, et al. (författare)
  • Cytokines and growth factors modify the upregulation of contractile endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptors in rat cerebral arteries after organ culture.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Acta physiologica. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. - 1748-1716. ; 205:2, s. 266-278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Experimental cerebral ischemia and organ culture of cerebral arteries induce an increased endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction. The aim of the present study was to examine if cytokines and growth factors, known to be activated in ischemia, can influence the expression and function of endothelin receptors after organ culture. Methods: Rat middle cerebral arteries were cultured for 24 h at 37°C in humidified 5% CO(2) and air in culture medium alone, or with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Concentration-response curves were obtained for sarafotoxin 6c (ET(B) receptor agonist) and endothelin-1 (here ET(A) receptor agonist, because of ET(B) receptor desensitization). The receptor mRNA expression was examined by real-time PCR and the protein expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: TNF-α (100 ng/ml) and EGF (20 ng/ml) potentiated the ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction (increase in pEC(50) without change in E(max) ). bFGF (10 ng/ml) and IL-1β (10 ng/ml) induced an enhanced ET(A) receptor-mediated contraction. bFGF (10 ng/ml) significantly increased the ET(B) mRNA level, and EGF (20 ng/ml) increased the ET(A) receptor protein. Increased ET(B) receptor mRNA and protein level also were observed after treatment with IL-1β (10 ng/ml). Conclusion: The present study show that TNF-α, IL-1β, EGF and bFGF can modify the expression and function of endothelin receptors during organ culture. Since there is similar receptor upregulation in experimental stroke, the effect of cytokines and growth factors on endothelin receptor upregulation is an interesting aspect to study in vivo.
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5.
  • Ahnstedt, Hilda, et al. (författare)
  • Human cerebrovascular contractile receptors are upregulated via a B-Raf/MEK/ERK-sensitive signaling pathway.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC neuroscience. - 1471-2202. ; 12, s. 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia results in a rapid increase in contractile cerebrovascular receptors, such as the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 1B (5-HT1B), angiotensin II type 1 (AT1), and endothelin type B (ETB) receptors, in the vessel walls within the ischemic region, which further impairs local blood flow and aggravates tissue damage. This receptor upregulation occurs via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We therefore hypothesized an important role for B-Raf, the first signaling molecule in the pathway. To test our hypothesis, human cerebral arteries were incubated at 37°C for 48 h in the absence or presence of a B-Raf inhibitor: SB-386023 or SB-590885. Contractile properties were evaluated in a myograph and protein expression of the individual receptors and activated phosphorylated B-Raf (p-B-Raf) was evaluated immunohistochemically. RESULTS: 5-HT1B, AT1, and ETB receptor-mediated contractions were significantly reduced by application of SB-590885, and to a smaller extent by SB-386023. A marked reduction in AT1 receptor immunoreactivity was observed after treatment with SB-590885. Treatment with SB-590885 and SB-386023 diminished the culture-induced increase of p-B-Raf immunoreactivity. CONCLUSIONS: B-Raf signaling has a key function in the altered expression of vascular contractile receptors observed after organ culture. Therefore, specific targeting of B-Raf might be a novel approach to reduce tissue damage after cerebral ischemia by preventing the previously observed upregulation of contractile receptors in smooth muscle cells.
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8.
  • Ahnstedt, Hilda, et al. (författare)
  • Male-female differences in upregulation of vasoconstrictor responses in human cerebral arteries.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:4, s. e62698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Male-female differences may significantly impact stroke prevention and treatment in men and women, however underlying mechanisms for sexual dimorphism in stroke are not understood. We previously found in males that cerebral ischemia upregulates contractile receptors in cerebral arteries, which is associated with lower blood flow. The present study investigates if cerebral arteries from men and women differ in cerebrovascular receptor upregulation.
9.
  • Alm, Rikard, et al. (författare)
  • Organ culture: a new model for vascular endothelium dysfunction.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: BMC cardiovascular disorders. - BioMed Central Ltd.. - 1471-2261. ; 2:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Endothelium dysfunction is believed to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of organ culture as a model for endothelium dysfunction. METHODS: The isometric tension was recorded in isolated segments of the rat mesenteric artery branch, before and after organ culture for 20 h. Vasodilatation was expressed as % of preconstriction with U46619. The acetylcholine (ACh) induced nitric oxide (NO) mediated dilatation was studied in the presence of 10 &mgr;M indomethacin, 50 nM charybdotoxin and 1 &mgr;M apamin. Endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) was studied in the presence of 0.1 mM L-NOARG and indomethacin. Prostaglandins were studied in the presence of L-NOARG, charybdotoxin and apamin. RESULTS: The ACh-induced NO and prostaglandin-mediated dilatations decreased significantly during organ culture (NO: 84% in control and 36% in cultured; prostaglandins: 48% in control and 16% in cultured). Notably, the total ACh-dilatation was not changed. This might be explained by the finding that EDHF alone stimulated a full dilatation even after organ culture (83% in control and 80% in cultured). EDHF may thereby compensate for the loss in NO and prostaglandin-mediated dilatation. Dilatations induced by forskolin or sodium nitroprusside did not change after organ culture, indicating intact smooth muscle cell function. CONCLUSIONS: Organ culture induces a loss in NO and prostaglandin-mediated dilatation, which is compensated for by EDHF. This shift in mediator profile resembles that in endothelium dysfunction. Organ culture provides an easily accessible model where the molecular changes that take place, when endothelium dysfunction is developed, can be examined over time.
10.
  • Andersson, S E, et al. (författare)
  • Cutaneous vascular reactivity is reduced in aging and in heart failure: association with inflammation
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Clinical Science. - Portland Press. - 0143-5221. ; 105:6, s. 699-707
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present study, we have investigated whether changes in vascular reactivity in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients can be detected in the cutaneous microvessels and whether these changes are due to endothelial dysfunction, are affected by increasing age and related to an ongoing inflammation. The responses to local warming and iontophoretically administered endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators were investigated in healthy young adults, healthy elderly adults and elderly adults with CHE The results were correlated with plasma concentrations of vascular risk factors and markers for endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. The vasorelaxant responses were reduced in the elderly groups and were attenuated further in the CHF group. This group also had increases in levels of several markers associated with inflammation, higher blood glucose and homocysteine levels, a lower low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and a rise in the concentration of von Willebrand factor, indicating a prothrombotic endothelial function. The severity of the heart failure, measured as the plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide, correlated with the intensity of inflammation and to the changes in vascular risk factors and endothelial function. It is concluded that the reactivity of the cutaneous microvessels is reduced with age, and the presence of CHF causes a further impairment. There is endothelial dysfunction in CHF, but it is uncertain to what extent this contributes to the reduced vasodilatory capacity. The inflammatory response appears central for many of the manifestations of the CHF syndrome.
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