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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Högskolan i Jönköping > Falkmer Torbjörn

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  • Bylund, PO, et al. (författare)
  • Injuries in special transportation services for elderly and disabled - A multi-methodology approach to estimate incidence and societal costs
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention. - Taylor & Francis. - 1538-9588. ; 8:2, s. 180-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Previous research has shown that elderly and disabled travelers using Special Transportation Services (STS) are injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate the true costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards an incident/traveler-oriented perspective. The aim of the project was thus to utilize such a perspective, in order to make a best estimation of the true costs for injury incidents, related to STS in Sweden. Methods. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed-method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research methods applied on four different sets of data, the hospital-based material (n = 32), two sets of STS material (n = 127), and interview-based material (n = 1,000). Results. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e., 3.2 per 100,000 trips (ranging from 1.5-1.9 in STS taxis and 3.6-5.6 in STS special vehicles). However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic crashes, but to non-collision injury incidents involving elderly and frail passengers, easily sustaining injuries from minor to moderate external violence. Typically, this violence is affecting an older female STS user, while entering and exiting the vehicle. The true costs were estimated to be $35 million per annum or $2.6 per trip. Conclusion. Future injury prevention measures should thus focus on safety in entering and exiting procedures.
  • Falkmer, Marita, et al. (författare)
  • Viewpoints of adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders on public transport
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A : Policy and Practice. - 0965-8564. ; 80, s. 163-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Public transport is low cost, allows for independence, and facilitates engagement and participation for non-drivers. However, the viewpoints of individuals with cognitive disabilities are rarely considered. In Australia, the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is approximately 1% and increasing. Many individuals with ASD do not possess a driver's licence, indicating that access to public transport is crucial for their independence. However, at present, there is no research on the opinions of adults with ASD on public transport. Aim: To identify the viewpoints of adults with ASD regarding the barriers and facilitators of public transport usage and their transportation preferences, and to contrast these against the viewpoints of neurotypical adults. Methods: Q. method was used to identify the viewpoints of both participant groups on public transport. Participants consisted of 55 adults with a diagnosis of ASD and a contrast group of 57 neurotypical adults. Both groups completed a Q sort task which took place in either Perth or Melbourne, Australia. Results: The most prominent viewpoint indicated that both groups preferred to use public transport over driving and believed that it supported their independence. This viewpoint also indicated that both groups preferred to use electronic ticketing when using public transport. Interestingly, the second most prominent viewpoint indicated that both groups preferred to drive themselves by private car rather than use public transport. Discussion: It appears that the viewpoints of adults with and without ASD regarding public transportation were largely similar. However, questions arose about whether the preference for public transport in the ASD group may be more a result of difficulties obtaining a driving licence than a deliberate choice. The only barrier specified by adults with ASD related to crowding on public transport. Safety and convenience in relation to location and timing of services were barriers reported by neurotypical adults.
  • Fristedt, Sofi, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in community mobility in older men and women. A 13-year prospective study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:2, s. e87827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Community mobility, defined as "moving [ones] self in the community and using public or private transportation", has a unique ability to promote older peoples' wellbeing by enabling independence and access to activity arenas for interaction with others. Early predictors of decreased community mobility among older men and women are useful in developing health promoting strategies. However, long-term prediction is rare, especially when it comes to including both public and private transportation. The present study describes factors associated with community mobility and decreased community mobility over time among older men and women. In total, 119 men and 147 women responded to a questionnaire in 1994 and 2007. Respondents were between 82 and 96 years old at follow-up. After 13 years, 40% of men and 43% of women had decreased community mobility, but 47% of men and 45% of women still experienced some independent community mobility. Cross-sectional independent community mobility among men was associated with higher ratings of subjective health, reporting no depression and more involvement in sport activities. Among women, cross-sectional independent community mobility was associated with better subjective health and doing more instrumental activities of daily living outside the home. Lower subjective health predicted decreased community mobility for both men and women, whereas self-reported health conditions did not. Consequently, general policies and individual interventions aiming to improve community mobility should consider older persons' subjective health.
  • Fristedt, Sofi, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Continuing Mobility and Occupational Participation Outside the Home in Old Age is an Act of Negotiation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Activities, Adaptation & Aging. - Taylor & Francis Group. - 0192-4788. ; 35:4, s. 275-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Facilitated by mobility, occupational participaton is vital in old age. However, the relative importance of other influencing factors remains unclear. The present study describes older people's motives for, and experiences of, mobility and occuoational participation outside the home. Nine focus group interviews were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Occupational participation and mobility was individually experienced even if some subjective perspectives were common. Continuing mobility and occupational participation outside the home in old age is an act of negotiation, encompassing occupational means and goals, occupational and mobility adaptation, and occupational barrieres and facilitators.
  • Fristedt, Sofi, et al. (författare)
  • Viewpoints on community mobility and participation in older age
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Subjectivity. - 1598-8643. ; 10:1, s. 103-123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aim: Community mobility supports participation in activities. However, knowledge about issues that influence community mobility and, hence, participation in activities outside the home is limited. Since participation and community mobility are subjectively defined phenomena, further knowledge from an insider’s perspective is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and describe viewpoints on community mobility and participation in older age. Methods: A Q-methodology study was conducted with 36 male and female participants, including drivers and non-drivers. Participants sorted 45 Q-statements along a most to least continuum, indicating their current habitual situation of mobility and participation in activities outside their homes. Results: Three viewpoints were found and assigned content-describing denominations; “Prefer being mobile by car, “Prefer being mobile by public transport” and “Prefer flexible mobility”. Conclusions: All participants were satisfied with their actual participation in activities outside their homes. However, those who preferred to use public transport were less satisfied with their opportunities and possibilities to participate in activities outside their homes. The existing demand-responsive Special Transportation System was not considered to be an attractive enough alternative by any of the participants. Intermediate community mobility options are thus needed for those who can no longer drive or use public transport.
  • Hansson, L, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of stature, age and vehicle motion on ingress movement
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Vehicle Design. - 0143-3369. ; 51:3/4, s. 292-305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vehicle ingress is an important automotive industry issue. End-users and production line assemblers perform similar ingress tasks. In this study, comparisons were made of the car ingress motion in 40 subjects of different statures, acting both as assemblers and end-users. Half of the subjects were under 28 years of age and the remaining were over 60. Results show no significant differences in motion patterns between assemblers and end-users, i.e., slow forward motion of the car on the assembly line had no effect on ingress patterns. This suggests that ergonomic departments working either with end-users or assemblers may instead cooperate or even be fully integrated. Stature significantly affected joint angle distribution and joint angle velocity distribution. No stature effect was found on time to perform ingress movements or on ingress technique. Age significantly affected all test parameters and is thus an issue for developers to consider along with anthropometric variables like stature. To facilitate age analysis, manikins in digital human modelling tools should be able to replicate the physical characteristics of different age groups and the movement behaviour of older people.
  • Wretstrand, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Injuries in special transport services Situations and risk levels involving wheelchair users
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Medical Engineering and Physics. - 1350-4533. ; 32:3, s. 248-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has shown that wheelchair-seated passengers using special transportation services (STS) have been injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate incident rate andsocietal costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards a traveler/incidentoriented perspective. The aim of the project was to utilize such a perspective, related to travelers using STS in Sweden. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research techniques applied on four different sets of data: one hospital-based record,two sets of STS incident report databases, and interviews with wheelchair-seated STS passengers. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e. 10 per 100,000 trips. However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic collisions, but to non-collision injury incidents involving many elderly and frail passengers, who easily sustain traumas ranging from minor to moderate. The costs were estimated to be 23 million USD per annum or 14 USD per trip. Results suggest that future injury prevention measures should focus on safety in boarding and alighting procedures, as well as thecontinuing development of WTORS.  
  • Wretstrand, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Older people and local public transit: Mobility effects of accessibility improvements in Sweden
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Transport and Land Use. - University of Minnesota. - 1938-7849. ; 2:2, s. 49-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several transportation factors concerning older and disabled people are under transition in Sweden at present. By the year 2010, the public transit system must be fully accessible for all passengers. The present survey studied older people, in order to assess the perceived travel opportunities. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of older citizens (75+) in three Swedish mid-sized municipalities. The general conclusions were that even though older people show appreciation of the existing travel opportunities, there was evidence for restricted mobility for some sub-groups of these older people, due to various perceived barriers. these groups have few optional modes, and despite various accessibility measures, special transportation services—the mandatory demand-responsive transport service—continues to provide crucial mobility. Hence, there is more to be done regarding accessibility and usability in public transit for older people. Further studies have to clarify reasons for bus travel cessation. Even larger efforts have to be put into accessibility improvements, in particular intermediate transit solutions in order to meet the regulations and policies.
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