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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Linnéuniversitetet > (2007)

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1.
  • Agerström, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • Etnicitet och övervikt
  • 2007
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Särbehandling i anställningsprocessen av specifika grupper, såsom personer med en bakgrund i Mellanöstern och överviktiga, har traditionellt ansetts bero på ett medvetet val från arbetsgivarens sida. Forskning inom social kognition tyder dock på att denna särbehandling skulle kunna ske omedvetet, påverkat av arbetsgivarens omedvetna (implicita) fördomar. I den här studien har studenter och arbetsgivare genomfört tre olika implicita associationstester i syfte att mäta deras implicita attityder och prestationsstereotyper gentemot arabmuslimska män relativt infödda svenska män och deras implicita prestationsstereotyper gentemot överviktiga relativt normalviktiga. Resultaten visar att studenter och arbetsgivare på implicit nivå associerar arabmuslimska män och överviktiga med lägre prestation jämfört med infödda svenska män och normalviktiga män, samt har en mer negativ implicit attityd gentemot arabmuslimska män jämfört med infödda svenska män.
2.
  • Andreasson, Jesper (författare)
  • Idrottens kön. Genus, kropp och sexualitet i lagidrottens vardag
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Denna avhandling beskriver och analyserar hur kön, kropp och sexualitet konstrueras inom lagidrotten. Studien baseras på kvalitativt etnografiskt fältarbete med det manliga handbollslaget Kula HF och det kvinnliga damfotbollslaget Solby IK. Med hjälp av intervjuer och observationer beskrivs atleternas tankar om sig själva, sin kroppslighet och den idrottsliga gemenskap de är en del av. Medlemmarna av de båda idrottskollektiven studeras i en idrottslig vardag som består av matcher, träningar, omklädningsrumsjargong, gemensamma fester och turneringsresor. Studien visar att atleternas förståelse för lagidrott huvudsakligen konstruerats och konstituerats inom ramen för en hegemonisk maskulinitet. I sina försök att rymmas inom det som betraktas som normalt eller önskvärt på idrottsliga arenor rättar medlemmarna i de båda kollektiven sitt agerande efter denna maskulinitetsformation, vilket innebär att de bidrar till att reproducera en maktstruktur som legitimerar skilda förutsättningar för kvinnors och mäns idrottande. Resultaten visar emellertid också att det förekommer motstridigheter i atleternas sätt att agera, och att de på olika sätt kan överskrida eller opponera sig mot den sociala dynamik som dominerar i respektive gemenskap. Idrottsutövarnas identitetsskapande utförs i detta avseende i ett dialektiskt spel mellan traditionella föreställningar om kön och enskilda aktörers försök att spränga existerande gränser. Genom att studera idrottsliga praktiker kan man både få kunskap om enskilda individers förståelse för sig själva och de sociala strukturer inom vilka en sådan förståelse tar form. Denna studie beskriver lagidrotten som en social arena där könsidentiteter konstrueras genom ambivalenta och motsägelsefulla sociala processer, som både bringar stabilitet och förändring i rådande genusordning.
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3.
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4.
  • Axelsson-Olsson, Diana, et al. (författare)
  • Acanthamoeba-Campylobacter coculture as a novel method for enrichment of Campylobacter species
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. ; 73:21, s. 6864-6869
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, we present a novel method to isolate and enrich low concentrations of Campylobacter pathogens. This method, Acanthamoeba-Campylobacter coculture (ACC), is based on the intracellular survival and multiplication of Campylobacter species in the free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Four of the Campylobacter species relevant to humans and livestock, Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. hyointestinalis, were effectively enriched by the coculture method, with growth rates comparable to those observed in other Campylobacter enrichment media. Studying six strains of C. jejuni isolated from different sources, we found that all of the strains could be enriched from an inoculum of fewer than 10 bacteria. The sensitivity of the ACC method was not negatively affected by the use of Campylobacter-selective antibiotics in the culture medium, but these were effective in suppressing the growth of seven different bacterial species added at a concentration of 10(4) CFU/ml of each species as deliberate contamination. The ACC method has advantages over other enrichment methods as it is not dependent on a microaerobic milieu and does not require the use of blood or other oxygen-quenching agents. Our study found the ACC method to be a promising tool for the enrichment of Campylobacter species, particularly from water samples with low bacterial concentrations.
5.
  • Benderix, Ylva, et al. (författare)
  • Siblings experience of having a brother or sister with autism and mental retardation : A case of fourteen siblings from five different families
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Nursing : Nursing Care of Children and Families. - 0882-5963. ; 22:5, s. 410-418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to describe the present and past experiences of 14 siblings from five families in terms of having abrother or sister with autism and mental retardation. Personal interviews were conducted with the siblings before their brothersor sisters were moved to a newly opened group home. Qualitative content analysis was used for the analysis of the transcribedtexts. The analysis resulted in seven content categories: precocious responsibility, feeling sorry, exposed to frightening behavior,empathetic feelings, hoping that a group home will be a relief, physical violence made siblings feel unsafe and anxious, andrelations with friends were affected negatively. The conclusion is that these siblings' experiences revealed stressful lifeconditions. Counseling for the family and for siblings is recommended to help them deal with their feelings and problems. Forthe siblings in these five families, a group home was a relevant alternative as a temporary or permanent placement for the childwith autism and mental retardation.
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6.
  • Bengtsson Tops, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Self-reported consequences and needs for support associated with abuse in female users of psychiatric care
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. - 1445-8330. ; 16:1, s. 35-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of adult abuse in female users of psychiatric care, the relationship between abuse and self-esteem and self-reported consequences of abuse, and women's self-reported needs of support. A total of 1382 women participated in the study. A self-administrated anonymous questionnaire with both closed-ended and open-ended questions was used. Quantitative data were analysed by mainly descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analysed by content analysis. Forty-six per cent (n = 638) of the women had been exposed to emotional, sexual, and/or physical abuse in adulthood. Twenty-eight per cent (n = 385) reported experiences of moderate physical abuse, 27% (n = 373) reported threats of injury, and 20% (n = 277) reported threats of being killed. Further, 19% (n = 261) reported experience of sexual violence, and 12% (n = 164) had experiences of serious physical violence. Women who had been abused rated lower self-esteem than those who were not abused. Self-reported consequences of abuse included intrapersonal problems such as poor self-esteem, fears, anxiety, and worries but also problems in social relations especially with regard to close relationships and reliance to others. To a lesser extent, disease-specific manifestations were reported. The needs of support included interventions directed to the experiences of abuse by professionals trained in the area, family interventions, self-help groups, medical care, legal support, or practical help to find new housing situations. It is concluded that female users of psychiatric care services constitute a vulnerable group with regard to abuse. To meet the women's needs, the care system has to adopt a perspective that includes personal, social, and societal factors.
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7.
  • Bensch, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal dynamics and diversity of avian malaria parasites in a single host species
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - Blackwell Publishing. - 0021-8790. ; 76:1, s. 112-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have used molecular methods to unravel a remarkable diversity of parasite lineages in a long-term population study of great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus that was not foreseen from traditional microscopic examination of blood smears. This diversity includes eight Haemoproteus and 10 Plasmodium lineages of which most probably represent good biological species.Contrary to expectation, the relative frequency of parasite lineages seemed not to change over the 17-year study period and we found no effects of the parasites on a male secondary sexual ornament (song repertoire size) and two measures of fitness (adult survival and production of recruited offspring).We discuss whether the absence of fitness consequences of the parasites might relate to the fact that we have studied the host at the breeding sites in Europe, whereas the transmission seems to take place at the wintering sites in Africa, where the naive birds encounter the parasites for the first time and the resulting primary infections likely make them sicker than during the chronic phase of the infection.The prevalence of the three most common lineages appeared to fluctuate in parallel with a periodicity of approximately 3-4 years. Theoretical models based on intrinsic interactions between parasite antigen and host immune genes cannot explain such dynamics, suggesting that knowledge of extrinsic parameters such as vector distribution and alternative hosts are required to understand these patterns.
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8.
  • Berling, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Demand and sales value considerations for differentiating the service levels
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: NOFOMA.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • How to choose the appropriate service level has been described by many authors and logistics professionals. The common basis for differentiating the policy parameters between products used by many professionals is a traditional ABC-analysis based on the sales volume in SEK, i.e. the demand times the price per unit. Even if this basis is suitable for several issues in inventory management it is not the best for differentiating the service level. This since the value of having a high service level for a high-price product is comparatively low whereas the value of having it for a high demand product is high. There hence exist arguments both for a high and a low service level for A products.The purpose of this work is to 1) estimate the potential savings from differentiating the service level 2) contribute to the understanding of which factors should be used as the base for differentiating the service level 3) develop an easy to use method for grouping the products and determining the appropriate service level for each group. In the paper we suggest a simple method for differentiating the service level using a combined ABC/XYZ analysis based on the sales volume in SEK (as the traditional method) and the demand in units. The economical benefits of the suggested method have been evaluated using numerical examples based on real life demand data. This study indicates that substantial cost benefits can be achieved compared to a system with no differentiation of the service levels.
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9.
  • Bring, Torun, et al. (författare)
  • Colour development in copper ruby alkali silicate glasses : Part 1. The impact of tin (II) oxide, time and temperature
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Glass Technology, Eur J Glass Sci Technol A. - Society of Glass Technology. ; 48:2, s. 101-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The development of the red colour in copper ruby alkali silicate glasses has been studied by means of ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, TEM and EXAFS. The results show that in both red and slightly overstruck, brownish glasses the colour is due to clusters of metallic copper. Before striking non-coloured glasses contain mainly cuprous ions, Cu+. Tin acts as a reducing agent but also has an accelerating effect on colour development.
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10.
  • Bring, Torun, et al. (författare)
  • Selenium : molybdenum-based coloration of alkali silicate glasses
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Glass Technology. - 0017-1050. ; 48:5, s. 213-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The interaction between selenium and molybdenum in reduced alkali silicate melts, resulting in red glasses has been studied. The oxidation state of Mo is Mo(VI) as evidenced by XANES and ESCA results. Selenium is present in a reduced state, as indicated by ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and XANES. The colour is described by ultraviolet/visible spectra and CIE colour coordinates. The main absorption peaks are at 450 and 540 nm. Similar bands are reported for MoOSe32−. Several commonly used glass components must be avoided in the batch, as they prevent formation of the red colour.
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