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1.
2.
  • Borch, Kurt, et al. (författare)
  • Gastric carcinoids: biologic behavior and prognosis after differentiated treatment in relation to type
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Annals of surgery. - 0003-4932. ; 242:1, s. 64-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. Background: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. Methods: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. Results: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. Conclusion: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids. Copyright © 2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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3.
  • Abdelgadir, M, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced leptin concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Sudan.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Metabolism. - W B Saunders. - 0026-0495. ; 51:3, s. 304-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Differences have been observed in the relationship between leptin and metabolic perturbations in glucose homeostasis. Because no information is available from indigenous African populations with diabetes, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible associations between leptin and different clinical and biochemical characteristics of a large group of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Sudan. A total of 104 (45 men and 59 women) consecutive type 2 diabetes patients and 75 control subjects (34 men and 41 women) were studied. The body mass index (BMI), blood glucose, serum insulin, and proinsulin were measured and related to serum leptin concentrations. Leptin was higher in females than in males and correlated significantly to BMI. The main novel finding was that serum leptin was significantly lower in diabetic subjects compared with controls in both females (P =.0001) and males (P =.019), although BMI did not differ between diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Diabetic subjects treated with sulphonylurea (n = 81) had lower BMI than those treated with diet alone or other hypoglycemic drugs (n = 23) (P =.0017), but there was no difference in leptin levels between the 2 groups after adjustment for BMI (P =.87). In diabetic subjects, serum leptin correlated positively with the homeostatic assessment (HOMA) of both beta-cell function (P =.018) and insulin resistance (P =.038), whereas in control subjects, leptin correlated with insulin resistance (P =.0016), but not with beta-cell function. Diabetic subjects had higher proinsulin levels (P =.0031) and higher proinsulin to insulin ratio (P =.0003) than nondiabetic subjects. In univariate analysis, proinsulin showed a weak correlation to leptin (P =.049). In conclusion, we show in a large cohort of Sudanese subjects with type 2 diabetes that circulating leptin levels are lower in diabetic subjectss than in controls of similar age and BMI. The lower serum leptin in diabetic subjects may be a consequence of differences in fat distribution.
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4.
  • Accili, D., et al. (författare)
  • What ails the beta-cell?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc. - 1462-8902. ; 12, s. 1-3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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5.
  •  
6.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Long-standing hyperglycemia in C57BL/6J mice does not affect retinal glutathione levels or endothelial/pericyte ratio in retinal capillaries
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of diabetes and its complications. - Elsevier. - 1056-8727. ; 14:3, s. 146-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Free radicals have been suggested to play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the metabolic perturbations caused by high-fat feeding of two strains of mice, the C57BL6/J mice and the NMRI mice, interfere with one of the free radical enzyme defense systems in the retina, i. e., glutathione (GSH), and whether morphological changes occur in the retinal vessels. C57BL/6J mice and NMRI mice were fed a high-fat diet (55%) for 18 months. High-fat fed mice of both strains developed overweight, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia. In addition, the high-fat fed C57BL/6J mice also developed sustained hyperglycemia for at least 15 months. The C57BL/6J mice had lower retinal GSH levels than the NMRI mice, both when given a normal diet (29.6+/-1.2 vs. 37.1+/-1.4 nmol/mg protein; p<0.01) and when given a high-fat diet (27.0+/-1.6 vs. 34.7+/-2.6 nmol/mg protein; p<0.05). Despite the long-standing hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia in the C57BL/6J mice, high-fat feeding did not cause any changes in the retinal tissue levels of GSH (27.0+/-1.6 vs. 29. 6+/-1.2 nmol/mg protein) or cysteine (7.61+/-0.63 vs. 6.80+/-0.59 nmol/mg protein). Similarly, high-fat feeding did not affect retinal GSH or cysteine levels in NMRI mice. No light microscopical retinal vessel changes were seen, either in C57BL/6J or in NMRI mice. The study therefore shows that long-standing metabolic perturbations induced by dietary obesity do not induce signs of retinopathy in two different strains of mice. Further studies are needed to explore whether this is explained by increased expression of protecting systems making these strains of mice resistant to effects of oxidative stress.
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7.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Switching From High-Fat to Low-Fat Diet Normalizes Glucose Metabolism and Improves Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity But Not Body Weight in C57BL/6J Mice.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Pancreas. - 1536-4828. ; 41:2, s. 253-257
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Environmental factors such as a high-fat diet contribute to type 2 diabetes and obesity. This study examined glycemia, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function after switching from a high-fat diet to a low-fat diet in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet or low-fat diet for 18 months, after which mice on the high-fat diet either maintained this diet or switched to a low-fat diet for 4 weeks. Body weight and glucose and insulin responses to intraperitoneal glucose were determined. Insulin secretion (insulinogenic index: the 10-minute insulin response divided by the 10-minute glucose level) and insulin sensitivity (1 divided by basal insulin) were determined. RESULTS: After 18 months on a high-fat diet, mice had glucose intolerance, marked hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight compared to mice on a low-fat diet (P < 0.001). Switching from a high-fat diet to low-fat diet normalized glucose tolerance, reduced but not normalized body weight (P < 0.001), increased insulin secretion (248 ± 39 vs 141 ± 46 pmol/mmol; P = 0.028) and improved but not normalized insulin sensitivity (3.2 ± 0.1 vs 1.0 ± 0.1 pmol/L; P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Switching from a high-fat diet to low-fat diet normalizes glucose tolerance and improves but not normalizes insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. These effects are more pronounced than the reduced body weight.
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8.
9.
  • Ahlkvist, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Synergism by individual macronutrients explains the marked early GLP-1 and islet hormone responses to mixed meal challenge in mice.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Regulatory peptides. - Elsevier. - 1873-1686. ; 178:1-3, s. 29-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Apart from glucose, proteins and lipids also stimulate incretin and islet hormone secretion. However, the glucoregulatory effect of macronutrients in combination is poorly understood. We therefore developed an oral mixed meal model in mice to 1) explore the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and islet hormone responses to mixed meal versus isocaloric glucose, and 2) characterize the relative contribution of individual macronutrients to these responses. Anesthetized C57BL/6J female mice were orally gavaged with 1) a mixed meal (0.285kcal; glucose, whey protein and peanut oil; 60/20/20% kcal) versus an isocaloric glucose load (0.285kcal), and 2) a mixed meal (0.285kcal) versus glucose, whey protein or peanut oil administered individually in their mixed meal caloric quantity, i.e., 0.171, 0.055 and 0.055kcal, respectively. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin and intact GLP-1 before and during oral challenges. Plasma glucose was lower after mixed meal versus after isocaloric glucose ingestion. In spite of this, the peak insulin response (P=0.02), the peak intact GLP-1 levels (P=0.006) and the estimated β-cell function (P=0.005) were higher. Furthermore, the peak insulin (P=0.004) and intact GLP-1 (P=0.006) levels were higher after mixed meal ingestion than the sum of responses to individual macronutrients. Compared to glucose alone, we conclude that there is a marked early insulin response to mixed meal ingestion, which emanates from a synergistic, rather than an additive, effect of the individual macronutrients in the mixed meal and is in part likely caused by increased levels of GLP-1.
10.
  • Ahlkvist, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Upregulated insulin secretion in insulin-resistant mice: evidence of increased islet GLP1 receptor levels and GPR119-activated GLP1 secretion.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Endocrine connections. - Bioscientifica. - 2049-3614. ; 2:2, s. 69-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We previously demonstrated that the overall incretin effect and the β-cell responsiveness to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) are increased in insulin-resistant mice and may contribute to the upregulated β-cell function. Now we examined whether this could, first, be explained by increased islet GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) protein levels and, secondly, be leveraged by G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) activation, which stimulates GLP1 secretion. Female C57BL/6J mice, fed a control (CD, 10% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 60% fat) diet for 8 weeks, were anesthetized and orally given a GPR119 receptor agonist (GSK706A; 10 mg/kg) or vehicle, followed after 10 min with gavage with a liquid mixed meal (0.285 kcal). Blood was sampled for determination of glucose, insulin, intact GLP1, and glucagon, and islets were isolated for studies on insulin and glucagon secretion and GLP1R protein levels. In HFD vs CD mice, GPR119 activation augmented the meal-induced increase in the release of both GLP1 (AUCGLP1 81±9.6 vs 37±6.9 pM×min, P=0.002) and insulin (AUCINS 253±29 vs 112±19 nM×min, P<0.001). GPR119 activation also significantly increased glucagon levels in both groups (P<0.01) with, however, no difference between the groups. By contrast, GPR119 activation did not affect islet hormone secretion from isolated islets. Glucose elimination after meal ingestion was significantly increased by GPR119 activation in HFD mice (0.57±0.04 vs 0.43±0.03% per min, P=0.014) but not in control mice. Islet GLP1R protein levels was higher in HFD vs CD mice (0.8±0.1 vs 0.5±0.1, P=0.035). In conclusion, insulin-resistant mice display increased islet GLP1R protein levels and augmented meal-induced GLP1 and insulin responses to GPR119 activation, which results in increased glucose elimination. We suggest that the increased islet GLP1R protein levels together with the increased GLP1 release may contribute to the upregulated β-cell function in insulin resistance.
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