1. 
 Bernland, Anders, et al.
(författare)

Sum rules and constraints on passive systems
 2011

Ingår i: Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical.  17518113. ; 44:14, s. 145205

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 A passive system is one that cannot produce energy, a property that naturally poses constraints on the system. A system in convolution form is fully described by its transfer function, and the class of Herglotz functions, holomorphic functions mapping the open upper half plane to the closed upper half plane, is closely related to the transfer functions of passive systems. Following a wellknown representation theorem, Herglotz functions can be represented by means of positive measures on the real line. This fact is exploited in this paper in order to rigorously prove a set of integral identities for Herglotz functions that relate weighted integrals of the function to its asymptotic expansions at the origin and infinity. The integral identities are the core of a general approach introduced here to derive sum rules and physical limitations on various passive physical systems. Although similar approaches have previously been applied to a wide range of specific applications, this paper is the first to deliver a general procedure together with the necessary proofs. This procedure is described thoroughly, and exemplified with examples from electromagnetic theory.


2. 
 Bernland, Anders, et al.
(författare)

Sum rules and constraints on passive systems
 2010

Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
 A passive system is one that cannot produce energy, a property that naturally poses constraints on the system. A system on convolution form is fully described by its transfer function, and the class of Herglotz functions, holomorphic functions mapping the open upper half plane to the closed upper half plane, is closely related to the transfer functions of passive systems. Following a wellknown representation theorem, Herglotz functions can be represented by means of positive measures on the real line. This fact is exploited in this paper in order to rigorously prove a set of integral identities for Herglotz functions that relate weighted integrals of the function to its asymptotic expansions at the origin and infinity. The integral identities are the core of a general approach introduced here to derive sum rules and physical limitations on various passive physical systems. Although similar approaches have previously been applied to a wide range of specific applications, this paper is the first to deliver a general procedure together with the necessary proofs. This procedure is described thoroughly, and exemplified with examples from electromagnetic theory.


3. 
 Bernland, Anders, et al.
(författare)

Sum rules and constraints on passive systems with applications in electromagnetics
 2010

Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
 A passive system is one that cannot produce energy, a property that naturally poses constraints on the system. In this paper there is a review of some results on linear, time translational invariant, continuous, causal and passive systems, where it turns out that Herglotz functions are related to the Fourier transform of the impulse response of such systems. Some well known facts of this function class is considered, and a set of integral identities and an outline of the proof of these are presented. The identities may be used to derive sum rules and constraints on various physical systems. The theory is illuminated with two examples from electromagnetics: the first revisits Fano’s matching equations, while the latter makes a link to the KramersKronig relations and discusses physical limitations on metamaterials.


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