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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Gustafsson Mats > Blomqvist Göran > Swietlicki Erik

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  • Dahl, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Traffic-generated emissions of ultrafine particles from pavement-tire interface
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - Elsevier. - 1352-2310. ; 40:7, s. 1314-1323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a road simulator study, a significant source of sub-micrometer fine particles produced by the road-tire interface was observed. Since the particle size distribution and source strength is dependent on the type of tire used, it is likely that these particles largely originate from the tires, and not the road pavement. The particles consisted most likely of mineral oils from the softening filler and fragments of the carbon-reinforcing filler material (soot agglomerates). This identification was based on transmission electron microscopy studies of collected ultrafine wear particles and on-line thermal treatment using a thermodesorber. The mean particle number diameters were between 15-50 nm, similar to those found in light duty vehicle (LDV) tail-pipe exhaust. A simple box model approach was used to estimate emission factors in the size interval 15-700 nm. The emission factors increased with increasing vehicle speed, and varied between 3.7 x 10(11) and 3.2 x 10(12) particles vehicle(-1) km(-1) at speeds of 50 and 70 km h(-1). This corresponds to between 0.1-1% of tail-pipe emissions in real-world emission studies at similar speeds from a fleet of LDV with 95% gasoline and 5% diesel-fueled cars. The emission factors for particles originating from the road-tire interface were, however, similar in magnitude to particle number emission factors from liquefied petroleum gas-powered vehicles derived in test bench studies in Australia 2005. Thus the road-tire interface may be a significant contributor to particle emissions from ultraclean vehicles. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Gustafsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Inandningsbara partiklar i järnvägsmiljöer
  • 2006
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Airborne particles from railroad traffic have been identified as an air pollution problem mainly in tunnel environments. As a result of the introduction of the environmental quality standard for inhalable particles in Sweden 2005, the interest in railroad particle pollution has increased. The present report focuses on the variation of PM10 (inhalable particles) in some railroad environments under and above ground, the way these relate to traffic and on the particles' size distributions and elemental composition. The results show that particle concentrations in above ground railroad environments do not exceed the environmental quality standard during the campaigns. Diurnal mean values of PM10 range between 19 to 25 microg/m3. On the contrary, the diurnal mean concentrations on the platforms of the underground stations Arlanda Central and Arlanda South are far above the limit value (237 and 88 microg/m3 respectively) and clear diurnal and weekly patterns in PM10 concentration, co-fluctuating with traffic, can be identified. The particle mass size distribution has an obvious peak around 5-7 ?m at Arlanda C, and slightly smaller, 2-3 microm, at Arlanda S. The concentrations of both PM10 and ultrafine particles (< 0,1 microm) vary a lot depending on different trains. Especially the ultrafine particles seem to be emitted from certain trains, but it has not been possible to identify the source of these particles. The elemental composition of the particles in the tunnel environments was dominated by iron (84 % and 74 % respectively in Arlanda C and Arlanda S), but also other metals, like Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and Sb (only at Arlanda C) have relatively high concentrations. The tunnel measurements also give some interesting results regarding possible measures against high particle concentrations. Washing of the tunnel walls and floor was carried out on two consecutive nights, but it had no noticeable results on particle concentrations. This implies that a dominant proportion of the particles is directly emitted rather than resuspended. On certain nights, the concentrations of all particle size fractions sank to very low levels, lasting till the morning traffic began. This implies effective self ventilation during these hours. Measurements in several different environments on Stockholm central station show that PM10 vary several tens of microg/m3. Activity, related to both traffic and people, increases particle concentration. The highest concentrations were measured inside the waiting hall. Nevertheless, the concentrations on the platforms were generally at least as high as in the busy street environment outside the station. During a railroad travel, the PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations were generally low, but increase at stops and, most prominently, on entering the Arlanda airport railroad tunnels. The PM2,5 proportion is considered high, contributing to approximately 50-80 % of PM10. The sources of railroad emitted PM10 are likely to be rails, wheels and brakes, but a source apportionment has not been accomplished in this project.
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  • Gustafsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Inhalable railroad particles at ground level and subterranean stations - Physical and chemical properties and relation to train traffic
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research. Part D: Transport & Environment. - Elsevier. - 1361-9209. ; 17:3, s. 277-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper compares PM10 concentrations in railroad environments with EU air quality standards and characterizes particle concentrations and particle properties in relation to train traffic. The results show that PM10 concentrations in ground-level railroad environments do not exceed the EU directive 24-h limit value, while on the platforms of the two subterranean stations PM10 concentrations were far above the outdoor limit value. Diurnal and weekly patterns in PM10 concentration could be identified, co-varying with train traffic intensity. The particle mass size distribution peaked at around 2-6 um. The elemental composition of PM10 at the subterranean stations was dominated by Fe. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Gustafsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Properties and toxicological effects of particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and winter traction material
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - Elsevier. - 1879-1026. ; 393:2-3, s. 226-240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In regions where studded tyres and traction material are used during winter, e.g. the Nordic countries, northern part of USA, Canada, and Japan, mechanically generated particles from traffic are the main reason for high particle mass concentrations in busy street and road environments. In many Nordic municipalities the European environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM(10)) is exceeded due to these particles. In this study, particles from the wear of studded and studless friction tyres on two pavements and traction sanding were generated using a road simulator. The particles were characterized using particle sizers, Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis and electron microscopy. Cell studies were conducted on particles sampled from the tests with studded tyres and compared with street environment, diesel exhaust and subway PM(10), respectively. The results show that in the road simulator, where resuspension is minimized, studded tyres produce tens of times more particles than friction tyres. Chemical analysis of the sampled particles shows that the generated wear particles consist almost entirely of minerals from the pavement stone material, but also that Sulfur is enriched for the submicron particles and that Zink is enriched for friction tyres for all particles sizes. The chemical data can be used for source identification and apportionment in urban aerosol studies. A mode of ultra-fine particles was also present and is hypothesised to originate in the tyres. Further, traction material properties affect PM(10) emission. The inflammatory potential of the particles from wear of pavements seems to depend on type of pavement and can be at least as potent as diesel exhaust particles. The results imply that there is a need and a good potential to reduce particle emission from pavement wear and winter time road and street operation by adjusting both studded tyre use as well as pavement and traction material properties.
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  • Lindbom, John, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Chemical Research in Toxicology. - The American Chemical Society. - 1520-5010. ; 19:4, s. 521-530
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries were studded tires are used. In this work, we investigated the inflammatory effect of PM10 generated from the wear of studded tires on two different types of pavement. As comparison, we also investigated PM10 from a traffic-intensive street, a subway station, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Human monocyte-derived macrophages, nasal epithelial cells (RPMI 2650), and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to the different types of particles, and the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha into the culture medium was measured. The results show a significant release of cytokines from macrophages after exposure for all types of particles. When particles generated from asphalt/granite pavement were compared to asphalt/quartzite pavement, the granite pavement had a significantly higher capacity to induce the release of cytokines. The granite pavement particles induced cytokine release at the same magnitude as the street particles did, which was higher than what particles from both a subway station and DEP did. Exposure of epithelial cells to PM10 resulted in a significant increase of TNF-alpha secreted from BEAS-2B cells for all types of particles used (DEP was not tested), and the highest levels were induced by subway particles. None of the particle types were able to evoke detectable cytokine release from RPMI 2650 cells. The results indicate that PM10 generated by the wear of studded tires on the street surface is a large contributor to the cytokine-releasing ability of particles in traffic-intensive areas and that the type of pavement used is important for the level of this contribution. Furthermore, the airway inflammatory potential of wear particles from tires and pavement might be of a greater magnitude than that of DEP.
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