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Sökning: LAR1:lu > Engelska > Dillner Joakim > Törnberg Sven

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1.
  • Andrae, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Screening-preventable cervical cancer risks
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: J Natl Cancer Inst. - 1460-2105. ; 100:9, s. 622-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The effectiveness of cervical cancer screening programs differs widely in different populations. The reasons for these differences are unclear. Routine and comprehensive audits have been proposed as an ethically required component of screening. We performed a nationwide audit of the effectiveness of the Swedish cervical cancer screening program.Methods: We identified all invasive cervical cancer cases that were diagnosed in Sweden from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2001, and had been reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry (n = 1230 cases). We verified the diagnoses by histopathologic rereview and matched each case subject to five (population-based) age-matched control subjects who were identified from the National Population Register. The Pap smear screening histories for case and control subjects were reviewed for a 6-year period using the National Cervical Cancer Screening Register, which contains data on essentially all relevant cytological and histological diagnoses in Sweden. Odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), of cervical cancer according to screening history were calculated in conditional logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided.Results: Women who had not had a Pap smear within the recommended screening interval had higher risk of cervical cancer than women who had been screened (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 2.19 to 2.91). This risk was similarly increased for all age groups (Phomogeneity = .96). The risk for nonsquamous cell cervical cancers (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.20 to 2.11) was also increased. Women who had not had a Pap smear within the recommended screening interval had a particularly high risk of advanced cancers (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 3.61 to 6.44). Among women who had been screened within the recommended interval, those with abnormal Pap smears had a higher risk of cervical cancer than those with normal smears (OR = 7.55, 95% CI = 5.88 to 9.69) and constituted 11.5% of all women with cervical cancer.Conclusions: Nonadherence to screening intervals was the major reason for cervical cancer morbidity. The screening program was equally effective for women of all ages and was also effective against nonsquamous cancers.
2.
  • Dillner, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Randomized healthservices study of human papillomavirus-based management of low-grade cytological abnormalities.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. - 1097-0215. ; okt, s. 151-159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-based management of women with borderline (ASCUS) or mildly abnormal (CINI) cervical cytology has been extensively studied in the research setting. We wished to assess safety and healthcare resource use of a real-life healthcare policy using HPV triaging.All 15 outpatient clinics involved in the organized population-based screening program in Stockholm, Sweden screening program were randomized to either continue with prior policy (colposcopy of all women with ASCUS/CINI) or to implement a policy with HPV triaging and colposcopy only of HPV-positive women. The trial enrolled the 3319 women that were diagnosed with ASCUS (n=1335) or CINI (n=1984) in Stockholm during 17(th) March 2003 to 16(th) January 2006. Detection of high-grade cervical lesions (CINII+) and health care cost consumption was studied by registry linkages.The proportion of histopathology-verified CINII+ was similar for the 2 policies (395/1752 women (22.5%; 95% Confidence interval (CI): 20,6-24,6%) had CINII+ diagnosed with HPV triaging policy, 318/1567 women (20.3%; 95%CI: 18,3-22,4%)) had CINII+ with colposcopy policy). 64% of women with ASCUS and 77% of women with CINI were HPV-positive. HPV-positivity was age-dependent, with 81% of women below 35 years of age and 44% of women above 45 years of age testing HPV-positive. HPV triaging was cost-effective only above 35 years of age.In conclusion, a real-life randomised healthservices study of HPV triaging of women with ASCUS/CINI demonstrated similar detection of CINII+ as colposcopy of all women.
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3.
  • Naucler, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy of HPV DNA testing with cytology triage and/or repeat HPV DNA testing in primary cervical cancer screening.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 101:2, s. 88-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Primary cervical screening with both human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing and cytological examination of cervical cells with a Pap test (cytology) has been evaluated in randomized clinical trials. Because the vast majority of women with positive cytology are also HPV DNA positive, screening strategies that use HPV DNA testing as the primary screening test may be more effective. METHODS: We used the database from the intervention arm (n = 6,257 women) of a population-based randomized trial of double screening with cytology and HPV DNA testing to evaluate the efficacy of 11 possible cervical screening strategies that are based on HPV DNA testing alone, cytology alone, and HPV DNA testing combined with cytology among women aged 32-38 years. The main outcome measures were sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) within 6 months of enrollment or at colposcopy for women with a persistent type-specific HPV infection and the number of screening tests and positive predictive value (PPV) for each screening strategy. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Compared with screening by cytology alone, double testing with cytology and for type-specific HPV persistence resulted in a 35% (95% confidence interval CI = 15% to 60%) increase in sensitivity to detect CIN3+, without a statistically significant reduction in the PPV (relative PPV = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.10), but with more than twice as many screening tests needed. Several strategies that incorporated screening for high-risk HPV subtypes were explored, but they resulted in reduced PPV compared with cytology. Compared with cytology, primary screening with HPV DNA testing followed by cytological triage and repeat HPV DNA testing of HPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology increased the CIN3+ sensitivity by 30% (95% CI = 9% to 54%), maintained a high PPV (relative PPV = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.26), and resulted in a mere 12% increase in the number of screening tests (from 6,257 to 7,019 tests). CONCLUSIONS: Primary HPV DNA-based screening with cytology triage and repeat HPV DNA testing of cytology-negative women appears to be the most feasible cervical screening strategy.
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4.
  • Naucler, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Human papillomavirus and Papanicolaou tests to screen for cervical cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: N Engl J Med. ; 357:16, s. 1589-97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Screening for cervical cancer based on testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the sensitivity of detection of high-grade (grade 2 or 3) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, but whether this gain represents overdiagnosis or protection against future high-grade cervical epithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer is unknown. Methods In a population-based screening program in Sweden, 12,527 women 32 to 38 years of age were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to have an HPV test plus a Papanicolaou (Pap) test (intervention group) or a Pap test alone (control group). Women with a positive HPV test and a normal Pap test result were offered a second HPV test at least 1 year later, and those who were found to be persistently infected with the same high-risk type of HPV were then offered colposcopy with cervical biopsy. A similar number of double-blinded Pap smears and colposcopies with biopsy were performed in randomly selected women in the control group. Comprehensive registry data were used to follow the women for a mean of 4.1 years. The relative rates of grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer detected at enrollment and at subsequent screening examinations were calculated. Results At enrollment, the proportion of women in the intervention group who were found to have lesions of grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer was 51% greater (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 102) than the proportion of women in the control group who were found to have such lesions. At subsequent screening examinations, the proportion of women in the intervention group who were found to have grade 2 or 3 lesions or cancer was 42% less (95% CI, 4 to 64) and the proportion with grade 3 lesions or cancer was 47% less (95% CI, 2 to 71) than the proportions of control women who were found to have such lesions. Women with persistent HPV infection remained at high risk for grade 2 or 3 lesions or cancer after referral for colposcopy. Conclusions The addition of an HPV test to the Pap test to screen women in their mid-30s for cervical cancer reduces the incidence of grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer detected by subsequent screening examinations.
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5.
  • Silfverdal, Lena, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of invasive cervical cancer in relation to management of abnormal Pap smear results
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. - Mosby-Elsevier. - 0002-9378. ; 201:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the management of women with abnormal cytology in terms of subsequent risk of invasive cervical cancer. STUDY DESIGN: The screening histories of all invasive cervical cancer cases diagnosed in Sweden 1999-2001 and of 5 population-based controls per case were reviewed. In all, 159 patients and 258 control subjects aged < 67 years had an abnormal smear result 0.5-6.5 years prior to cancer diagnosis. The cervical cancer risk was estimated in relation to management by calculating odds ratios. RESULTS: Histologic assessment of low-grade squamous abnormalities strongly reduced the risk compared to repeated cytology (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.89). Delaying histologic assessment was also associated with a higher risk ( odds ratio, 5.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-23.05). After high-grade squamous atypia, absence of any cytologic or histologic specimen was a major determinant of cancer risk (odds ratio, 12.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-infinitive). CONCLUSION: For adequate protection against invasive cervical cancer, further assessment with histology must be recommended also for women with low-grade squamous abnormalities.
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6.
  • Silins, Ilvars, et al. (författare)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis infection and persistence of human papillomavirus.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Int J Cancer. - Wiley. - 0020-7136. ; 116:1, s. 110-115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence is the major cause of cervical cancer, but most HPV infections will not persist and risk factors for HPV persistence are not well known. Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis infection seems to also be associated with cervical cancer. We investigated whether C. trachomatis infection is a risk factor for HPV persistence. In a cohort of 12,527 women participating in a population-based HPV screening trial in Sweden, 6,418 women completed testing for HPV DNA by general primer PCR and typing by reverse dot blot hybridization. On average 19 months later, 303 women that had been HPV-positive and had normal cytology at enrollment completed a new HPV test. Environmental exposures were assessed by an 87-itern questionnaire. Previous sexually transmitted infections were also investigated by serology. At follow-up, 44% of the women were positive for the same type of HPV DNA as at enrollment. Persistence correlated with length of follow-up (p < 0.01) and condom use seemed to protect against HPV persistence (p < 0.05). The most significant risk factor for persistent presence of HPV DNA was self-reported history of previous C. trachomatis infection (relative risk in multivariate model = 2.09; 95% confidence interval = 1.05-4.18). We conclude that persistence of oncogenic HPV infections is more likely among women with a previous C. trachomatis infection.
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7.
  • Söderlund Strand, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Genotyping of human papillomavirus in triaging of low-grade cervical cytology.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. - Elsevier. - 1097-6868. ; 205:2, s. 145.e1-145.e6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate whether typing of human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with low-grade cervical cytology can improve the ability to identify women with cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III or worse). STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1595 women with low-grade cervical cytology participating in a randomized implementation trial of HPV triaging using Hybrid Capture II were also HPV genotyped and CIN III or worse predictive values evaluated. RESULTS: HPV 16 was detected in 57% of cases with CIN III or worse but only among 24% of all tested women. Testing for the 3 HPV types with highest risk (HPV16/31/33) detected 77% of CIN III or worse, with 36% of women testing positive. Positivity for the other high-risk HPV types had a decreased risk for CIN III or worse. CONCLUSION: Different high-risk HPV types confer different risks for the presence of CIN III or worse, implying that HPV genotyping could be useful for the optimization of triaging strategies.
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