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Sökning: LAR1:lu > (2005-2009) > Tidskriftsartikel > Engelska

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  • Aabenhus, Rune, et al. (författare)
  • First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Gastroenterology. - W J G Press. - 2219-2840 .- 1007-9327. ; 14:45, s. 6954-6959
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize and produce infection in immunocompetent BALB/cA mice. The majority of the BALB/cA mice were treated with cyclophosphamide prior to C concisus inoculation to suppress immune functions. Inoculation of C concisus was performed by the gastric route. RESULTS: C concisus was isolated from the liver, ileum and jejunum of cyclophosphamide-treated mice in the first experiment. No C concisus strains were isolated in the two subsequent experiments. Mice infected with C concisus showed a significant loss of body weight from day two through to day five of infection but this decreased at the end of the first week. Histopathologicalexamination did not consistently find signs of inflammation in the gut, but occasionally microabscesses were found in the liver of infected animals. CONCLUSION: Transient colonization with C concisus was observed in mice with loss of body weight. Future studies should concentrate on the first few days after inoculation and in other strains of mice. (C) 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.
  • Aaby, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Vaccinia scars associated with better survival for adults. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Vaccine. - 1873-2518 .- 0264-410X. ; 24:29-30, s. 5718
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality. SUBJECTS: Based on a population census, a cohort of 1893 adults in urban Guinea-Bissau was examined in 1998 and followed until 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality, excluding accidents. RESULTS: The median age of vaccinia vaccinations had been 16-18 years. Adults with a vaccinia scar had a mortality ratio (MR) of 0.60 (0.41-0.87) compared to those without any scar. The effect was stronger for women. Mortality decreased with each additional vaccinia scar (MR=0.73 (0.56-0.95)). Among 502 individuals with information on HIV infection, the age-adjusted HIV-2 prevalence was 2.45 (1.06-5.65) for those with a vaccinia scar. Control for district, ethnic group, schooling, place of birth, quality of housing and HIV status had little effect on the estimate. Since vaccinia and BCG scars could have been confused, mortality for adults with vaccinia and/or BCG scar was compared to those without, the MR being 0.61 (0.41-0.89). CONCLUSION: Known cultural or socio-economic factors possibly associated with access to vaccination had no influence on the mortality ratio for having a vaccinia scar. Hence, vaccinia vaccination may have a prolonged beneficial effect on adult survival.
  • Aaltonen, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Transmembrane topology of the Acr3 family arsenite transporter from Bacillus subtilis.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes. - Elsevier. - 0005-2736. ; 1778:4, s. 963-973
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The transmembrane topology of the Acr3 family arsenite transporter Acr3 from Bacillus subtilis was analysed experimentally using translational fusions with alkaline phosphatase and green fluorescent protein and in silico by topology modelling. Initial topology prediction resulted in two models with 9 and 10 TM helices respectively. 32 fusion constructs were made between truncated forms of acr3 and the reporter genes at 17 different sites throughout the acr3 sequence to discriminate between these models. Nine strong reporter protein signals provided information about the majority of the locations of the cytoplasmic and extracellular loops of Acr3 and showed that both the N- and the C-termini are located in the cytoplasm. Two ambiguous data points indicated the possibility of an alternative 8 helix topology. This possibility was investigated using another 10 fusion variants, but no experimental support for the 8 TM topology was obtained. We therefore conclude that Acr3 has 10 transmembrane helices. Overall, the loops which connect the membrane spanning segments are short, with cytoplasmic loops being somewhat longer than the extracellular loops. The study provides the first ever experimentally derived structural information on a protein of the Acr3 family which constitutes one of the largest classes of arsenite transporters.
  • Aaltonen, Kirsimari, et al. (författare)
  • Cyclin D1 expression is associated with poor prognostic features in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 0167-6806. ; 113:1, s. 75-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cyclins D1 and E play an important role in breast carcinogenesis. High cyclin E expression is common in hormone receptor negative and high grade aggressive breast cancer, whereas cyclin D1 in hormone receptor positive and low grade breast cancer. Experimental data has suggested that cyclin D1 and E mediate cell proliferation by different mechanisms in estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancer. To test this hypotheses in large breast cancer material and to clarify the histopathological correlations of cyclin E and D1, especially the association with proliferation, we analyzed cyclin E and D1 immunohistochemical expression on breast tumour microarrays consisting of 1348 invasive breast cancers. High cyclin D1 expression was associated with high grade (P < 0.0005), high cyclin A (P < 0.0005) and Ki67 (P < 0.0005) expression among ER positive but with low grade (P = 0.05) and low Ki67 (P = 0.01) expression among ER negative breast cancers. Cyclin E and D1 expression correlated positively in ER positive (P < 0.0005) but had a negative correlation in ER negative tumours (P = 0.004). Cyclin E associated with high grade among all tumours (P < 0.0005). In conclusion, the findings of this study show that cyclin D1 has separate roles, and proliferation is driven by different mechanisms in ER positive and negative breast cancers.
  • Aanen, M C, et al. (författare)
  • A detailed analysis of sodium removal by peritoneal dialysis: comparison with predictions from the three-pore model of membrane function
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. - Oxford University Press. - 0931-0509. ; 20:6, s. 1192-1200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The development of fluid and salt retention is a potential problem for all peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Sodium removal by the peritoneum is predominantly determined by convective fluid loss but influenced by diffusion and sieving due to free water transport as predicted by the three-pore model (TPM). The aim of the study was to establish the effect of transport status, dwell length and glucose concentration on observed ultrafiltration (UF), dialysate sodium concentration ([Na+](D)) and removal, and compare this with that predicted by a computer program based on the principles of the TPM. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of UF and [Na+](D) collected prospectively from dwells classified by length, glucose concentration and membrane transport characteristics. Solute transport, converted to area parameter and UF capacity, was measured on each occasion by the peritoneal equilibration test. These parameters, along with plasma [Na+], were entered into the computer model. Fixed values for other parameters, e.g. hydraulic conductance and lymphatic absorption and sump volume, were used. Results. A total of 1853 dwells from 182 patients [10% were on automated PD (APD)] were analysed. There was a high degree of correlation (r=0.83-95, P<0.001) between the observed and predicted values for UF, [Na+](D) and sodium removal across the full range of dwell categories. The model overpredicted UF as the net volume increased with increasing glucose concentration, independently of solute transport. This bias was not fully explained by the preferential use of hypertonic dialysate by patients with reduced UF capacity. The prediction of [Na+](D) described sodium sieving, which was overestimated in a small number of patients with UF failure. There were no discrepancies between continous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and APD patients. Conclusion. This analysis endorses the TPM as a description of membrane function, particularly in relation to sodium sieving and removal. The relationship between dialysate glucose concentration and achieved UF appears to be more complex; even accounting for extended time on treatment and reduction in the osmotic conductance in patients preferentially using hypertonic exchanges, further adjustments may be needed to account for the tendency to overestimate UF.
  • Aapro, M, et al. (författare)
  • Guidance on the use of bisphosphonates in solid tumours: recommendations of an international expert panel
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - Oxford University Press. - 0923-7534. ; 19:3, s. 420-432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bisphosphonates (BP) prevent, reduce, and delay cancer-related skeletal complications in patients, and have substantially decreased the prevalence of such events since their introduction. Today, a broad range of BP with differences in potency, efficacy, dosing, and administration as well as approved indications is available. In addition, results of clinical trials investigating the efficacy of BP in cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) have been recently published. The purpose of this paper is to review the current evidence on the use of BP in solid tumours and provide clinical recommendations. An interdisciplinary expert panel of clinical oncologists and of specialists in metabolic bone diseases assessed the widespread evidence and information on the efficacy of BP in the metastatic and nonmetastatic setting, as well as ongoing research on the adjuvant use of BP. Based on available evidence, the panel recommends amino-bisphosphonates for patients with metastatic bone disease from breast cancer and zoledronic acid for patients with other solid tumours as primary disease. Dosing of BP should follow approved indications with adjustments if necessary. While i.v. administration is most often preferable, oral administration (clodronate, IBA) may be considered for breast cancer patients who cannot or do not need to attend regular hospital care. Early-stage cancer patients at risk of developing CTIBL should be considered for preventative BP treatment. The strongest evidence in this setting is now available for ZOL. Overall, BP are well-tolerated, and most common adverse events are influenza-like syndrome, arthralgia, and when used orally, gastrointestinal symptoms. The dose of BP may need to be adapted to renal function and initial creatinine clearance calculation is mandatory according to the panel for use of any BP. Subsequent monitoring is recommended for ZOL and PAM, as described by the regulatory authority guidelines. Patients scheduled to receive BP (mainly every 3-4 weeks i.v.) should have a dental examination and be advised on appropriate measures for reducing the risk of jaw osteonecrosis. BP are well established as supportive therapy to reduce the frequency and severity of skeletal complications in patients with bone metastases from different cancers.
  • Aarnio, H, et al. (författare)
  • Recombination studies in a polyfluorene copolymer for photovoltaic applications
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Synthetic Metals. - Elsevier. - 0379-6779. ; 155:2, s. 299-302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present detailed continuous wave (cw) and transient photoinduced absorption (PA) measurements in thin films of a novel alternating polyfluorene copolymer, poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3-benzo-thiadiazole)] (DiO-PFDTBT), and its blends with the soluble fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in weight ratios of 1:0, 4:1 and 1:4. We measure the frequency, intensity and temperature dependence of the PA signal in the frequency domain, and compare with the results obtained from the transient PA decay measurements in the time domain. In all blends, the PA spectrum shows a broad high energy PA band ranging from 1 eV to 2 eV as well as a low energy band peaking at 0.35 eV. We attribute the low energy band to the P1 transition of polarons and part of the high energy band to the correlated P2 transition of polarons. Both frequency and time domain measurements show that the high energy band has two decay components, a faster component in the microsecond time regime and a slower component in the millisecond time regime. The slow component is strongly dispersive, whereas the fast component is practically non-dispersive.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • A general search for new phenomena at HERA
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 674:4-5, s. 257-268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A model-independent search for deviations from the Standard Model prediction is performed using the full e(+/-) p data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA. All event topologies involving isolated electrons, photons, muons, neutrinos and jets with transverse momenta above 20 GeV are investigated in a single analysis. Events are assigned to exclusive classes according to their final state. A dedicated algorithm is used to search for deviations from the Standard Model in the distributions of the scalar sum of transverse momenta or the invariant mass of final state particles and to quantify their significance. Variables related to angular distributions and energy sharing between final state particles are also introduced to study the final state topologies. No significant deviation from the Standard Model expectation is observed in the phase space covered by this analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • A precision measurement of the inclusive ep scattering cross section at HERA
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 64:4, s. 561-587
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A measurement of the inclusive deep inelastic neutral current e(+) p scattering cross section is reported in the region of four-momentum transfer squared, 12GeV(2) <= Q(2) <= 150 GeV2, and Bjorken x, 2 x 10(-4) <= x <= 0.1. The results are based on data collected by the H1 Collaboration at the ep collider HERA at positron and proton beam energies of E-e = 27.6 GeV and E-p = 920 GeV, respectively. The data are combined with previously published data, taken at E-p = 820 GeV. The accuracy of the combined measurement is typically in the range of 1.3-2%. A QCD analysis at next-to-leading order is performed to determine the parton distributions in the proton based on H1 data.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • A search for excited neutrinos in e(-) p collisions at HERA
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 663:5, s. 382-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for first generation excited neutrinos is performed using the full e(-) p data sample collected by the HI experiment at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV, corresponding to a total luminosity of 184 pb(-1). The electroweak decays of excited neutrinos nu* -> nu gamma, v* -> nu Z and nu* -> eW with subsequent hadronic or leptonic decays of the W and Z bosons are considered. No evidence for excited neutrino production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits on nu* production cross sections and on the ratio of the coupling to the compositeness scale f/boolean AND are derived within gauge mediated models. A limit on f/boolean AND A, independent of the relative couplings to the SU(2) and U(1) gauge bosons, is also determined. These limits extend the excluded region to higher masses than has been possible in previous excited neutrino searches. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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