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Sökning: LAR1:lu > (2005-2009) > Tidskriftsartikel > Engelska

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1.
  • Aabenhus, Rune, et al. (författare)
  • First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Gastroenterology. - WJG Press. - 1007-9327. ; 14:45, s. 6954-6959
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize and produce infection in immunocompetent BALB/cA mice. The majority of the BALB/cA mice were treated with cyclophosphamide prior to C concisus inoculation to suppress immune functions. Inoculation of C concisus was performed by the gastric route. RESULTS: C concisus was isolated from the liver, ileum and jejunum of cyclophosphamide-treated mice in the first experiment. No C concisus strains were isolated in the two subsequent experiments. Mice infected with C concisus showed a significant loss of body weight from day two through to day five of infection but this decreased at the end of the first week. Histopathologicalexamination did not consistently find signs of inflammation in the gut, but occasionally microabscesses were found in the liver of infected animals. CONCLUSION: Transient colonization with C concisus was observed in mice with loss of body weight. Future studies should concentrate on the first few days after inoculation and in other strains of mice. (C) 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Aaby, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Vaccinia scars associated with better survival for adults. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Vaccine. - Elsevier. - 1873-2518. ; 24:29-30, s. 5718-5718
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality. SUBJECTS: Based on a population census, a cohort of 1893 adults in urban Guinea-Bissau was examined in 1998 and followed until 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality, excluding accidents. RESULTS: The median age of vaccinia vaccinations had been 16-18 years. Adults with a vaccinia scar had a mortality ratio (MR) of 0.60 (0.41-0.87) compared to those without any scar. The effect was stronger for women. Mortality decreased with each additional vaccinia scar (MR=0.73 (0.56-0.95)). Among 502 individuals with information on HIV infection, the age-adjusted HIV-2 prevalence was 2.45 (1.06-5.65) for those with a vaccinia scar. Control for district, ethnic group, schooling, place of birth, quality of housing and HIV status had little effect on the estimate. Since vaccinia and BCG scars could have been confused, mortality for adults with vaccinia and/or BCG scar was compared to those without, the MR being 0.61 (0.41-0.89). CONCLUSION: Known cultural or socio-economic factors possibly associated with access to vaccination had no influence on the mortality ratio for having a vaccinia scar. Hence, vaccinia vaccination may have a prolonged beneficial effect on adult survival.
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3.
  • Aaltonen, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Transmembrane topology of the Acr3 family arsenite transporter from Bacillus subtilis.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes. - Elsevier. - 0005-2736. ; 1778:4, s. 963-973
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The transmembrane topology of the Acr3 family arsenite transporter Acr3 from Bacillus subtilis was analysed experimentally using translational fusions with alkaline phosphatase and green fluorescent protein and in silico by topology modelling. Initial topology prediction resulted in two models with 9 and 10 TM helices respectively. 32 fusion constructs were made between truncated forms of acr3 and the reporter genes at 17 different sites throughout the acr3 sequence to discriminate between these models. Nine strong reporter protein signals provided information about the majority of the locations of the cytoplasmic and extracellular loops of Acr3 and showed that both the N- and the C-termini are located in the cytoplasm. Two ambiguous data points indicated the possibility of an alternative 8 helix topology. This possibility was investigated using another 10 fusion variants, but no experimental support for the 8 TM topology was obtained. We therefore conclude that Acr3 has 10 transmembrane helices. Overall, the loops which connect the membrane spanning segments are short, with cytoplasmic loops being somewhat longer than the extracellular loops. The study provides the first ever experimentally derived structural information on a protein of the Acr3 family which constitutes one of the largest classes of arsenite transporters.
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4.
  • Aaltonen, Kirsimari, et al. (författare)
  • Cyclin D1 expression is associated with poor prognostic features in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 1573-7217. ; 113:1, s. 75-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cyclins D1 and E play an important role in breast carcinogenesis. High cyclin E expression is common in hormone receptor negative and high grade aggressive breast cancer, whereas cyclin D1 in hormone receptor positive and low grade breast cancer. Experimental data has suggested that cyclin D1 and E mediate cell proliferation by different mechanisms in estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancer. To test this hypotheses in large breast cancer material and to clarify the histopathological correlations of cyclin E and D1, especially the association with proliferation, we analyzed cyclin E and D1 immunohistochemical expression on breast tumour microarrays consisting of 1348 invasive breast cancers. High cyclin D1 expression was associated with high grade (P < 0.0005), high cyclin A (P < 0.0005) and Ki67 (P < 0.0005) expression among ER positive but with low grade (P = 0.05) and low Ki67 (P = 0.01) expression among ER negative breast cancers. Cyclin E and D1 expression correlated positively in ER positive (P < 0.0005) but had a negative correlation in ER negative tumours (P = 0.004). Cyclin E associated with high grade among all tumours (P < 0.0005). In conclusion, the findings of this study show that cyclin D1 has separate roles, and proliferation is driven by different mechanisms in ER positive and negative breast cancers.
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5.
  • Aaltonen, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular Population Genetics of the SRK and SCR Self-incompatibility Genes in the Wild Plant Species Brassica cretica (Brassicaceae).
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genetics. - Genetics Society of America. - 0016-6731. ; 181:3, s. 985-995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Self-incompatibility (SI) in plants is a classic example of a trait evolving under strong frequency-dependent selection. As a consequence, population genetic theory predicts that the S locus, which controls SI, should maintain numerous alleles, display a high level of nucleotide diversity, and, in structured populations, show a lower level of among-population differentiation compared to neutral loci. Population-level investigations of DNA sequence variation at the S locus have recently been carried out in the genus Arabidopsis, largely confirming results from theoretical models of S-locus evolutionary dynamics, but no comparable studies have been done in wild Brassica species. In this study, we sequenced parts of the S-locus genes SRK and SCR, two tightly linked genes that are directly involved in the determination of SI specificity, in samples from four natural populations of the wild species Brassica cretica. The amount and distribution of nucleotide diversity, as well as the frequency spectrum of putative functional haplotypes, observed at the S locus in B. cretica fit very well with expectations from theoretical models, providing strong evidence for frequency-dependent selection acting on the S locus in a wild Brassica species.
6.
  • Aaltonen, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites reveal extreme population differentiation and limited gene flow in the Aegean endemic Brassica cretica (Brassicaceae)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0962-1083. ; 16:23, s. 4972-4983
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers were used to study population structure and gene flow among seven Cretan populations of the Aegean endemic plant species Brassica cretica (Brassicaceae). Both nuclear and chloroplast markers revealed exceptionally high levels of population differentiation (overall FST = 0.628 and 1.000, respectively) and relatively little within-population diversity (overall HS = 0.211 and 0.000, respectively). Maximum-likelihood estimates of directional migration rates were low among all pairs of populations (average Nm = 0.286). There was no evidence that differences in flower colour between populations had any influence on historical levels of gene flow. In addition, a haplotype network showed that all five chloroplast haplotypes found in the sample were closely related. Together, these results suggest that current patterns of diversification in B. cretica are mainly a result of genetic drift during the last half million years. The main conclusions from the present study are consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that plant diversification in the Aegean region is driven by random rather than adaptive differentiation among isolated populations.
7.
  • Aaltonen, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • The Evolution and Diversification of S-locus Haplotypes in the Brassicaceae Family.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genetics. - Genetics Society of America. - 0016-6731. ; 181:3, s. 977-984
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Self-incompatibility (SI) in the Brassicaceae plant family is controlled by the SRK and SCR genes situated at the S locus. A large number of S haplotypes have been identified, mainly in cultivated species of the Brassica and Raphanus genera, but recently also in wild Arabidopsis species. Here, we used DNA sequences from the SRK and SCR genes of the wild Brassica species B. cretica, together with publicly available sequence data from other Brassicaceae species, to investigate the evolutionary relationships between S haplotypes in the Brassicaceae family. The results reveal that wild and cultivated Brassica species have similar levels of SRK diversity indicating that domestication has had but a minor effect on S-locus diversity in Brassica. Our results also show that a common set of S haplotypes were present in the ancestor of the Brassica and Arabidopsis genera, that only a small number of haplotypes survived in the Brassica lineage after its separation from Arabidopsis, and that diversification within the two Brassica dominance classes occurred after the split between the two lineages. We also find indications that recombination may have occurred between the kinase domain of SRK and the SCR gene in Brassica.
8.
  • Aaltonen, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Unequal segregation of SRK alleles at the S locus in Brassica cretica.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Genetical Research. - Cambridge University Press. - 1469-5073. ; 90:3, s. 223-228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the Brassicaceae plant family, which includes the Arabidopsis and Brassica genera, self-incompatibility (SI) is controlled by genes at the S locus. Using experimental crosses, we studied the pattern of inheritance of S-locus alleles in the wild species Brassica cretica. Four full-sib families were established and unequal segregation of alleles at the SRK SI gene was found in one family. The segregation distortion acted in favour of a recessive (class II) allele and was best explained by some form of gametic-level selection. Our findings are discussed in the light of theoretical predictions of differential accumulation of deleterious mutations among S-locus alleles.
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9.
  • Aanen, D. K., et al. (författare)
  • High Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - The American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1095-9203. ; 326:5956, s. 1103-1106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is unclear how mutualistic relationships can be stable when partners disperse freely and have the possibility of forming associations with many alternative genotypes. Theory predicts that high symbiont relatedness should resolve this problem, but the mechanisms to enforce this have rarely been studied. We show that African fungus-growing termites propagate single variants of their Termitomyces symbiont, despite initiating cultures from genetically variable spores from the habitat. High inoculation density in the substrate followed by fusion among clonally related mycelia enhances the efficiency of spore production in proportion to strain frequency. This positive reinforcement results in an exclusive lifetime association of each host colony with a single fungal symbiont and hinders the evolution of cheating. Our findings explain why vertical symbiont transmission in fungus-growing termites is rare and evolutionarily derived.
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10.
  • Aanen, D. K., et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2148. ; 7:115, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divided over three genera. Knowledge of interaction specificity is important to test the hypothesis that inhabitants (symbionts) are taxonomically less diverse than 'exhabitants' ( hosts) and to test the hypothesis that transmission mode is an important determinant for interaction specificity. Results: Analysis of Molecular Variance among symbiont ITS sequences across termite hosts at three hierarchical levels showed that 47% of the variation occurred between genera, 18% between species, and the remaining 35% between colonies within species. Different patterns of specificity were evident. High mutual specificity was found for the single Macrotermes species studied, as M. natalensis was associated with a single unique fungal haplotype. The three species of the genus Odontotermes showed low symbiont specificity: they were all associated with a genetically diverse set of fungal symbionts, but their fungal symbionts showed some host specificity, as none of the fungal haplotypes were shared between the studied Odontotermes species. Finally, bilaterally low specificity was found for the four tentatively recognized species of the genus Microtermes, which shared and apparently freely exchanged a common pool of divergent fungal symbionts. Conclusion: Interaction specificity was high at the genus level and generally much lower at the species level. A comparison of the observed diversity among fungal symbionts with the diversity among termite hosts, indicated that the fungal symbiont does not follow the general pattern of an endosymbiont, as we found either similar diversity at both sides or higher diversity in the symbiont. Our results further challenge the hypothesis that transmission-mode is a general key-determinant of interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites.
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